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Names for some places in Arunachal Pradesh

GS Paper II

Context: The names of 11 locations in Arunachal Pradesh will be “standardised,” according to the Chinese authorities.

MEA clarification:

  • The Chinese “innovation” has been rejected by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  • According to MEA, Arunachal Pradesh has always been and will always be a crucial component of India.

Why is China giving names to places that are in India?

  • Arunachal Pradesh is part of China’s 90,000 sq km of claimed territory.
  • The region is referred to as “Zangnan” in the Chinese language, and “South Tibet” is frequently mentioned.
  • Arunachal Pradesh is depicted as being a part of China on Chinese maps, and is occasionally referred to as “so-called Arunachal Pradesh” in parentheses.
  • China sometimes makes an attempt to emphasise its one-sided claim to Indian land.
  • Part of the effort involves giving sites in Arunachal Pradesh Chinese names.

Earlier unilateral renaming:

  • China has issued a third set of “standardised” names for locations in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • It has already published the “official” Chinese names for six locations around Arunachal Pradesh earlier in 2017.

What is China’s argument for claiming these areas?

  • The PRC challenges the McMahon Line’s legal standing as the recognised border under the 1914 “Convention between Great Britain, China, and Tibet” (Simla Convention).
  • A plenipotentiary of the Republic of China, which had been established in 1912 after the collapse of the Qing dynasty, represented China at the Simla Conference.
  • The People’s Republic was only proclaimed in 1949, which is when the current communist administration took office.
  • The Chinese delegate refused to sign the Simla Agreement, claiming that Tibet lacked the autonomous capacity to sign treaties with other countries.

What is the McMohan Line?

  • The McMohan Line was formed from the eastern border of Bhutan to the Isu Razi pass on the China-Myanmar border, and it was named after Henry McMahon, the principal British negotiator at Shimla.
  • China asserts sovereignty over land in Arunachal Pradesh that lies south of the McMahon Line.
  • The historical connections between the monasteries in Tawang and Lhasa provide as another foundation for China’s claims.

Intention behind these renamings:

  • Chinese officials are using this rebranding to bolster their territorial claims against India.
  • China often expresses displeasure anytime an Indian dignitary visits Arunachal Pradesh as part of this approach.
  • China continues to reiterate its “consistent” and “clear” stance that Arunachal Pradesh is in India’s hands.
  • The world has clearly established and acknowledged these assertions to be “illegal.”

Source: The Hindu


Economic Problems in India

GS Paper III

Context: The three main economic problems that India is currently experiencing cannot be solved using the economics paradigm that is already in place. The science of complex self-adaptive systems has to be studied by economists in order to break out of their self-referential bubble.

The Poly-crisis faced by India:

The Indian government is grappling with three economic challenges at the same time:

  • Management of inflation,
  • Trade agreements, and
  • Employment

Economists do not have a systemic solution for this poly-crisis. Consensus among them has broken down even about solutions to its separate parts.

Lessons from China and Vietnam:

  • Foreign investment in China: Over 35 years ago, China and India opened their economies to international commerce. Since then, China has drawn far more foreign investment than India, and its residents’ incomes have grown five times more quickly.
  • Vietnam is becoming a more desirable location: India must compete with other nations to draw in investment. Vietnam is frequently mentioned as a nation that is proven to be more alluring to western and Japanese investors than India. Yet, they rediscover what they had previously learnt about China when researching Vietnam.
  • High levels of human development: Before Vietnam, China had already acquired high levels of human development, including universal access to education and effective public health systems.

The Problem with the Current Paradigm:

  • There are some fundamental flaws in the current paradigm of economics.
  • Tinbergen’s thesis, which holds that the number of policy goals and tools must be equal, is frequently cited by economists. This is a linear and mechanical interpretation of how a complicated system functions.
  • Root causes influence numerous outcomes in intricate biological systems. Linear causes and effects cannot adequately describe the system’s behaviour. Causes and effects interact, and hence, effects also become causes.

