Ojaank IAS Academy




1 August 2022 – Current Affairs

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Power Sector’s Revamped Distribution Sector Scheme

Paper 3- Infrastructure
Why Should You Know?
Recently Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi launched Power Sector’s Revamped Distribution Sector Scheme.
In details –
  • The Prime Minister launched the Ministry of Power’s flagship Revamped Distribution Sector Scheme which is aimed at improving the operational efficiencies and financial sustainability of Distribution Companies.
  • With an outlay of Rs.3,03,758 crore over a period of five years from FY 2021-22 to FY 2025-26, the scheme aims to provide financial assistance to DISCOMs for modernization and strengthening of distribution infrastructure, aiming at improvement of the reliability and quality of supply to end consumers. It is also proposed to provide 25 crore Smart Prepaid meters to consumers all over the country.
  • The PM also launched the national portal for Rooftop solar, which will enable online tracking of the process of installation of rooftop solar plants, starting from registering the applications to release of subsidy in residential consumers’ (‘beneficiaries’) bank account after installation and inspection of the plant.
  • The estimated capacity under the national solar rooftop program is 4000 MW. This will be a major step towards realizing the solar rooftop potential of the nation and will contribute towards India’s target to produce 500 GW energy through non-fossil fuels committed in COP-26.
  • During the programme, the Prime Minister also dedicated and laid the foundation stone of various green energy projects of NTPC worth over Rs 5200 crore. He inaugurated the 100 MW Ramagundam Floating Solar Project in Telangana and the 92 MW Kayamkulam Floating Solar Project in Kerala. He laid the foundation stone of the 735 MW Nokh Solar Project in Rajasthan, Green Hydrogen Mobility Project in Leh and Kawas Green Hydrogen Blending with Natural Gas project in Gujarat.
Bijli Mahotsav –
  • As part of ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’ – to celebrate 75 years of India’s Independence, the Ministry of Power and New & Renewable Energy are organizing ‘Bijli Mahotsav’ across all districts of India from 25th to 31st July 2022 under the umbrella of Ujjwal Bharat Ujjwal Bhavishya – Power @ 2047 through active public participation and driven by the collaboration of the state and the Central Governments.
  • Key achievements of Power Sector are being highlighted through these events.
  • Bijli Mahotsav kickstarted on 25th July 2022 across various Districts in the country.
  • Over the last few days more than 1500+ events/ activities were organized at district level in coordination with District administration and was attended by Hon’ble Union Ministers, MPs, State Ministers, and MLAs among other dignitaries in large numbers.
Projects launched –
  • The Ramagundam project is India’s largest floating solar PV project with 4.5 lakh ‘Made in India’ solar PV modules.
  • Kayamkulam project is the second largest floating solar PV project consisting of 3 lakh ‘Made in India’ solar PV panels floating on water.
  • The 735 MW Solar PV Project at Nokh, in Jaisalmer, Rajasthan is India’s largest Domestic Content Requirement based Solar project with 1000 MWp at a single location, deploying high-wattage bifacial PV Modules with a tracker system.
  • The Green Hydrogen Mobility Project at Leh, Ladakh is a pilot project and aims for five Fuel Cell Buses to be run in and around Leh. This pilot project would be the first deployment of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles for public use in India.
  • The Green Hydrogen Blending Pilot Project at NTPC Kawas Township will be India’s first Green Hydrogen Blending Project helping in reducing the usage of natural gas.
National Portal for Rooftop solar –
  • With the launch of this Portal, it will be very simple for a residential consumer to apply and get the solar rooftop solar installed.
  • The consumers will have the choice to select, any vendor registered with the local distribution company, solar modules of equality and efficiency, solar inverter and other balance of plants and equipment.
  • The process of registration of vendors with the distribution company has been made simple, they have to just submit a declaration along with a PBG amount of Rs. 2.5 lakh and they will get registered.
  • These vendors will also get access to provide their information and rates on the National Portal so that any consumer willing to install rooftop solar can contact them and get the rooftop solar installed through mutually agreed rates.
  • The process of registration of the application to release of subsidy in the bank account of the consumer can be tracked online on the Portal.
  • This simplification will fasten the installation of rooftop solar in the country and the targeted 4,000 MW capacity under the Rooftop Solar Programme Phase-II would be achieved. The Programme will benefit more than 10 lakh households.
  • With the installation of rooftop solar, a household consumer will not only save on electricity bill but will also be able to contribute towards addition of green energy and achieving of national goals.


Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?
Indian Army’s joint military exercise “Ex Vinbax 2022” with Vietnam People’s Army is going to start in Chandimandir from August 1.
In details –
·The 3rd Edition of Vietnam India Bilateral Army Exercise “Ex VINBAX 2022” is scheduled to be conducted at Chandimandir from 01 to 20 Aug 2022.
·The exercise is a sequel to previously conducted bilateral exercise in Vietnam in 2019 and a major milestone in strengthening the bilateral relations between India and Vietnam.
·India and Vietnam share a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership and defence cooperation is a key pillar of this partnership. Vietnam is an important partner in India’s Act East policy and the Indo-Pacific vision.
·The theme of Ex VINBAX – 2022 is employment and deployment of an Engineer Company and a Medical Team as part of United Nations Contingent for Peace Keeping Operations.
·India has a rich legacy of deployment of troops in United Nations missions and has some of the best capacities to impart United Nations peace operations training incorporating best practices and hands on training to prospective United Nations peacekeepers at tactical, operational & strategic levels.
·The conduct of Ex VINBAX – 2022 as a field training exercise with enhanced scope from previous editions of bilateral exercise will strengthen mutual confidence, inter-operability and enable sharing of best practices between the Indian Army and Vietnam People’s Army.  
·The joint exercise will also provide an opportunity to the troops of both the Contingents to learn about the social and cultural heritage of each other. Indian Army is being represented by troops from the 105 Engineer Regiment.
·A 48 hours Validation Exercise is part of the schedule to assess the standards achieved by both contingents while executing technical military operations under similar scenarios in UN missions.
·A Humanitarian Assistance & Disaster Relief demonstration and equipment display will showcase India’s capacity to undertake rescue and relief operations during natural and manmade disasters utilising indigenous solutions.
About Vietnam –
  • Vietnam,officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is a country in Southeast Asia.
  • Vietnam borders China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west, and shares maritime borders with Thailand through the Gulf of Thailand, and the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia through the South China Sea.
  • Vietnam’s land is mostly hilly and densely forested, with level land covering no more than 20%. Mountains account for 40% of the country’s land area,and tropical forests cover around 42%.
  • Its capital is Hanoi and largest city Ho Chi Minh City. Vietnamese Dong is the official currency of Vietnam.
  • Fan Si Peak, also called Fan Si Pan, also spelled Phang Xi Pang, also called Hoang Lien Son, highest peak (10,312 feet [3,143 metres]) in Vietnam.

Joint Exercise “Al NAJAH-IV”

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?
Royal Army of Oman Contingent for Joint Exercise Al NAJAH-IV Arrive in India.
In details –
  • The 4th Edition of India Oman Joint Military Exercise ‘AL NAJAH-IV’ between contingents of Indian Army and the Royal Army of Oman is scheduled to take place at the Foreign Training Node of Mahajan Field Firing Ranges (Rajasthan) from 01 to 13 August 2022.
  • The Royal Army of Oman contingent comprising 60 personnel from the Sultan of Oman Parachute Regiment have arrived at the exercise location.
  • The Indian Army is represented by troops from the 18 MECHANISED INFANTRY Battalion.
  • The previous edition of Ex AL NAJAH IV was organised at Muscat from 12 to 25 March 2019.
  • The scope of the exercise includes professional interaction, mutual understanding of drills & procedures, establishment of joint command & control structures and elimination of terrorist threats.
  • The joint exercise would focus on Counter Terrorism Operations, Regional Security Operations and Peace Keeping Operations under United Nations charter apart from organising joint physical training schedules, tactical drills, techniques and procedures.
  • A comprehensive training programme to culminate in a 48 hours long validation exercise involving establishing of joint mobile vehicle check posts, joint cordon and search operations followed by joint room intervention drills in a built up area has been worked out.
  • The joint military exercise aims to enhance the level of defence co-operation between Indian Army and Royal Army of Oman and will further manifest in enhancing the bilateral relations between the two nations.

