Ojaank IAS Academy




02 JANUARY 2023 – Current Affairs

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Vokkaligas, Lingayats Gets Share in Reservation

GS Paper-2

Context: The Karnataka Cabinet recently agreed to reclassify the two main communities, Vokkaligas and Lingayats, as “moderately backward” rather than “backward,” potentially increasing their share of reservation for Other Backward Classes (OBC).

  • Karnataka now has a 32% OBC quota, as well as 17% and 7% quotas for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, bringing the total to 56%.
  • The Panchamasali sub-sect of VeerashaivaLingayats have demanding that they be moved from their current 3B category to the 2A category, which has a 15% quota.
  • The Vokkaliga community, which is now classified as 3A, will be reclassified as 2C, with a 4% reserve. And the Lingayat community, which was formerly classified as 3B, will now be classified as 2D, with a 5% reserve.
The Cabinet guarantees that the Lingayat community is not subdivided:
  • It was chosen based on the recommendations of the Karnataka State Commission for Backward Classes, which delivered an interim report to Chief Minister BasavarajBommai on December 23.
  • The increase in reservation from what is now awarded to these groups — 4% for Vokkaligas and 5% for Lingayats — would be based on the population of various communities as assessed by the Karnataka State Commission for Backward Classes.
  • The Karnataka government will ask the Centre to approve the reservation increase by incorporating it into Schedule 9 of the Constitution.
  • The Ninth Schedule lists federal and state laws that cannot be challenged in court.
  • It was incorporated into the Constitution for the first time in 1951, when the text was revised for the first time.
  • It was established by the new Article 31B, which, together with 31A, was enacted by the government to preserve agricultural reform legislation and to eliminate the Zamindari system.
  • Lingayats are the state’s most populated community, followed by Vokkaligas.


  • The name Lingayat refers to someone who wears a personal linga, an iconic form of the deity Shiva, on their body as part of the initiation rite.
  • Basavanna, a social reformer and philosopher, is credited with founding the Lingayatism movement in 12th century Karnataka.
  • Lingayats have been categorised as a Hindu subcaste known as “VeerashaivaLingayats,” and they are Shaivites.
  • The Lingayat sect emerged as part of a wider trend of Bhakti movements that spread over South India beginning in the 8th century AD.
  • Vokkaligas are agricultural community in south Karnataka. Okkalia of Utkala Kingdom refers to members of the Vokkaliga community.
  • As a warrior and farmer community, they have traditionally had significant demographic, political, and economic power in Old Mysore (region).
  • Some historians think the Rashtrakutas and Western Gangas descended from Vokkaligas. In the Vijaynagar Empire, the Vokkaligas held administrative roles.
Lingayat separate religion demand:
  • The demand’s theological foundation is found in twentieth-century studies of the Vachana movement, a movement that is given liturgical (holy) reverence by substantial portions of the Veerashaiva-Lingayat sect.
  • This research on the Vachana movement emphasised the movement as a 12th century revolt against inequity and Sanatana Dharma led by Basavanna (Hinduism).
  • The political and religious leaders of these sections, that is, those who regard Basavanna as the founder of the sect/religion and reject the Vedas and Agamas, now refer to themselves as ‘Lingayats’ and go to great lengths to distinguish themselves from the rest, whom they refer to as ‘Veerashaivas’ because the latter accept the authority of the Vedas and do not place Basavanna in their Guru-parampara.
Reservation provisions in India for OBC:
  • The Kalelkar Commission, established in 1953, was the first at the national level to define backward classes other than Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs).
  • According to the Mandal Commission Report of 1980, the OBC population was 52% and 1,257 groups were designated as backward.
  • It proposed raising the existing quotas, which were solely for SC/STs, from 22.5% to 49.5% in order to include OBCs.
  • The central government reserved 27% of seats in union civil posts and services for OBCs [Article 16(4)].
  • The Constitution refers to the term ‘backward classes’ in Articles 15(4), 16(4) and 340(1). 
  • Articles 15(4) and 16(4) empower the State to make special provisions for any socially and educationally backward class of citizens
  • The Supreme Court asked the national government in 2008 to eliminate the creamy layer (advanced portions) from the list of OBCs.
  • The 102nd Constitution Amendment Act of 2018 gave the National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC), which was formerly a statutory entity under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, constitutional standing.