What is Tinbergen’s theory?

According to Tinbergen’s theory, in order to obtain the intended result, the number of policy instruments (P) and policy goals (G) must be equal.

Another put, P = G

This implies that there should be at least one policy instrument to accomplish each policy aim.

For instance, a policy tool like adjustments in interest rates should be used if the objective is to minimise inflation. Similar to this, there should be a policy instrument, such as job creation initiatives, to fulfil the policy aim of promoting employment. In order to accomplish desired results, Tinbergen’s theory highlights the significance of having a clear and consistent policy framework.

Crises and the Inadequacy of the System:

  • One country’s requirements may not be met by another’s policies: Macroeconomic experts look for global answers, yet the trade and monetary policies that work for one nation might not work for another. Their backgrounds have shown what they require.
  • Focus on data patterns: Economists compare data trends across countries to find answers, and in their models, individuals are just numbers. Politicians at least make an effort to listen to the public, unlike economists who do not.
  • As an illustration, the 2008 global financial crisis, the unequal handling of the COVID-19 epidemic, and the impending global climate disaster all served to highlight the inadequacies of the existing paradigm.


India’s many crises need to be resolved, which calls for a new economy. Even in the West, there is a push to alter the paradigm of economics research and incorporate viewpoints from the study of complex self-adaptive systems. The shift to a new economics paradigm based on the study of complex self-adaptive systems must be led by economists in India. The existing economics paradigm cannot offer solutions for India’s policymakers who need to discover a method to deepen the economic tree’s roots while still reaping its fruits.

Source: The Hindu


UN Water Conference

GS Paper III

Context: This type of gathering on water hadn’t occurred in 46 years. In order to accelerate and scale up change in the water industry, the conference sought to discover ideas that would alter the game and offer advice to decision-makers.

What is the UN Water Conference?

  • An worldwide gathering called the UN Water Conference tries to better coordinate government, business, nonprofit, and funding initiatives around a few key water sector concerns.
  • It provides a forum for nations to invest, transfer technology, and learn from the mistakes of others.
  • In 1977, the last UN Water Conference took place.
  • It led to the creation of the first worldwide “Action Plan” that acknowledged everyone’s right to access clean water and sanitation.
  • This sparked decades of international financing and coordinated action to ensure that everyone had access to clean water and sanitation.

Themes of the conference:

  • The SDG 6 Global Acceleration Framework is supported by five conference themes:
  • Access to “WASH” (World Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene), which includes the Human Rights to Clean Drinking Water and Sanitation, is important for health.
  • Water for Sustainable Development: Appreciating water, the connection between water, energy, and food, and sustainable urban and economic growth.
  • Source to sea, biodiversity, climate, resilience, and catastrophe risk reduction all benefit from water for the environment, climate, and resilience.
  • Water for Cooperation: Water throughout the 2030 Agenda, cross-sectoral collaboration, and transboundary and international water cooperation.
  • Increasing the execution of the Decade for Action’s goals, particularly through the UN Secretary-Action General’s Plan, is the goal of the Water Action Decade.

Purpose of the conference:

  • International water conferences seek to better coordinate the efforts of organisations, businesses, NGOs, and donors around a handful of major problems.
  • They aid nations in technology transfer, investment, and learning from the mistakes of others.
  • The challenge of mobilising worldwide to address local water issues is that water issues typically have local causes and require local solutions.

Water challenges discussed:

  • While providing services to neglected groups is not without controversy, access to clean water and sanitary facilities is a difficult issue.
  • Yet, increasing access does not necessarily result in continued access to water and sanitation.
  • The remaining SDG 6 goals emphasise the need to sustain agriculture, industry, and natural ecosystems, which has changed the focus of the water problem from access to water and sanitation.