Indian Knowledge Systems

Paper 2 – Social Issues
Why Should You Know?
The Indian Knowledge System (IKS) division, celebrated the vast richness of Bharat’s knowledge traditions in the form of an IKS Mela from 29th – 31st July 2022.
In details –
  • On July 31, 2022 The Minister of State for Education Shri Subhas Sarkar addressed the valedictory session of Indian Knowledge Systems Mela in New Delhi.
  • The Indian Knowledge System (IKS) division,  an innovative cell under Ministry of Education (MoE) at AICTE, New Delhi celebrated the vast richness of Bharat’s knowledge traditions in the form of an IKS Mela from 29th – 31st July 2022.
  • The gala event by the IKS Division and AICTE in collaboration with the Ministry of Culture started on 29th July, to commemorate the successful completion of two eventful years of NEP 2020.
  • The focus of the event was to engage deeply with experts on NEP2020 and learn about the different initiatives, policies, and best practices.
  • IKS Division announced major initiatives such as IKS-MIC programe for technology demonstration, Launch of Kalashala initiative in 750+ schools to promote  and support local arts and Introduction of 75 Bharteeyea games in schools.
Objectives of this Mela –

The objectives of this Mela were:

  • To present the achievements of NEP2020 after two years of its acceptance highlighting the role of IKS.
  • To make NEP2020 into a movement called BhaSVAn – Bharata Svadhyaya Andolanam for national introspection and self-discovery through the indigenization of education.
  • To make NEP2020 the basis for forging a common Bharatiya identity which will promote excellence, integral growth and the celebration of unity in diversity through the presentation of the skills, arts, sciences and technologies of different regions upholding common values.
  • To serve as a platform that will bring together different Ministries to co-evolve the Bharatiya identity across converging initiatives on the basis of IKS in NEP2020.
Activities –
  • There were exciting activities designed and planned for children and their families with 15 art & culture stalls focussing on the lesser-known Kalashalas in addition to the panel discussions and conversations.
  • There were many hands-on creative activities wherein 8 traditional artists with expertise in Handmade paper artwork, Madhubani art, toys made from clay, puppet show doll making etc conducted workshops with children.
  • The second days concluded with splendid Kalari and classical dance performances by 33 artists from 2 IKS centres and 8 artists from CCRT. The children who completed  the one-hour workshop were awarded with E-Certificates.  Event witnessed approximately footfall of around 2000 people in 3 days of the event.
About IKS division –
  • Established in October 2020 , Indian Knowledge System (IKS) is an innovative cell under Ministry of Education (MoE) at AICTE, New Delhi.
  • It seeks to promote interdisciplinary research on all aspects of IKS, preserve and disseminate IKS for further research and societal applications, actively engage for spreading the rich heritage of our country and traditional knowledge in the field of Arts and literature, Agriculture, Basic Sciences, Engineering & Technology, Architecture, Management, Economics, etc.

