Ojaank IAS Academy




04 October 2022 – Current Affairs

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Crop Residue Management (CRM) Scheme

Paper 3 –Environment

Why Should You Know?

Recently Dr. AbhilakshLikhi, Additional Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare participated in an agricultural exhibition on Crop Residue Management at SAS Nagar, Punjab and interacted with the farmers.
In details –
  • Dr. AbhilakshLikhi, Additional Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, Department of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare attended a farm demonstration on crop residue management at village Rangian in Kharar tehsil, Distt SAS Nagar, Punjab and interacted with farmers.
About Crop Residue Management scheme
  • To support the efforts of the Governments of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and NCT of Delhi to address air pollution caused due to stubble burning and to subsidize machinery required for management of crop residue, a Central Sector Scheme on Crop Residue Management (CRM) has been introduced w.e.f. 2018-19.
  • Under this scheme, financial assistance @ 50% is provided to the farmers for purchase of crop residue management machinery and @ 80% is provided to Cooperative Societies, FPOs and Panchayats for establishment of Custom Hiring Centres (CHCs).
  • The Scheme promotes the usage of machines such as Super Straw Management Systems, Happy Seeder, Super Seeder, Smart Seeder, zero till seed cum fertilizer drill, Mulcher, Paddy Straw Chopper, hydraulically reversible mould board plough, Crop reapers and Reaper binders for in-situ management of crop residue and Balers & Rakes which are used for straw collection in the form of bales for other ex-situ uses of straw.
  • During the period from 2018-19 to 2021-22, Rs. 2440.07 crores (Punjab – Rs. 1147.62 crores, Haryana – Rs. 693.25 crores, Uttar Pradesh – Rs. 533.67 crores, NCT of Delhi – Rs. 4.52 Crores and ICAR– Rs. 61.01 crores) have been released.

The objectives of the Crop Residue Management (CRM) Scheme includes

  • protecting environment from air pollution and preventing loss of nutrients and soil micro-organisms caused by burning of crop residue;
  • promoting management of crop residue by retention/incorporation into the soil or collection for further utilization through the use of appropriate mechanization inputs;
  • promoting Farm Machinery Banks for custom hiring of crop residue management machinery to offset the adverse economies of scale arising due to small landholding and high cost of individual ownership;
  • creating awareness among stakeholders through demonstration, capacity building activities and differentiated Information, Education and Communication strategies for effective utilization and management of crop residue.
  • During the last 4 years, the states have distributed more than 2.07 lakh machines to the individual farmers and to more than 38,000 CHCs in these 4 States, which also include more than 3,243 Balers & Rakes which are used for ex-situ collection of straw.
  • Pusa Decomposer, a microbial consortium of fungal species (both in liquid and capsule forms) developed by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has been found effective for rapid in-situ decomposition of paddy straw. 
  • During the year 2021, decomposer has been used in the States of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and NCT of Delhi in around 5.7 lakh hectare area which is equivalent to about 3.5 million tonnes of straw managed. Through satellite imaging and monitoring,
  • it was observed that 92% area of the decomposer sprayed plots has been managed through decomposition and only 8% area in these plots was burned.
  • To promote the use of bio-decomposer technology, the Operational Guidelines of the CRM Scheme have been revised in August 2022 and provisions have been made for conducting large scale demonstrations of bio-decomposer on farmers’ fields by way of utilizing flexi funds under the scheme.
  • The overall total burning events recorded in these three (Punjab, Haryana & UP) states are 7.71% less than in 2020. Punjab recorded 9.85% reduction, Haryana recorded 23.05% increase and UP recorded 8.95% reduction.

Silver Jubilee of Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)

Paper 3 – Infrastructure

Why Should You Know?