Source: The Hindu

India-Armenia Relations

GS Paper-2

Context: In 2022, Armenia and India will commemorate 30 years of bilateral diplomatic ties.

Historical Links Between India and Armenia:
  • The Mamikonians were a respected aristocratic family that ruled over large swaths of Armenia until the 8th century. A branch of the family migrated between Armenia and India, and its most famous warrior, the fifth-century military leader VartanMamikonian, had a Sanskrit name.
  • Centuries before VartanMamikonian led his armies in defence of Christianity against the Persian army, a couple of Indian rulers from Magadha sought sanctuary in Armenia and were even granted permission to establish Hindu towns.
  • As late as the Mughal dynasty, Indian monarchs repaid the warmth and liberality.
  • Armenians were highly appreciated for their artisanship in 17th-century India, and they were awarded trading rights and appointed as advisors by royal courts.
  • The network of Armenians in India was so widespread that by the nineteenth century, Kolkata — home to many Armenian-Indians — had earned a reputation as an Armenian metropolis.
India’s Contributions for Armenian State:
  • Generations of Armenian diaspora groups have prospered in India, giving substance to the idea of resurrecting the Armenian state.
  • The notion of resurrecting the Armenian state originally arose in Chennai.
  • ShahamirShahamirian, the great Armenian patriot residing in southern India, released his booklet on a future Armenian state as early as 1773, a work that has come to be considered as both a roadmap and a draught constitution for a rebuilt Armenia.
  • Azdarar, the first Armenian language periodical, was afterwards published in Chennai. These two prints, when combined, galvanised Armenian communities throughout the world and generated a national consciousness.
  • The Armenian republic, which existed for a brief period between 1918 and 1920, was the conclusion of an Indian desire.
  • India recognised the Armenian republic, which was formed in 1991, the day after the Soviet Union collapsed.
  • India picked Yerevan, Armenia’s capital, as the location for its first Caucasus embassy.
Areas of Cooperation:
  • Armenia is the only country in the region with whom it has an agreement for friendship and cooperation (signed in 1995 in New Delhi).
  • Armenia has sent three heads of state to India, while neither Azerbaijan nor Georgia has sent any.
  • Furthermore, there are over 30 agreements/memorandums of understanding covering a wide range of potential areas of cooperation, including trade and commerce, culture, tourism, education, defence, science and technology, information technology, double taxation avoidance, academic cooperation between institutes and think tanks, and so on.
Trade and Economic Relations:
  • Although modest progress has been seen in recent years, bilateral trade and investment remain below potential.
  • Foodstuffs (meat), electrical equipment, cut and polished diamonds, optical equipment, plastics, medicines and other chemical commodities, and automobiles are among India’s exports, whereas nonferrous metals, raw rubber, books, and textiles are among Armenia’s.
Cultural Cooperation:
  • India-Armenia In 1995, an agreement on cultural, artistic, educational, tourism, sports, and mass media cooperation was reached.
  • It serves as a platform for cultural interactions.
  • Later, at Yerevan State Linguistic University “Brusov,” a Centre for Hindi Language and Literature was founded (YSLU).
  • The Mission, in partnership with the Armenian Ministry of Culture, published a shortened version of the Ramayana in Armenian.
  • In Armenia, Indian films and cuisine are extremely popular.
Indian Community:
  • Ordinary people in both nations are driving the Armenia-India cooperation forward, just as they did two thousand years ago.
  • The Indian community in Armenia is made mostly of medical students at Yerevan State Medical University.
  • Aside from Indian/PIO experts working for global corporations/UN organisations, the Indian community is small.
  • There has been no report of racial, sectarian, or ethnic violence against the Indian community.
India’s Approach on Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict:
  • As the situation in Nagorno-Karabakh has developed over time, India’s perspective on the war has shifted.
  • In the early phases of the war, in 1993, India embraced the notion of territorial integrity.
  • For a long time, India has emphasised a peaceful settlement of the problem through diplomatic dialogue.
  • India has taken a fair and unbiased approach and issued a politically acceptable statement expressing its concern.
  • On the Kashmir conflict, Armenia unambiguously supports India, whereas Azerbaijan not only supports but actually promotes Pakistan’s narrative.
  • India has every reason not to defend Azerbaijan’s territorial integrity because Azerbaijan has showed minimal concern for India’s territorial integrity in Jammu & Kashmir, which has been breached by Pakistan.
Way Forward:
  • It is difficult for India to officially support Nagorno-right Karabakh’s to self-determination because of the potential consequences for India.
  • Adversaries may use it not just by creating false linkages with Kashmir, but also by re-igniting separatist movements in specific sections of India.
  • Confidence-building measures are required between Azerbaijan, the Republic of Artsakh, and Armenia.