Outcomes of the 2023 Conference:

  • The proceedings of the meeting produced much talk, splintered discussions, and no binding agreements.
  • There were 713 different voluntary pledges from Organizations, governments, businesses, and charitable benefactors, with 120 of them being pertinent to India.
  • The Indian government pledged $50 billion as part of its Jal Jeevan Plan to enhance drinking water supplies in rural areas.

Examples of Commitments:

  • Technology: a variety of suggestions for incubation platforms, as well as specific advances in wastewater treatment or solar water treatment in outlying locations.
  • Models and data: Sensors and satellite data were two efficient ways to generate data. Other initiatives provided tools for data analysis.
  • Knowledge Sharing: The W12+ Blueprint, a UNESCO portal that offers city profiles and case studies of initiatives, technologies, and policies that address typical water security concerns, was a great tool.
  • Developing capacity entails making an effort to teach women and members of underrepresented groups how to exercise their legal rights.
  • Forums for collective action by civil society organisations urging regulatory reforms.
  • Environmental, Social, and Corporate Governance: The conference concluded that effective water governance hinges on these broad areas, and weaving them into the Water Action Agenda is a step.

Source: The Hindu


Dial Up Internet

GS Paper II

Context: The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India has removed the rules governing dial-up internet connection services.

Dial-up Internet access is a type of internet access that connects to an internet service provider (ISP) by dialling a number on a regular phone line using the capabilities of the public switched telephone network (PSTN).

Dial-up connections convert audio impulses into data that is sent to a router or computer via modems.

When dial-up was the sole option for accessing low-speed internet, rules were put in place.

The theoretical top speed limit for dial-up internet was 56 kilobits per second.

With the advancement of telecom technology, high-speed internet service is now available on xDSL, FTTH, and LTE.

Internet Users in India:

  • There are 692 million active internet users in India, according to the Internet in India report 2022. 351 million of them live in rural regions, and 341 million live in cities. By 2025, there will probably be 900 million internet users in India, according to the Internet and Mobile Association of India.
  • 346 million Indians use the internet to do business, including e-commerce and digital payments. India has more people than the United States, whose 331 million people use digital transactions.
  • Around 762 million Indians, including 63% of the rural population, have not yet embraced the Internet.
  • In both urban and rural settings, there are more men than women who utilise the internet.
  • Govt Initiatives:
  • Prime Minister Wi-Fi Access Network Interface (PM-WANI): The program’s goal is to offer free public Wi-Fi through Public Data Offices (PDOs) dispersed around the nation, much like PCOs (Public Call Offices) did for India’s widespread use of telephones.
  • The Bharat Net Project is the largest middle-mile infrastructure project in the world for bringing broadband access to Gram Panchayats. It uses optical fibre to build this infrastructure.
  • The National Broadband Mission strives to promote equal and open access to broadband services throughout the nation.


  • Right of Way Challenge: The Right of Way has been a problematic issue for the Indian telecom industry because of different and complicated legal processes in different states, non-uniform levies, and permissions from the Forest Department, Railways, and National Highway Authority.
  • The Indian network has just a small amount of fixed-line coverage, compared to the majority of industrialised nations, which have a significant fixed-line penetration (telephone lines connected to a nationwide telephone network via metal wires or optical fibers).
  • Compared to more than 70% in affluent countries, less than 25% of towers in India are connected to fibre networks.
  • Lack of Rural Connectivity: India has attained a sufficient level of teledensity, however there is a significant difference in penetration between urban (55.42%) and rural (44.58%) regions.
  • Due to the significant upfront fixed costs, service providers have difficulty entering rural and semi-rural areas.

Way Forward:

The building of digital infrastructure and the advancement of digital skills must coexist in order to achieve the goals of Digital India. In order for the rural people to fully benefit from digital opportunities, they must be enabled.

Source: Indian Express


Geographical Indication Tag

GS Paper III

Context: Nagri Dubraj, an aromatic rice from Chhattisgarh, was given a geographical indication (GI) tag by the Geographical Indication Registry. The Tag has also been provided by the Madhya Pradesh-grown Morena and Rewa Mangoes.

