Ojaank IAS Academy




09 July 2022 – Current Affairs

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 EX PM of Japan Shinzo Abe death

Paper 2 – International Issues
Why Should You Know?

Japan’s former prime minister Shinzo Abe has died in hospital after he was shot at a political campaign event.

In details –
  • On July 8, 2022 Abe was campaigning in the southern city of Nara for a parliamentary election around 300 miles (480km) from the capital city Tokyo
  • He was giving a speech for political candidate Kei Sato – a current member of the Upper House running for re-election in Nara.
  • At 11:30 local time (02:30 GMT) shots rang out and Abe was shot twice in the neck. He immediately collapsed and was rushed to the nearest hospital
  • Security officials at the scene tackled the gunman and a 41-year-old suspect is now in police custody.
  • The suspect, named as Tetsuya Yamagami, admitted shooting Abe with a homemade gun, and said he had a grudge against a “specific organisation”, police said.
  • Several other handmade weapons, similar to those used in the attack, had been confiscated after a search of the suspect’s house, police officers told a news conference.
  • After four hours of treatment, Abe was pronounced dead at 17:03 local time (08:03 GMT).
  • PM Modi pays tribute to Shinzo Abe, Announces one day national mourning on July 9, 2022.
About shinzo abe –
  • Shinzo Abe was born in 1954 into a political family in Japan. His father “Shintaro Abe” had been the Foreign Minister of Japan while Shinzo Abe’s grandfather “Nobusuke Kishi” had been the Prime Minister of Japan.
  • Abe first became an MP in 1993. He was associated with the “Liberal Democrat” party of Japan.
  • He was appointed Chief Cabinet Secretary by Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi in September 2005, before replacing him as prime minister and LDP president in September 2006. He was subsequently confirmed as prime minister by a special session of the National Diet, becoming Japan’s youngest post-war prime minister, and the first to have been born after World War II.
  • Abe resigned as prime minister just after one year in office due to medical complications from ulcerative colitis, shortly after his party lost that year’s House of Councillors election.
  • After this Shinzo Abe became Prime Minister again in 2012 and till 2020, Prime Minister of Japan. Abe resigned in 2020 due to health issues. However, Abe is still the most popular leader in his party.
  • From 2012 until now, Shinzo Abe has won six elections, including three for the Lower House and three for the Upper House.

National Importance sites associated with Dr. Ambedkar

Paper 1 – History
Why Should You Know?

National Monuments Authority recommends two sites associated with Dr. Ambedkar to be declared as Monuments of National Importance

In details –
  • National Monuments Authority  has recommended two  sites associated with Dr Ambedkar, the Father of Indian Constitution and a great social reformer,  to be declared as Monuments of National importance.
  • NMA has recommended that  Sankalp Bhumi Banyan tree campus in Vadodara, where Dr. Ambedkar had taken a resolve to eradicate untouchability on 23th September, 1917 be declared as Monument of National Importance.
  • This place is more than hundred years old and a witness to the beginning of social respect revolution heralded by Dr. Ambedkar.
  • NMA has also recommended  a place  in Satara (Maharashtra) where Bhim Rao Ramji Ambedkar received his primary education in Pratap Rao Bhosle High School to be declared as monument of National importance.
  • The school register still shows with pride a child student Bhim Rao’s signatures in Marathi.  The school, now under Zila Parishad is in a dilapidated condition.
  • These recommendations have been placed before MoS Culture, Shri Arjun Ram Meghwal by the  National Monuments  Authority.
  • It’s a priceless heritage in the region of social harmony and equality and must be declared and preserved as Monument of National importance, Shri Tarun Vijay ,NMA Chairman said.
What is Monuments of National Importance ?
  • The Monuments of National Importance are designated by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). The union government of India is authorised to maintain, protect and promote the Monuments of National Importance.
  • An Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958 defines an “Ancient Monument” as follows – “Ancient Monument means any structure, erection or monument, or any tumulus or place of interment, or any cave, rock-sculpture, inscription or monolith which is of historical, archaeological or artistic interest and which has been in existence for not less than 100 years.”
  • A “Monument of National Importance” is designated by the Archaeological Survey of India and includes the following –
  • The remains of an ancient monument
  • The site of an ancient monument
  • The land on which there are fences or protective covering structures for preserving the monument
  • Land by means of which people can freely access the monument

Tactical Leadership Programme (TLP)

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?

Indian Air Force (IAF) is participating in tactical leadership programme in Egypt.