In the year 2022Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has completed 25 years of its existence.
In details
  • In the year 2022, when the country is celebrating Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has also completed 25 years of its existence. In continuance of its silver jubilee celebrations, on the esteemed platform provided by the India Mobile Congress, TRAI organized a seminar on “Emerging Trends in Broadcasting Sector” on October 3, 2022 .
  • This seminar had been organized in the backdrop of the recent technological developments in the sector and their impact.
  • The deliberations in the seminar were divided in two sessions. The forenoon session focused on level playing field, de-regulating linear broadcasting, enabling new age content players and light touch policy and regulatory framework.
  • The second session covered role of broadcasting in education, radio broadcasting and issues arising due to convergence in light of recent developments in the media and entertainment sector.
  • The seminar was organized in the spirit of the pro-active role of TRAI to work in collaboration with the industry and other stakeholders, and ensure that the regulatory framework fosters and not hinders new technological developments and their adoption.
  • The seminar was successful in developing a foundational understanding of the emerging trends and foster discussions on their impact on the current regime, not only from the perspective of the regulatory regime but also from the perspective of the stakeholders as a whole.
What is TRAI?
  • The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) is a regulatory body set up by the Government of India under section 3 of the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997.
  • It was established on 20 February 1997to regulate telecom services and tariffs in India. Earlier regulation of telecom services and tariffs was overseen by the Central Government.
  • It consists of a Chairperson and not more than two full-time members and not more than two part-time members.
  • The TRAI Act was amended by an ordinance, effective from 24 January 2000, establishing a Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) to take over the adjudicatory and disputes functions from TRAI.
Mission and Objective
  • TRAI’s mission is to create and nurture conditions for the growth of telecommunications in India to enable the country to have a leading role in the emerging global information society.
  • One of its main objectives is to provide a fair and transparent environment that promotes a level playing field and facilitates fair competition in the market.
  • TRAI regularly issues orders and directions on various subjects such as tariffs, interconnections, quality of service, Direct To Home (DTH) services and mobile number portability.

National Means cum Merit Scholarship scheme

Paper 2 – Education

Why Should You Know?

National Means-cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme is a scholarship scheme for the meritorious students of economically weaker sections, whose application date has been extended by the government, let us know what isNMCMSS
In details –
  • Under the ‘National Means-cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme’ scholarships are awarded to meritorious students of economically weaker sections to arrest their drop out at class VIII and encourage them to continue their education at secondary stage.
  • One lakh fresh scholarships are awarded to selected students from class IX every year and their continuation / renewal in classes X to XII for students studying in State Government, Government-aided and local body schools.
  • The amount of scholarship is Rs. 12000/- per annum.
  • The National Means cum Merit Scholarship Scheme (NMMSS) is boarded on the National Scholarship Portal (NSP) – a one stop platform for scholarship schemes given to students.
  • NMMSS scholarships are disbursed directly into the bank accounts of selected students by electronic transfer through Public Financial Management System (PFMS) following DBT mode. This is a 100% centrally sponsored scheme.
  • Students whose parental income from all sources is not more than Rs. 3,50,000/- per annum are eligible to avail the scholarships.
  • The students must have minimum of 55% marks or equivalent grade in Class VII examination for appearing in the selection test for award of scholarship (relaxable by 5% for SC/ST students).

Digital India Conference of State IT Ministers

Paper 3 – Science & Tech

Why Should You Know?