Chief Minister’s Breakfast Scheme

Paper 2 – Social Issues
Why Should You Know?
Recently Tamil Nadu government started ‘Chief Minister Breakfast Scheme’.
In details –
  • The Tamil Nadu government on July 27, 2022 issued an Order to implement the first phase of the ‘Chief Minister’s Breakfast Scheme’ at 1,545 government primary schools to benefit more than 1.14 lakh children in Classes I-V across the State during 2022-23, at a total cost of ₹33.56 crore.
  • Under the scheme, breakfast would be provided to students up to Class V in these government schools on “all working days,” a G.O. issued by Chief Secretary V. Irai Anbu said. As much as possible, breakfast prepared with millets available in the region could be provided to students at least on two days every week.
  • More than 43,600 students studying in schools in Municipal Corporations, more than 17,400 studying in those in Municipalities, more than 42,800 in village panchayat limits and more than 10,100 students in remote and hilly areas would benefit under the scheme, which is said to be “first-of-its-kind in the country.”
  • Every student is to be provided a cooked meal of 150-500 gram breakfast with sambar with vegetables. The G.O. followed an announcement made by Chief Minister M. K. Stalin in the floor of the Assembly on May 7 this year that a breakfast scheme would be rolled out in government schools to encourage them and to ensure their nutrition.
History –
  • it was then president of Madras Municipal Corporation Sir Pitti Thyagaraya, who introduced the breakfast scheme in Thousand Lights area based on a resolution adopted on September 16, 1920. The scheme was later expanded to benefit more than 1,600 pupils.
  • In 1957, then Chief Minister of then Madras State (renamed Tamil Nadu in 1967) K. Kamaraj introduced the mid-day meals scheme. In 1982, then Chief Minister M. G. Ramachandran announced a scheme for ensuring nutritious meals to students in primary schools and it was rolled out in a school at Pappakurichi in Tiruchi district on July 1, 1982.
  • In 1989, Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi announced in the Assembly that eggs would be provided once in two weeks as part of the nutritious meal. In the Budget presented on July 23, 1998, the government announced that eggs would be provided once every week.
  • In 2007, eggs were given three days a week. A year later, the scheme was modified to provide bananas to students who did not consume eggs and to provide eggs five days a week.

Death due to monkeypox

Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?
Kerala reports India’s first suspected death due to monkeypox
In details –
  • India’s first suspected death due to monkeypox has been recorded from Kerala July 30, 2022. The 22-year-old resident of Thrissur had recently returned from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), state health minister Veena George said.
  • His test was conducted abroad and the report was shared with the authorities only on July 30. His samples have now been sent for confirmation to the National Institute of Virology’s regional centre in Alappuzha.
  • George was quoted in media reports as saying that the youth had no symptoms of monkeypox. He had been admitted to the hospital with symptoms of encephalitis and fatigue.
  • His relatives had handed over the test result only on July 30. She added that a high-level probe would be held into the death as monkeypox had a very low fatality rate.
  • India has recorded four confirmed cases of monkeypox — three from Kerala and one from Delhi.
  • The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has now activated 15 labs across the country to conduct preliminary tests for monkeypox, with confirmatory tests being conducted at NIV-Pune.
  • The institute has also isolated the virus successfully and invited bids from manufacturers to develop vaccines and diagnostic tests.
  • This takes the global death toll of monkeypox to nine, with Spain reporting two fatalities July 30, where one patient also had encephalitis.
  • It is noteworthy that Brazil was the first country outside Africa to report a monkeypox associated death in the current outbreak. According to the country’s health ministry, the 41-year-old was already suffering from lymphoma and a weakened immune system, with “comorbidities (aggravating) his condition”.
  • Prior to this, three deaths in Nigeria and two in the Central African Republic have been recorded this year.
  • This comes on the heels of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaring monkeypox a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) July 23 after the Executive Committee reconvened for the second time.
  • WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus overruled a committee of experts who could not come to a consensus.
  • “We have an outbreak that has spread around the world rapidly, through new modes of transmission, about which we understand too little and which meets the criteria in the International Health Regulations,” he had said. Prior to this, only polio and COVID-19 were ongoing PHEIC.
  • Cases have now risen to more than 16,000 from across the world.

Indian and French Navies Exercise

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?
Indian and French navies recently concluded an exercise in the Atlantic.
In details –
  • INS Tarkash, on her long range overseas deployment, conducted a Maritime Partnership Exercise (MPX) with French Naval Ships in the North Atlantic Ocean on 29 and 30 July 2022.
  • Replenishment at sea was exercised between Tarkash and the French Fleet Tanker FNS Somme.
  • This was followed by joint air operations with the maritime surveillance aircraft Falcon 50 participating in multiple simulated missile engagements and air defence drills.
  • Successful conduct of these surface and aerial exercises symbolise the high degree of professionalism and interoperability that exists between the two navies.
About INS Tarkash –
  • constructed for the Indian Navy. It is part of the second batch of Talwar-class frigates ordered by the Indian Navy.
  • These are modified Krivak III-class frigates built by Russia. These ships use stealth technologies and a special hull design to ensure a reduced radar cross section. Much of the equipment on the ship is Russian-made, but a significant number of systems of Indian origin have also been incorporated.
  • It was commissioned to Navy service on 9 November 2012 at Kaliningrad and joined the Western Naval Command on 27 December 2012.