In details –
  • Indian Air Force contingent is reaching the midway point of the Tactical Leadership Programme (TLP) at Egyptian Air Force (EAF) Weapon School in Egypt (Cairo West Airbase).
  • The programme commenced on 24 Jun and will culminate on 23 Jul 22.
  • IAF is participating with three Su-30 MKI aircraft. Two C-17 aircraft were used for induction of the contingent.
  • IAF Su-30 MKI aircraft undertook a non-stop ferry of six hours from Jamnagar airbase (India) to Cairo West airbase (Egypt), overflying four countries enroute.
  • During the first two weeks of the exercise IAF aircraft participated in missions by day and night, involving air to ground & air to air combat scenarios and Combat Search And Rescue (CSAR) activity alongside Egyptian F-16, Rafale and Mig 29 aircraft.
What is Tactical Leadership Program?
  • Tactical Leadership Program is a unique exercise, wherein IAF is participating with its aircrew as instructors.
  • This exercise provides a good opportunity to showcase the reach and capability of the IAF.
  • It will also assist in enhancing defence cooperation between the two countries and exchange of best practices.


Paper 3- Security
Why Should You Know?

Recently INS Tarkash visited Djibouti as part of its long range overseas deployment.

In details –
  • Indian Navy’s stealth frigate INS Tarkash, visited Djibouti as part of her long range overseas deployment followed by Maritime Partnership Exercise with Sudan Navy.
  • The ship is on a deployment to Rio de Janerio, Brazil, which is intended to coincide with the Independence Day enabling her to hoist the tricolour in South America on the occasion as part of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav.
  • At the strategically-vital port, Captain Abraham Samuel, Commanding Officer of the ship, called on Shri Ramachandran Chandramouli, Hon’ble Ambassador of India to Djibouti. The Indian Navy maintains continuous presence in the Gulf of Aden region as part of its mission-based deployment philosophy.
  • INS Tarkash also conducted a Maritime Partnership Exercise with Sudan Navy ships Almazz (PC 411) and Nimer (PC 413) in the Red Sea near the Sudan Naval Base on 07 July 2022.
  • The exercise included manoeuvres, flying operations for vertical replenishment, visit and board operations, and communication procedures. It provided opportunity for exchange of professional experiences and strengthening maritime cooperation between the two countries.
  • INS Tarkash is a state-of-the-art platform and has a weapon-sensor fit that enables her address threats in all dimensions.
  • The ship is part of the Indian Navy’s Western Fleet and functions under the operational command of the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Western Naval Command.
  • INS Tarkash (F50) is the second Talwar-class frigate constructed for the Indian Navy. It is part of the second batch of Talwar-class frigates ordered by the Indian Navy.
  • It was built at the Yantar shipyard in Kaliningrad, Russia and commissioned to Navy service on 9 November 2012 at Kaliningrad and joined the Western Naval Command on 27 December 2012.
  • Tarkash belongs to the second flight (F45, F50, F51) of Talwar class of guided missile frigates. These are modified Krivak III-class frigates built by Russia.
  • These ships use stealth technologies and a special hull design to ensure a reduced radar cross section. Much of the equipment on the ship is Russian-made, but a significant number of systems of Indian origin have also been incorporated.
  • The main difference between Tarkash and the earlier flight of Talwar-class ships (F40, F43, F44) is the use of BrahMos missiles in place of the Klub-N missiles in the earlier ships.
  • It is the second of the three frigates built in Russia as a follow-up order to the first batch of Talwar-class frigates.

 Artificial Intelligence in Defence

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?

First ever ‘Artificial Intelligence in Defence’ exhibition & symposium to be held in New Delhi on July 11.