About Nagri Dubraj Rice:

  • It’s created by a women’s self-help organisation. Dubraj has been harvested by the women’s self-help organisation “Maa Durga Swasahayata Samuh” of Nagri in the Dhamtari area.
  • It is an indigenous species with little grains that, when cooked, are incredibly soft to chew. Due to its fragrant flavour, it is sometimes referred to as the Chhattisgarh Basmati.

What is a GI Tag?

  • Products with a clear geographic origin or characteristics that can be ascribed directly to a place are given the GI, or geographic indication, label.
  • A GI is generally a produced product (handicrafts and industrial items), an agricultural product, or a natural product that comes from a certain geographic region.
  • The Geographical Indications of Products (Registration and Protection) Act, which was passed in 1999, governs the issuance of GI tags.
  • It falls under the Paris Treaty for the Protection of Industrial Property as an aspect of intellectual property rights.
  • This tag is good for ten years, after which it can be renewed.

Benefits of Getting GI Tag:

  • Geographical Indications are given legal protection in India.
  • stops others from using a Registered Geographical Indication without permission.
  • Indian Geographical Indications are given legal protection, which increases exports.
  • It supports the monetary well-being of manufacturers of items made in a certain area.

Source: Indian Express


Facts for Prelims

Sagar-Setu Mobile App:

  • Sarbananda Sonowal, the Union Minister for Ports, Shipping, and Waterways, today unveiled the National Logistics Portal (Marine) “Sagar-Setu” app.
  • The National Logistics Portal (MarineSAGAR-SETU )’s app will offer real-time data on vessel-related information, gates, container goods stations, and transactions, facilitating online payments.
  • The app will expand marine trade, strengthen the national economy, and make operations and tracking more visible.
  • Convenience is increased with quicker approval and compliance turnaround times.
  • Boost tracking and operation visibility.
  • Provide assistance with tracking transactions and records.
  • Get aware of service demands.


Einstein Tile:

  • Einstein’s tile: a single form that might be used to make an aperiodic (non-repeating) pattern on an endlessly vast plane. To avoid confusion with Albert Einstein, the well-known German physicist, “einstein” is a play on the German word ein stein, which translates to “one stone.”
  • A group of tile types known as periodic tiles may be duplicated to create patterns without repetition.
  • Hao Wang, a mathematician, postulated in 1961 that aperiodic tilings were not conceivable. Robert Berger, one of his students, refuted this claim by locating a set of 104 tiles that, when put together, will never make a repeating pattern.
  • Roger Penrose, a physicist who won the Nobel Prize in 1977, discovered a set of only two tiles that could be put together in an endless pattern. Penrose tiling, as it is now called, has been used to artwork all around the world.
  • The “holy grail” of aperiodic tiling, however—a single form or monotile that can fill a space to infinity without ever repeating the pattern it creates—has eluded mathematicians since Penrose’s discovery.
  • This is referred to as the geometry version of the Einstein issue. Mathematicians have been baffled by this issue for many years, and many believed there was just no solution.
  • This issue is resolved by the recent discovery known as “the hat.”
  • Understanding the structure and behaviour of quasicrystals—structures in which the atoms are arranged but do not repeat—will be made easier for physicists and chemists by a periodic tiling.
  • The recently found tile could serve as a starting point for original artwork.


Competition Commission of India:

  • The Competition Commission of India (CCI) was formally established in March 2009 and serves as a statutory authority of the Indian government charged with upholding the Competition Act, 2002.
  • The Act forbids anti-competitive agreements, controls corporate exploitation of dominant positions, and forbids mergers, all of which have a significant negative impact on competition inside India.
  • One Chairperson and six Members of the Commission are chosen by the Central Government.
  • A quasi-judicial organisation, the commission deals with antitrust matters and provides advice to statutory authorities.

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