Modernisation of Armed Forces

Paper 3- Security
Why Should You Know?
Recently, the Raksha Rajya Mantri Shri Ajay Bhatt gave information about Modernisation of Armed Forces.
In details –
  • Modernisation of Defence Armed Forces involves the acquisition of platforms, technologies and weapon systems to upgrade and augment Defence capabilities and is a continuous process based on threat perception, operational necessities and technological changes to keep the Armed Forces in a state of readiness to meet the entire spectrum of security challenges.
  • Government attaches highest priority to ensure that the Armed Forces are sufficiently equipped to meet any operational requirement, which is achieved through induction of new equipment and technological upgradation of capabilities.
  • The equipment requirements of the Armed Forces are planned and progressed through a detailed process which includes Ten Years Integrated Capability Development Plan(ICDP), Five Years Defence Capability Acquisition Plan (DCAP) and Annual Acquisition Plan (AAP) and deliberations by the Defence Acquisition Council chaired by the Raksha Mantri.
  • To enhance the strategic capabilities and develop advanced technology/products the following   initiatives/policies have been taken/made by the Government:
  • DRDO has established 05 DRDO Young Scientist Laboratories (DYSLs) to provide solutions in advanced technology areas viz artificial intelligence, quantum technologies, cognitive technologies, asymmetric technologies and smart materials to tackle emerging challenges in military warfare.
  • Announcement of 18 major defence platforms for industry led Design & Development in March 2022.
  • Notification of three ‘Positive Indigenisation lists’ of total 310 items of services and two Positive Indigenisation lists of total 2958 items of DPSUs for which there would be an embargo on the import beyond the timelines indicated against them.
  • Launch of innovations for Defence Excellence (iDEX) scheme involving start-ups & Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs).
  • Launch of an indigenisation portal namely SRIJAN to facilitate indigenisation by Indian industry including MSMEs.
  • Opening up of Defence Research & Development (R&D) for industry, start-ups and academia with 25% of defence R&D budget earmarked to promote development of defence technology in the country.

MyGov Portal

Paper 2 – Governance
Why Should You Know?
Recently Shri Ashwini Vaishnaw, Minister of Electronics & IT inaugurated “8 years of MyGov” event in New Delhi.
In details –
  • Shri Ashwini Vaishnaw, Minister of Electronics and IT kicked off a daylong event to celebrate “8 Years of MyGov” in New Delhi on July 30, 2022.
  • The event also witnessed the presence of dignitaries including CEO NITI Aayog Shri Parameswaran Iyer, G20 Sherpa Shri Amitabh Kant and Secretary of Capacity Building Commission Shri Hemang Jani.
  • The Union Minister Shri Ashwini Vaishnaw also launched ‘Responsible AI for Youth 2022′.
“Responsible AI for Youth 2022” Programme –
  • The Union Minister Shri Ashwini Vaishnaw launched ‘Responsible AI for Youth 2022′.
  • Responsible AI for Youth was created by the National E-Governance Division, Ministry of Electronics & IT in collaboration with Intel India and the support of the Ministry of Education.
  • The Program will be open to all school students studying in classes 8-12 across India to foster a deeper understanding of AI-tech and encourage youngsters to become human-centric designers.
About MyGov –
  • MyGov (mygov.in), the Government of India’s citizen engagement platform, was launched on 26th July 2014 by Hon’ble Prime Minister Narendra Modi and has been built on the three pillars of ‘Do’, ‘Discuss’ and ‘Disseminate’. 
  • It is aimed at creating a common platform for Indian citizens to “crowdsource governance ideas from citizens”.
  • Its users discuss and contribute to various government projects and plans.
  • It also allows users to upload documents in various formats. The website is hosted and managed by the National Informatics Centre (NIC).
  • Since then, MyGov has evolved as the one stop destination for citizens to contribute their unique skills towards nation-building.
  • At the same time, MyGov has played a pivotal role in bridging the communication gap through seamless dissemination of information in various creative formats and mediums such as videos, infographics, podcasts, interactive dashboards etc.
  • With over 2.5 crore registered citizens, MyGov has effectively blended creativity and latest technology through various offerings such as discussions, innovation challenges, quizzes, creative contests, pledges and polls.
  • Some of the most prominent logos of the Government of India including Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav, Digital India, PM Jan Dhan Yojana and Swachh Bharat have been created by MyGov Saathis through various contests on the platform.
  • Some of the most notable campaigns steered by MyGov in the last year include Seva Samarpan (20 years of Good Governance), Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav, Sabka Vikas Maha Quiz and Agniveer.
  • Speaking of its impact in numbers, MyGov has cumulatively amassed 1.4 billion views on various sections, pages and microsites. Over 42 crore messages were sent out to 9 crore users through the MyGov helpdesk and chatbot launched for the dissemination of COVID-19 related information.
  • Over 4 crore IVRS messages and more than 3.8 Lakh ideas have been received for PM Narendra Modi’s radio programme Mann Ki Baat.
  • MyGov also has a presence across various social media platforms with over 13 Lakh followers on Facebook, 21 Lakh followers on Instagram, 6 Lakh subscribers on YouTube, 30 Lakh followers on Twitter and millions of followers across Sharechat, Roposo, Koo and Chingari.