Source: The Hindu

26th Financial Stability Report (FSR)

GS Paper-3

Context:According to the RBI’s most recent Financial Stability Report (FSR), India’s banks and non-bank lenders can endure even the most severe macroeconomic stress.

The RBI’s stress testing models have previously been chastised for having a considerable upward bias.

Major Highlights of the report :
  • The financial situation has remained stable.
  • Domestic financial markets have remained steady and operational.
  • The financial system is stable and well capitalised.
  • These difficulties have also been met by the non-banking financial sector.
  • Banks have sufficient capital to keep the ratio above the minimum level until September 2023.
  • As loan activity has lately increased, the capital adequacy ratio has decreased due to rising risk-weighted assets.
  • The reduction in slippages, increase in write-offs, and improvement in loan growth drove banks’ gross non-performing assets (NPA) ratio down to a seven-year low of 5%.
  • The net NPA ratio was 1.3%, a ten-year low.
  • Banks will be permitted to retain a common equity tier-I capital ratio beyond the 8% minimum.
  • The banks’ net profit has increased by 41%, while net interest income has increased by 10%. (NII).
India along with other emerging economies is facing several risks of:
  • Rising borrowing costs.
  • Debt distress.
  • Elevated levels of inflation.
  • Volatile commodity prices.
  • Currency depreciation.
  • Capital outflows.
Way Forward:
To maintain macroeconomic stability in this difficult climate, steps must be taken to protect the domestic economy and financial system by mitigating vulnerabilities and smoothing financial market changes.

Source: The Hindu


Indian road accident scenario: More serious than Covid-19

GS Paper- 3

Context:Cricketer RishabhPant’s mishap in Roorkee, which resulted in some injuries, has once again attracted attention to India’s road safety concerns. Nitin Gadkari, the Government of India’s Minister of Road Transport and Highways, has stated that the Indian road accident scenario, with 415 deaths and many injured per day, is more terrible than Covid-19. This is an open acknowledgment that, despite extensive road safety programmes, India’s record shows little progress.
Road Traffic Accidents in India:
  • Despite several years of efforts to enhance road safety, India remains one of the poorest performers in this category.
  • According to Ministry of Road Transport and Highways data, 1,47,913 people died in road traffic incidents in 2017.
  • The statistic for the same year from the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) is 1,50,093 road accident deaths.


A general lack of concern: Violations of driving laws and regulations:
  • The truth is that simple but serious issues, such as road users’ lack of understanding of basic traffic rules and road signage, easier access to driving licences without a meaningful ground examination of skills, and unchecked selfish and aggressive driving behaviour, continue to dominate Indian road traffic.
  • Violations of lane driving, speed restrictions, and traffic signals, as well as instances of at-will parking on fast-developing modern, smooth motorways, all go mostly unnoticed and uncontested.
  • The causes of car accidents, such as the ones described above, are widely understood. Human mistake on the highways is, without a doubt, the single most important thing to blame.
  • Nobody appears to know which lane they’re meant to be in; not even the traffic cops on duty seem to know.
  • Furthermore, in the event of a serious road accident, charges are filed against the negligent drivers, but rarely (if ever) against road-safety public officials for non-performance, non-enforcement of traffic rules, and failure to take immediate corrective action on visible road hazards and black spots.
  • At the macro level, different road safety institutions, both national and state, are engaged in routine paperwork and carry little accountability for the failure to generate intended results.