Recently, Digital India Conference of State IT Ministers held along with the launch of 5G.
In details
  • The Digital India Conference of State IT Ministers, along with the sixth edition of India Mobile Congress (IMC 2022), was held on 1st October, which was inaugurated by Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi.
  • Industry veterans Shri Mukesh Ambani from Reliance Industries, Shri Sunil Bharti Mittal from Bharti Enterprises, Shri Kumar Mangalam Birla from Aditya Birla Group, and several other dignitaries graced the inauguration.
  • It saw the national launch of 5G, exhibitions, and unveiling of several 5G use cases in education, health, worker safety, smart agriculture, etc.
About the Conference –
  • After the inaugural session of IMC 2022, a “Digital India Conference of State Information Technology Ministers” was also organized under the chairmanship of Shri Ashwini Vaishnav, Minister of Communications, Electronics & Information Technology & Railways in the august presence of Minister of State for Electronics & Information Technology.
  • Information and Technology Ministers from 12 States and Union Territories i.e. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Goa, Manipur, Uttarakhand, Telangana, Mizoram, Sikkim and Puducherry had a proud presence.
  • It was attended by State Information Technology Secretaries and State Officials of all States and Union Territories as well as senior officials of Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology and DoT.
  • It is worth noting that Digital India, a joint team of Central and State Governments, has to fulfill the aspirations of the youth and 1.3 billion people.
  •  The focus is on achieving the goal of creating a $1 trillion digital economy and 10 million digital jobs by 2026.With the introduction of new policies such as the Telecom Bill and Digital Data Protection Bill, states are being encouraged to share their constructive suggestions.
  • Thereafter, State / UT IT Ministers shared the progress of connectivity, electronic manufacturing efforts, e-governance initiatives taken under Digital India in their respective States. They also shared the issues concerned with connectivity, opening of more centres of NIELIT, CDAC, STPI, opening of CoE in emerging areas and the policy matters.
Upcoming Digital India Initiatives
  • In his closing remarks, MEIT stated that the connectivity is vital for the Digital India and its reach to every corner of the country. He announced that Rs 36,000 crore to install new 25,000 towers in next 500 days have been approved.
  • The list of spots for installing towers is prepared in consultation with States / Chief Secretaries. States can further review the list.
  • He also announced that Rs 1.64 lakh crore will be used for revival of BSNL in a comprehensive manner and it will be rolled out in next 18 months. Design in India and Make-In-India will be big beneficiary.
  • He also announced that the fibre network will be put on a common portal, which will help States and UTs to plan layout driven infrastructure projects, and digital transformational projects.
  • He informed that the policy related matter are / will be determined in due consultation with States. He also shared that the special assistance to States for capital expenditure worth Rs 2000 Crore has been supported.
  • He encouraged the States to be proactive and make business friendly policies to attract businesses in their States.
  • Emphasizing on the moto of SabkaSaath and Sabka Vikas, he stated that the commitments from all States and UTs, large as well as small States, are vital in taking Digital India to higher level and in realizing the AatmaNirbhar Bharat and Trillion Dollar Digital Economy.


Paper 3 – Infrastructure

Why Should You Know?

‘CITIES OF TOMORROW’- a  Photography Exhibition is  being organised from 3rd October to 6th October, 2022, lets know about it
In details
  • The National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA) under the CITIIS program is organising a photography exhibition, titled “Cities of Tomorrow” with the purpose of depicting the positive impacts of sustainable and innovation-driven urban development in India as seen through the lens of the common citizen.
  • The exhibition is the culmination of the “Cities of Tomorrow” photography competition, which was conducted in the 12 Smart Cities where the CITIIS projects are located.
What is CITIIS?
  • CITIIS (Cities Investment to Innovate, Integrate & Sustain) is a joint program of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA), the French Development Agency (AFD), the European Union (EU), and National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA).
  • The program is assisting 12 cities across India – selected through a competitive process – to develop and implement innovative and sustainable urban infrastructure projects.
  • Entries for the competition had been invited from these cities, namely, Agartala, Amaravati, Amritsar, Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Dehradun, Hubballi-Dharwad, Kochi, Puducherry, Surat, Ujjain, and Visakhapatnam.
About competition
  • Participants of the “Cities of Tomorrow” competition were required to interpret and take photographs based on themes corresponding to the focus areas of CITIIS, i.e., Sustainable Mobility, Public Open Spaces, E-Governance and ICT, and Social and Organisational Innovation in Low-Income Settlements.
  • Over 400 entries were received and the winners were selected by a jury comprising renowned photographers Mr Raghu Rai, Ms Ketaki Sheth, and MrSounak Banerjee.
  • The exhibition opening on 3rd October will be graced by H.E. Mr Ugo Astuto, Ambassador of the EU to India and Bhutan, Mr Damien Syed, and chairperson of the competition jury.
  • The winners of the competition will also be felicitated at the event, followed by an exhibition walkthrough.
  • The winning photographs, as well as a curated selection of other outstanding entries will be on display at the India Habitat Centre, New Delhi from 3rd October to 6th October, 2022.

World Habitat Day

Paper 2- International Issues

Why Should You Know?