Gun Hill

Paper 3- Security
Why Should You Know?
Recently, Point 5140 located in Kargil was renamed as ‘Gun Hill’, lets know about it.
In details –
  • To commemorate the victory of Indian Armed Forces and pay tribute to the supreme sacrifice of the Gunners in “Operation Vijay”, Point 5140 at Dras, in Kargil sector has been christened as “Gun Hill”.
  • Regiment of Artillery of Indian Army, with lethal and accurate firepower, was able to have a telling effect on the enemy troops and their defences including Point 5140, which was the key factor in early completion of operations.
  • On behalf of the Regiment of Artillery, a wreath was laid by Lieutenant General TK Chawla, Director General of Artillery at Kargil War Memorial, Dras, alongwith Veteran Gunners who had participated in the operation. Lieutenant General Anindya Sengupta, General Officer Commanding, Fire & Fury Corps also laid a wreath on the solemn occasion.
  • The ceremony was conducted in the presence of Veterans from all Artillery Regiments, which got the honour title “KARGIL” in Operation Vijay. Serving Officers of the Gunner fraternity were also present on the occasion.
  • It is noteworthy that On July 26, 1999, the Indian Army announced the successful culmination of ‘Operation Vijay’, declaring victory after a nearly three-month-long battle with Pakistani troops on the icy heights of Kargil in Ladakh.
About Kargil Vijay –
  • Kargil Vijay Diwas is commemorated every 26 July in India, to observe India’s victory over Pakistan in the Kargil War for ousting Pakistani Forces from their occupied positions on the mountain tops of Northern Kargil District in Ladakh in 1999.
  • The town of Kargil is located 205 km (127 mi) from Srinagar, facing the Northern Areas across the LOC.
  • Initially, the Pakistani army denied their involvement in the war, claiming that it was caused by Kashmiri militants forces.
  • However documents left behind by casualties, testimony of POWs and later statements by the Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif and Pakistan Army Chief of Army Staff Pervez Musharraf showed the involvement of Pakistani paramilitary forces, led by General Ashraf Rashid.
  • Kargil Vijay Diwas is celebrated on 26 July every year in honour of the Kargil War’s Heroes. This day is celebrated all over India and in the national capital, New Delhi, where the Prime Minister of India pays homage to the soldiers at Amar Jawan Jyoti at the India Gate every year.
Operation Vijay –
  • The Kargil War, also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict fought between India and Pakistan from May to July 1999 in the Kargil district of Jammu and Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LoC).
  • In India, the conflict is also referred to as Operation Vijay which was the name of the Indian military operation to clear out the Kargil sector.
  • The Indian Air Force’s role in acting jointly with Indian Army ground troops during the war was aimed at flushing out regular and irregular troops of the Pakistan Army from vacated Indian positions along the LoC.This particular operation was given the codename Operation Safed Sagar.
  • The cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani troops—disguised as Kashmiri militants—into positions on the Indian side of the LoC,which serves as the de facto border between the two states in Kashmir.

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