What exactly is road safety?
  • Road safety refers to approaches and practises that try to reduce the possibility or danger of people using the road network becoming engaged in an accident or event that results in property damage, significant injuries, and/or death.
What should be done?
  • All existing programmes aimed at improving road safety and vehicle safety must continue. The major aim and worldwide mandate, however, is to dramatically reduce the growing number of traffic crashes.
  • With limited resources, the national and state governments execute sophisticated road safety programmes with little effectiveness. The World Bank has contributed a $250 million loan to India to address the high rate of road crashes through institutional changes in road safety and results-based initiatives.
  • The administration’s regular, professional enforcement of laws, as well as quick and imaginative remedies to traffic indiscipline and bottlenecks, might aid in the evolution of a healthy safe-road culture.
  • In Delhi, too, the government’s insistence on creating a bus lane on the city’s key highways was agreed and substantially implemented overnight. The lessons learned from such occasional but critical undertakings are obvious and inspirational.
What are the recommended solutions?
  • Notify each nominated road of its designation as a Zone of Excellence (ZOE) in road safety (RS) This might include a state or national highway/road/section of a highway/road/section of a highway/road/section of a highway/road/
  • Provide road markings/written directions on the route/road signage
  • As much as possible, give lanes for emergency vehicles, bikers, and pedestrians.
  • Maintain fundamental traffic regulations and safety standards. Create many checkpoints (CP), for example, every 2-4 kilometres, with each CP staffed by road safety volunteers in addition to police.
  • Use technology sparingly in conjunction with manual interventions/volunteers.
  • Complement enforcement with road safety education and awareness initiatives.
  • Ambulances and hoist cranes are stationed for quick response to incidents.
  • Through official MoUs, make dependable agreements with hospitals/trauma centres.
The administrative structure for the implementation of road safety can be set up in three tiers:
  • Tier 1 would be the Managing Group (MG), which would be independent and financially empowered and would oversee day-to-day operations. The MG would convene on a daily basis to reflect, analyse problems, implement ideas, and assign responsibilities. It will organise training and refresher courses for traffic officers and volunteers.
  • Tier 2 would include surveillance at the district level. Exclusive employees would be assigned to ZoEs that have a district. This is where urgent solutions would be sought, budgetary allocations would be made, and review procedures would be established. It would also guarantee that objectives were met.
  • Tier 3 would have top management and control, represented at the level of the Union or state government. It is at this level that a dynamic road-safety ecosystem would be developed. Existing road safety institutions would either be dismantled or rejuvenated, and there would be monthly reviews, with directions, accountability and disciplinary action
The expected results would include:
  • A rational, straightforward, realistic, and persuasive methodology for improving road safety measures.
  • A possibly successful action plan for road safety, as well as a dynamic live-experiment lab
  • Use of best practises, both local and worldwide
  • Proactive participation of elected officials, NGOs, RWAs, educational institutions, and volunteers
  • An ever-changing expert think tank
  • Revitalization and development of current and new road safety institutes
  • Employment creation
  • Congestion reduction and lane discipline
  • A road safety carnival on the ground overnight, across the country, to make road safety visible and respectable.
  • A viable model for other low and middle-income nations
Way Forward:
  • A newly powerful Motor Vehicles Act, a decentralised federal structure down to the level of district and panchayat administration, and the Supreme Court committee on road safety and its frequent monitoring of associated concerns.
  • What is also needed is a specified system in which road safety authorities are assigned precise objectives for minimising road crashes over a set period of time.
  • Furthermore, the authorities should be subjected to careful and frequent monitoring, assessment, and accountability.
Despite numerous years of planning to enhance road safety, India remains one of the worst-performing countries in this category. Citizens must strictly adhere to road safety regulations, but the government cannot shirk its role.