In details –
  • Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh will inaugurate the first ever ‘Artificial Intelligence in Defence’ (AIDef) symposium and exhibition, organised by Department of Defence Production, Ministry of Defence, in New Delhi on July 11, 2022.
  • The event will feature an exhibition to showcase the cutting edge AI-enabled solutions developed by the Services, research organisations, Industry and start-ups & innovators and launch of AI products for the market.
  • Addressing a press conference on the event, Defence Secretary Dr Ajay Kumar said it is a big event where 75 newly-developed AI products/technologies, having applications in defence, will be launched, as part of the celebrations marking 75 years of Independence ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’ and to promote ‘Aatmanirbharta’ initiative in Defence.
  • The products are in the domains of automation/unmanned/robotics systems, cyber security, human behaviour analysis, intelligent monitoring system, logistics and supply chain management, speech/voice analysis and Command, Control, Communication, Computer & Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems and Operational Data Analytics. Besides the 75 products being launched, another 100 are in various stages of development.
  • In addition, two top defence exporters one each from public & private sector will be felicitated during the event.
  • During the Press conference Additional Secretary Shri Sanjay Jaju, responding to a question said that defence exports have crossed the highest ever figure of Rs 13,000 crore in Financial Year 2021-22, with 70% contribution coming from the private sector and the remaining 30% from the public sector.
  • The event will also witness panel discussions on ‘Deploying AI in Defence’, ‘GenNext AI solutions’ and ‘AI in Defence – Industry Perspective’, with active participation from the Services, academia, students, research organisations and Industry.
  • A ‘GenNext AI’ Solutions Competition has been organised to get bright innovative ideas from students on futuristic AI solutions.
  • The top three ideas curated by AI experts will also be felicitated. An exhibition of AI products has also been organised. The event is likely to be attended by dignitaries from friendly foreign countries, senior officials from Ministry of Defence and other Ministries of Government of India, representatives from research institutes, academia and the Industry.
  • It may be recalled that an AI task force on Defence was established in 2018 to provide a road map on promoting AI in defence. Acting on its recommendations, a Defence AI Council, headed by Raksha Mantri, is spearheading the effort.
What is Artificial intelligence (AI) ?
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to the natural intelligence displayed by animals including humans.
  • AI research has been defined as the field of study of intelligent agents, which refers to any system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of achieving its goals.
  • Through artificial intelligence, efforts are being made to make computer systems or machines in such a way that they can easily do the work done by humans.
  • These machines are being made in such a way that they can easily do tasks like making decisions, understanding of right and wrong, visual perception, identifying humans and so on.
  • If said in more simple language, then these machines are being given brain like humans. So that he can also take decisions like humans.
  • John McCarthy was the founder of artificial intelligence. Together with his partners Marvin Minsky, Herbert Simon and Ellen Newell, he founded and researched artificial intelligence. The term artificial intelligence was invented by John McCarthy in the year 1955.

India Stack Knowledge Exchange 2022

Paper 2 – Education
Why Should You Know?

As part of the ongoing Digital India Week 2022 celebrations, the 3-days long virtual event on India Stack Knowledge Exchange kick started on 7th July 2022.

In details –
  • As part of the ongoing Digital India Week 2022 celebrations, the 3-days long virtual event on India Stack Knowledge Exchange kick started on 7th July 2022.
  • The event is an opportunity to showcase India’s most significant contribution to the Digital world – the India Stack, which is a unified software platform to bring India’s 1.4 billion population into the Digital Age.
  • This programme witnessed participation from across the world. The objective is to give an orientation to the basic building blocks of India Stack, which is driving Digital Transformation in India.
  • Indiastack.global was launched by Hon’ble Prime Minister on 4th July 2022, and is a single repository of all major projects on India Stack.
About Digital India Week 2022 –
  • with the theme ‘Catalyzing New India’s Techade’ kicked off on 4th July at Gandhinagar, Gujarat.
  • The July 4th to 9th weeklong event commemorated the path-breaking journey of the flagship initiative of the Digital India Programme that was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
  • The event came in the backdrop of India emerging as the 3rd largest ecosystem for startups globally.
  • Backed by the strong tailwinds created under the umbrella of the Digital India programme and successive campaigns, India has more than 73000 startups and 100+ unicorns.
  • After the watershed year of 2021 which saw a record addition of 44 unicorns despite the Covid onslaught, six months into 2022, has seen 17 startups entering the unicorn club with a total valuation of $ 22 Billion.

PARIMAN: The Geo-Portal

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?

Recently a Geo Portal which name is “PARIMAN” is developed for NCR.