Every year World Habitat Day is celebrated by the United Nations on the first Monday of October.
In details
  • World Habitat Day is celebrated by the United Nations on the first Monday of October. This year this day is being celebrated on 3rd October.
  • The purpose of celebrating this day is to recognize the basic rights of human beings and to give them adequate shelter.
  • This day is organized to promote the fundamental right to housing. The theme of this year’s World Habitat Day is “Mind the Gap”. Leave No One and Place Behind”.
  • This time the focus is on the growing inequalities and challenges in cities and human settlements. Actually, these are the problems which have increased by the United Nations due to Triple Cs i.e. Coronavirus (Covid-19), Climate i.e. Climate and Crisis.
  • All three have hindered the work of reducing and eliminating poverty. Indeed, the United Nations considers tackling urban poverty and inequality as an urgent global priority. As cities grow and become increasingly economic centres, inadequate planning and lack of resources have given rise to major problems.
Background –
  • It was announced by the United Nations to celebrate this day in the year 1985.
  • For the first time this day was celebrated in 1986. Nairobi then hosted. That year ‘Shelter is my right’ was the theme of this day.
  • Let us tell you that in 1989, the UN Human Settlements Program started giving “The Habitat Scroll of Honor Award”.
  • It is considered to be the most prestigious Human Settlement Award in the world. Its aim is to improve human life by highlighting the difficulties of homelessness.

Nobel Prize for Physiology-2022

Paper 2 – Health

Why Should You Know?

Swedish scientist Svante Pääbo has been awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology for the year 2022
In details
  • Swedish scientist Svante Pääbo has been awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology for the year 2022 “for his discoveries concerning the genomes of extinct hominins and human evolution.”
  • Through his pioneering research, Svante Pääbo – this year’s NobelPrize laureate in physiology or medicine – accomplished something seemingly impossible: sequencing the genome of the Neanderthal, an extinct relative of present-day humans, the academy said in its press release.
  • Through his groundbreaking research, Svante Pääbo established an entirely new scientific discipline, paleogenomics. Following the initial discoveries, his group has completed analyses of several additional genome sequences from extinct hominins.
  • Pääbo’s discoveries have established a unique resource, which is utilized extensively by the scientific community to better understand human evolution and migration.
  • New powerful methods for sequence analysis indicate that archaic hominins may also have mixed with Homo sapiens in Africa. However, no genomes from extinct hominins in Africa have yet been sequenced due to accelerated degradation of archaic DNA in tropical climates.
  • His research led to the understanding that archaic gene sequences from our extinct relatives influence the physiology of present-day humans.
  • One such example is the Denisovan version of the gene EPAS1, which confers an advantage for survival at high altitude and is common among present-day Tibetans.
  • Other examples are Neanderthal genes that affect our immune response to different types of infections.
Background –
  • Last year’s recipients were David Julius and ArdemPatapoutian for their discoveries into how the human body perceives temperature and touch.
  • The medicine prize kicks off a week of Nobel Prize announcements. It continues Tuesday with the physics prize, with chemistry on Wednesday and literature on Thursday. The 2022 Nobel Peace Prize will be announced on Friday and the economics award on October 10.
  • The prizes carry a cash award of 10 million Swedish kronor (nearly $900,000) and will be handed out on December 10. The money comes from a bequest left by the prize’s creator, Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel, who died in 1895.

SASTRA Ramanujan Prize

Paper 2–Education

Why Should You Know?

The SASTRA Ramanujan Prize for 2022 will be awarded to Yunqing Tang, Assistant Professor with the University of California, Berkeley, U.S.A.
In details
  • The SASTRA Ramanujan Prize for 2022 will be awarded to Yunqing Tang, Assistant Professor with the University of California, Berkeley, U.S.A.
  • The award, instituted by the Shanmugha Arts, Science, Technology & Research Academy (SASTRA) in 2005 with a cash prize of $10,000, is presented annually to individuals aged 32 and below, who made outstanding contributions in the field of mathematics, influenced by Srinivasa Ramanjuan in a broad sense.
  • According to SASTRA Ramanujan Prize Committee Ms. Yunqing’s works display a remarkable combination of sophisticated techniques, in which the arithmetic and geometry of modular curves and of Shimura varieties play a central role, and her results and methods are bound to have major impact on future research in this area.
  • The prize will be awarded at the International Conference on Number Theory during December 20-22, 2022 at SASTRA University.
  • The prize committee included Don Blasius , University of California, Los Angeles; Dan Goldston, San Jose State University; Ken Ono, University of Virginia; Jonathan Pila, Oxford University; Zeev Rudnick, Tel Aviv University; and Cam Stewart, University of Waterloo.
About Ms. Yunqing
  • Ms. Yunqing, born in China, completed her B. Sc in Peking University in 2011, following which she went to Harvard University for higher studies.
  • She completed her PhD in 2016 at Harvard under the supervision of Mark Kisin.
  • After stints in Princeton University as a postdoctoral fellow, Instructor, and Assistant Professor, she joined UC Berkeley in July 2022 as Assistant Professor.