Source: Indian Express


Contamination of Medicine

GS Paper-3
Context:Only two months after the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a warning about deadly contamination in four brands of cough syrup manufactured by a Sonepat-based pharmaceutical company, which was later linked to the deaths of 72 children in Gambia, another Indian pharmaceutical company has been accused of a similar crime. This time, it’s Uzbekistan accusing a Noida-based pharmaceutical firm of selling tainted cough medicine that killed 18 infants in that nation.
Thorough Analysis:
  • Lab tests in both cases allegedly revealed inadequate quantities of diethylene glycol (DEG), ethylene glycol (EG), or both in the cough syrups.
  • DEG and EG are both dangerous compounds that should not be found in any medication.
  • The most common way these chemicals find up in medication is when pharmaceutical firms fail to appropriately test industrial solvents acquired from chemical merchants and used to make cough syrups, despite the fact that the law requires such testing for contamination.
  • Given the physical proximity of the factories involved in the Gambian and Uzbekistan incidents, it is quite likely that both companies utilised the same batch of contaminated industrial solvent.
Contamination of medicines in India:
  • Between 1972 and 2020, at least five major DEG poisonings occurred in India, in Chennai, Mumbai, Bihar, Gurgaon, and Jammu. The Gurgaon event killed 33 children, and the Jammu incident killed at least 11 children.
  • Because it is notoriously difficult for doctors to detect such fatalities and trace them to tainted drugs, the ultimate recorded toll in such situations is undoubtedly an undercount.
  • PGIMER, Chandigarh, reported in August 2020, about eight months after the DEG-related deaths of the children in Jammu were first reported, that another two-year-old child from Baddi had died in its facility after consuming a different brand of cough syrup manufactured by the same company that was responsible for the deaths earlier in Jammu. This was a preventable fatality if authorities had undertaken and publicised a complete root cause study following the Jammu incident, followed by a countrywide recall of all cough syrups made at the same factory. This never occurred.
  • The current administration is likely to treat this situation as a public relations crisis rather than a public health catastrophe. The assumption is based on observing the government’s official response to the catastrophe in Gambia.
  • Far from condoning the deaths of 72 Gambians, the Ministry of Health’s original press statement slandered the Gambians by accusing them of failing to test cough syrups before administering them to patients.
  • This was a ludicrous statement because, even in India, no medications are tested before they are released for patient use. The assumption is that the drug regulator is carrying out its responsibilities to assure quality control.
  • The initial phase in this public relations approach was to keep leaking to journalists that the WHO was refusing to cooperate with information demands made by an expert committee formed by the Government of India to investigate the fatalities in Gambia. Despite the fact that the administration was well aware that the obligation for investigating the fatalities belonged not with the WHO, but with the Gambia’s sovereign authority.
  • The unifying thread running across all occurrences is a denial and intimidation messaging approach. There is almost never any indication of compassion for lost lives or a desire to preserve public health.
  • An iron fist in a titanium glove is the best way to describe the government’s response to any allegations of quality issues afflicting the Indian pharmaceutical industry. In 2007, when a Chinese chemicals manufacturer was implicated in the deaths of 365 people in Panama who consumed cough syrup manufactured with an adulterated industrial solvent, the Chinese arrested the manufacturer and publicly promised to punish him.
  • The government’s response to any complaints of quality difficulties plaguing the Indian pharmaceutical business is best described as an iron fist in a titanium glove. When a Chinese chemicals producer was involved in the deaths of 365 people in Panama as a result of cough syrup made with a contaminated industrial solvent in 2007, the Chinese detained the maker and publicly threatened to punish him.
  • In these situations of DEG exposure, the urgent public health response should attempt to minimise more fatalities.
  • This entails tracking out the source of the polluted industrial solvent used to make the syrups.

Source: Indian Express


GS Paper-2

Context:The National Commission for Women (NCW) has requested all states to guarantee that the sexual harassment at work statute (POSH Act, 2013) is strictly enforced by coaching centres and educational establishments.

  • NCW is worried about reports of sexual harassment at coaching facilities.
  • It wants to provide directives to all coaching institutes in order to guarantee that effective efforts are done to avoid sexual harassment of female pupils.
What exactly is the POSH Act?
  • In 2013, the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition, and Redressal) Act became law.
  • It defined sexual harassment, outlined the processes for filing a complaint and conducting an investigation, and specified the appropriate action.
  • The Vishaka Guidelines, which were previously in existence, were expanded.
What exactly are Vishakha Guidelines?
  • The Supreme Court established the Vishakha rules in a 1997 decision. This was in a case brought by women’s rights organisations, one of which being Vishakha.
  • She had stopped the marriage of a one-year-old daughter in 1992, prompting the claimed gangrape as an act of retaliation.
The legislation and the guidelines:

The legally enforceable Vishakha rules identified sexual harassment and set three important requirements on institutions:

  • Prohibition
  • Prevention
  • Redress
  • The Supreme Court ordered that a Complaints Committee be formed to investigate allegations of sexual harassment of women in the workplace.
The POSH Act broadened these guidelines:
  • It required employers to form an Internal Complaints Committee (ICC) at each office or branch with ten or more employees.
  • It established down processes and described many components of sexual harassment, including the aggrieved victim, who might be a woman “of any age whether employed or not”, who “alleges to have been subjected to any act of sexual harassment”.
  • This meant that the Act safeguarded the rights of all women working or visiting any workplace in any capacity.
Sexual Harassment Definition:
  • Sexual harassment, according to the 2013 law, covers “any one or more” of the following “unwelcome acts or behaviour” perpetrated directly or indirectly:
  • Advancement and physical interaction
  • A solicitation or demand for sexual favours
  • Remarks of a sexual nature
  • displaying pornography
  • Any other unwanted sexual physical, verbal, or nonverbal activity.
  • The Ministry of Women and Child Development has issued a Handbook on Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace, which contains more comprehensive examples of workplace sexual harassment behaviour. 
These are:
  • Sexually suggestive or innuendoing statements; severe or frequent offensive remarks; improper queries or comments concerning a person’s sex life
  • Display of obscene or sexist images, posters, MMS, SMS, WhatsApp, or emails
  • Threats, intimidation, or blackmail about sexual favours; likewise, threats, intimidation, or reprisal against an employee who speaks out about these issues.
  • Unwelcome social invites having sexual implications, which are usually seen as flirting
  • Unwanted sexual approaches.
  • Unwanted conduct
  • According to the Handbook, “unwelcome behaviour” occurs when the victim feels guilty or helpless; it generates anger/sadness or low self-esteem.
  • It adds undesirable activity as one which is “illegal, degrading, intrusive, one-sided and power driven”.
National Commission for Women:
  • The NCW is a statutory organisation tasked with advising the government on all policy issues affecting women.
  • It was created on January 31, 1992, in accordance with the provisions of the Indian Constitution as outlined in the National Commission for Women Act of 1990.
  • Jayanti Patnaik was the commission’s first chairperson.
Constitutional Provision:
  • The Indian Constitution contains no provisions that are explicitly designed to favour women.
  • Articles 15 (3), 14 and 21 all protect and preserve women. They are less gender-specific.
  • The NCW’s mission is to represent women’s rights in India and to offer a voice for their issues and concerns.
  • Dowry, politics, religion, equitable representation for women in occupations, and the exploitation of women for labour have all been topics of their campaigns.

Source: Indian Express

Facts For Prelims

Vibrant Village Programme (VVP)

  1. Union Home Minister requests that border-guarding troops improve the Vibrant Village Program and guarantee that assistance programmes are carried out.
  2. HM’s key points: Soldiers on the ground and barrier were required, but borders may be properly protected when “we construct villages with people who care about the nation.”
Concerning the VVP:
  • It was introduced in the budget for 2022-23 with the goal of improving infrastructure in border communities along India’s border with China.
  • Housing, tourism marketing, road infrastructure, renewable energy, and livelihood generation are some of the activities.
  • Promotes community understanding of border management.
  • Other projects of a similar nature include the Border Area Development Programme (BADP), the Border Infrastructure and Management Scheme, and so on.

Basmati Rice

The new authenticity guidelines seek to exclude subpar types off the market.

What exactly are the problems?
  • India produces roughly three-quarters of the world’s basmati rice; nevertheless, a large number of freshly developed types lack the distinctive popcorn-like scent that contributes to this rice’s popularity.
  • As a result, the UK and EU rice organisations have proposed new guidelines that will go into effect in early 2023, with the goal of removing inferior types (sub-standards) of basmati off the market.
What kind of rice are classified as Basmati Rice?
  • To be classified as basmati, grains must fulfil particular criteria, including smell (thanks to the BADH2 gene), grain length and breadth, and cooked texture. They must also contain a moderate quantity of amylose, a component of rice starch.
  • Since 2017, the Indian Patent Office has granted GI status to Basmati rice, ensuring the long-grain aromatic rice’s global uniqueness.

GNB1 Encephalopathy

Researchers from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras, Tel Aviv University, and Columbia University are investigating a rare hereditary brain condition known as “GNB1 Encephalopathy” and attempting to create an effective treatment.

GNB1 Encephalopathy Information:
  • GNB1 Encephalopathy is a type of neurological illness that affects people at the foetal period.
  • According to scientists, among the early indications of the condition include delayed physical and mental development, intellectual difficulties, and recurrent epileptic convulsions.
  • A single nucleotide mutation in the GNB1 gene, which produces one of the G-proteins, the “G1 protein,” causes this condition.
  • Children with the GNB1 mutation have delayed mental and physical development, epilepsy (abnormal brain activity), and mobility issues.

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