In details –
  • National Capital Region (NCR) is presently spread over 55,083 Sq. Kms and has four participating states (24 Districts and entire NCT of Delhi) as its constituent area.
  • For the purpose of effective utilization of Remote Sensing and GIS technology, a web geo-portal has been developed through National Informatics Centre (NIC), initially for use by NCR Participating states and the Office of NCRPB.
  • The portal name is “PARIMAN” which is “Portal for Analytical Regional Information and Mapping of NCR.”
  • This Geo-Portal will help to improve decentralized planning and management in NCR region.
  • The Portal consists of around 179 Layers presented as Line, Point & Polygon feature covering details of various sectors like Land Use, Transport, Industries, Water, Power, Health, Shelter, Heritage & Tourism, Disaster Management, etc.
  • Geo-Portal for NCR known as ‘PARIMAN’ was launched on 31.08.2021 in the 40th meeting of the Board by Shri Hardeep Singh Puri, Chairman, NCRPB and Union Minister for Housing & Urban Affairs.
  • Now, with an intent of optimum utilization of resources in Public interest, NCRPB has made the Geo-Portal open to Public. The Geo-Portal can be accessed though the NCRPB website and also through the weblink.
Significance –
  • NCR Geo-portal (PARIMAN) is a robust system to facilitate better sub-regional and local planning. This contains various layers collected from authentic sources.
  • The portal has many Base Maps, Satellite Image services and Night Light Data of different time spans. Terrain map provides the Elevation Profile of a route.
  • Administrative units like State Boundaries to Village Boundaries, various Headquarters to Habitations, Parliamentary and Assembly Constituency Boundaries are integrated in this portal.
  • Other layers include Road, Rail and Metro Networks, Points of Interest like Education, Health, Banking, Post Office, Power and Telecom, Industries, Tourism, River and Canal Networks and many more.
  • Area of Interest function facilitates a comprehensive view for any information of a particular State or District or Tehsil.
  • This Geo-portal is an important platform to know where and what exist in National Capital Region (NCR) that enables better planning.

Derecho Storm

Paper 1 – Geography
Why Should You Know?

Recently some states of America were hit by a storm called Derecho, due to which the color of the sky turned green.

In details –
  • In many states of America, the sky is looking completely green at this time. The states of Nebraska, Minnesota and Illinois were hit by a storm system called Derecho on July 5, 2022.
  • As the storm approached, winds were blowing at about 140 kmph. Power lines were snapped and trees were uprooted. Although such incidents keep happening when the storm comes, but it is a bit strange that the sky turns green.
What is a derecho storm?
  • According to the US National Meteorological Department, a derecho is a widespread, long-lasting, straight-line storm.
  • During this “a large level of strong winds blowing in a straight line over a long period of time that cause “rapid rain or thunder.”
  • The name comes from the Spanish word ‘la derecha’ which means ‘straight’.
  • Straight line storms are those in which there is no rotation between the thunderstorms. However the opposite happens during a tornado. That is, there is rotation in the air with thunder. Straight line storms travel hundreds of miles and cover a vast area.
  • Due to warm-weather conditions, derecho storms usually (not always) occur during the summer through early May. It is most killed in June and July.
  • However, compared to other tornadoes or hurricanes, they are a rare occurrence and are very rare.
  • Derecho storms will only say that which will have a wind gust of at least 93 kmph. Apart from this, the wind area extends to more than 400 km.
  • Derechos are commonly found in parts of Central and Eastern America. The year 2009 saw a ‘Super Derecho’ which was the most intense and unusual derecho ever observed, it stretched from Kansas to Kentucky (US state) with wind speeds of 170 kilometers per hour.
  • The first documented derecho was observed in Russia in 2010, the effects of which were also seen in Germany and Finland, and more recently in Bulgaria and Poland.
Why did the sky turn green during the derecho in America?
  • Due to storm, the amount of water in the atmosphere increases. In such a situation, the ‘sky turns green’ during a storm due to the collision of light with a large amount of water.
  • It is believed that large raindrops and hail scatter all other waves except the blue wave. Due to this mainly blue light enters under the storm cloud.
  • It has been said in the report that this blue color combined with the red-yellow color of the afternoon or evening sun gives the green color.

 Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat

Paper 2 – Government Policies
Why Should You Know?

Recently 50 students from Odisha visited Maharashtra under Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav Student Exchange Program.