India-EthiopiaBilateral Relations

Paper 2 –International Relations

Why Should You Know?

Recently The 4th Round of Foreign Office Consultations between India and Ethiopia were held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
In details –
  • On October 3, 2022 The 4th Round of Foreign Office Consultations between India and Ethiopia were held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • It was co-chaired by Joint Secretary (East and Southern Africa), Ministry of External Affairs Puneet R Kundal and Ambassador Dr. Gebeyehu Ganga Gayito Director General for the Middle East, Asia and Pacific countries Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ethiopia.
  • During the consultation, both sides reviewed the entire spectrum of bilateral relations, including political engagements, trade and economic matters, development partnership projects and cooperation in higher education.
  • They also agreed to work to expand engagement in fields such as defence, Science and Technology, education, agriculture and allied sectors and civil aviation.
  • India and Ethiopia have also agreed to continue high-level political exchanges and regular meetings of the joint institutional mechanisms to keep the relationship vibrant and mutually beneficial.
  • The next round of Consultations will be held in New Delhi.
About India-Ethiopia Relations
  • Ethiopia–India relations have existed for almost two millennia. Modern diplomatic relations between India and Ethiopia were established at the level of legations in July 1948, after the independence of India.
  • The relationship was raised to the ambassadorial level in 1952.
  • India maintains an embassy in Addis Ababa and Ethiopia in New Delhi.
  • The two countries have enjoyed close and friendly relations with India supporting Ethiopian developmental efforts while Ethiopia has supported Indian interests such as its claim to a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.
  • India and Ethiopia share a common understanding on such issues as cross-border international terrorism, the need and direction for reform of the United Nations, and the importance of action on climate change.
  • Indian exports to Ethiopia consists of drugs and pharmaceuticals, steel, machinery, food items, plastic and linoleum products, paper, textiles, chemicals, transport equipment and steel. India’s imports from Ethiopia include raw hides and skins, pulses, oil seeds, spices, leather and scrap metal.
  • India is Ethiopia’s One of the largest source of Foreign Direct Investments.
  • India and Ethiopia signed a Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement in 2007 and a Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement in 2011 to promote mutual trade and investments.

Shyamji Krishna Varma

Paper 1 – History

Why Should You Know?

On October 4,2022  Prime Minister Narendra Modi pays tribute to Shyamji Krishna Varma on his birth anniversary, lets know aboutShyamji Krishna Varma.
In details
  • Shyamji Krishna Varma was born on October 4, 1857, in the Mandvi town of Gujarat province to Shri Krishna Varma.This town has now developed into the Mandvi Lok Sabha constituency.
  • He started working for Swaraj in 1888 while practicing in Ajmer. He worked for public interest by staying as Diwan in Ratlam in Madhya Pradesh and Junagadh in Gujarat.
  • From the age of only twenty, he started taking part in revolutionary activities.
  • He was inspired by Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Swami Dayanand Saraswati. He represented India in the 1918 academic conferences in Berlin and England.
  • In 1897 he again went to England. In 1905, he struggled against the excesses of Lord Curzon. In the same year, a monthly newspaper “The Indian Sociologist” was brought out from England, which was later published from Geneva as well.
  • While living in England, he established India House. After returning to India, in 1905, he founded the Indian Home Rule Society with revolutionary students.
  • At that time this institution proved to be a source of inspiration for the gathering of revolutionary students. Revolutionary martyr Madanlal Dhingra was among his dear disciples. On his martyrdom, he also started a scholarship. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar did writing work by staying in London under the guidance of Vermaji.
  • On 31 March 1930, he left his mortal body in a hospital in Geneva. His body could not be brought to India due to international laws and he was cremated there. Later, the Gujarat government made a lot of efforts to get his ashes from Geneva to India.

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