In details –
  • 50 students from Odisha completed their 5-day visit to Maharashtra recently under the Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav Student Exchange Program.
  • The students reached Mumbai on 29th June as part of the Exchange Program. The exchange programme was facilitated by AICTE and Ministry of Education.
  • The batch of 50 students from Odisha were hosted by the Thakur College of Engineering and Technology, Mumbai and provided them an opportunity to learn about Maharashtra’s language, culture, traditions, music, food etc.
  • The team from Odisha were warmly welcomed and served with the Maharashtra’s favourite cuisine including puran poli, kothimbir, vadi, misal pav and kande poha. Apart from this, LIVE cake making workshop was demonstrated by the pastry chefs from the Thakur Institute of Hotel management which evoked much interest among the students.
Activities –
  • As part of the tour, the students explored various places of historical and cultural significance. They visited the famous Gateway of India, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya, and the National Gallery of Modern Art. Formerly known as the Prince of Wales Museum, the Vastu Sangrahalaya houses a host of relics, artworks and artefacts from the Mughal empire era, Indus Valley Civilization, and displays of Mumbai’s trade relations with other continents.
  • To experience the flora and fauna of the state, the students visited the Sanjay Gandhi National Park which has the unique distinction of being the largest tropical forest anywhere in the world to be completely surrounded by urban sprawl. At the park, the students also got a chance to visit the Kanheri Caves which has around 100 caves that demonstrate unique Buddhist style of art and architecture.
  • Mumbai, which is the entertainment capital of India and the centre of Bollywood, the students visited the National Museum of Indian Cinema in Mahalakshmi. Students also explored Nehru Science Centre in Worli and the Girgaon Viewing Deck. Earlier, students visited the Thakur Institute of Aviation Technology to experience AR VR technology and Thakur Institute of Hotel Management.
  • On the last day of their visit, the students from Odisha along with the volunteers of TCET visited Global Vipassana Pagoda in Borivali. A valedictory function was held, that was marked by cultural performances like Odissi and Bharatanatyam dance by students.
  • During the stay, students from both the states had a chance to exchange views on traditions, culture, lifestyle, education, etc. They engaged in indoor and outdoor activities, fun games and friendly matches.
  • Student’s learning flight controls using a mock up at Thakur Institute of Aviation engineering.
About Ek Bharat Shrestha Bharat –
  • “Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat” was announced by Hon’ble Prime Minister on 31st October, 2015 on the occasion of the 140th birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.
  • Subsequently, the Finance Minister announced the initiative in his Budget Speech for 2016-17.
Objective –
  • Through this innovative measure, the knowledge of the culture, traditions and practices of different States & UTs will lead to an enhanced understanding and bonding between the States, thereby strengthening the unity and integrity of India.
How it works?
  • All States and UTs will be covered under the programme. There will be pairing of States/UTs at national level and these pairings will be in effect for one year, or till the next round of pairings.
  • The State/UT level pairings would be utilized for state level activities. District level pairings would be independent of the State level pairings.
  • The activity will be very useful to link various States and Districts in annual programmes that will connect people through exchanges in areas of culture, tourism, language, education trade etc. and citizens will be able to experience the cultural diversity of a much larger number of States/UTs while realising that India is one.

Coastal fishing

Paper 3- Environment
Why Should You Know?

Recently, researchers told in one of their research that the changing climate has threatened coastal fisheries and agriculture.

In details –
  • Climate change is expected to have a profound impact on major food-producing sectors, including fisheries and agriculture. It is important to understand the magnitude of this loss caused by climate change.
  • To what extent are these changes likely to affect the society? The study was conducted in five Indo-Pacific countries to find out whether people were able to cope with the effects of these changes.
  • The study suggests that people living in coastal areas may face loss of food from both fisheries and agriculture due to climate change.
  • Climate change is expected to have a profound impact on the food producing regions. These effects can be seen in both agriculture and fisheries in tropical regions.
  • This can create a double burden for the villagers living in the coastal areas who are highly dependent on both the areas.
  • For example, by 2100 tropical region climate change could result in the loss of 200 suitable plant growing days each year. Similarly, fishable biomass in the ocean can drop by as much as 40 percent in some tropical regions.
  • Previous research has explored how agriculture and fisheries around the world can combat climate change. But these large-scale forecasts have little to do with the socio-economic impact on a local basis.
  • Joshua Sinar and his colleagues explored the impacts of climate change on agriculture and fisheries for people living in 72 coastal areas in Indonesia, Madagascar, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and Tanzania.
  • The researchers combined socioeconomic surveys from more than 3,000 households with model estimates of crop yield and fisheries losses under a very high-emission scenario (SSP 5-8.5) and a low-emission scenario (SSP 1-2.6).
  • Although communities vary, they are vulnerable within the two countries, communities with low socioeconomic status are particularly vulnerable to severe impacts. The researchers said that fisheries are expected to suffer more losses than agriculture.
  • But many of the communities surveyed will face huge losses to both agriculture and fisheries simultaneously under a very high emissions scenario. The researchers said that under a low-emissions scenario, fewer communities would suffer less loss of both agriculture and fisheries.
  • Researchers said in their conclusion that it may have more benefits than mitigating climate change. This research is published in Nature Communications.

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