Paper 3 – Biodiversity
Why You Should Know?
Recently Hearing a plea to protect the endangered bird Great Indian Bustard (GIB), the Supreme Court if a ‘Project GIB’, on the lines of ‘Project Tiger’, could be launched.
In detail –
What is the Great Indian Bustard?
- This large bird, found mainly in Rajasthan and Gujarat, has been categorised as critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
- While the GIBs’ historic range included much of the Indian sub-continent, it has now shrunk to just 10 per cent of that.
- Among the heaviest birds with flight, GIBs prefer grasslands as their habitats.
- The terrestrial birds spend most of their time on the ground, feeding on insects, lizards, grass seeds, etc.
- GIBs are considered the flagship bird species of grassland and hence barometers of the health of grassland ecosystems.
Why is the Great Indian Bustard endangered?
- Among the biggest threats to the GIBs are overhead power transmission lines.
- Due to their poor frontal vision, the birds can’t spot the power lines from a distance, and are too heavy to change course when close. Thus, they collide with the cables and die.
- According to the Wildlife Institute of India (WII), in Rajasthan, 18 GIBs die every year after colliding with overhead power lines.
- The Supreme Court in April 2021 ordered that all overhead power transmission lines in core and potential GIB habitats in Rajasthan and Gujarat should be made underground.
- During Recent’s hearing, the court sought reports from the chief secretaries of Rajasthan and Gujarat in six weeks on installation of bird diverters (reflector-like structures strung on power cables) in priority areas.
- It also asked them to assess the total length of transmission lines that need to go underground in the two states.
- Also, in 2015, the Centre had launched the GIB species recovery programme.
- Under this, the WII and Rajasthan forest department jointly set up breeding centres where GIB eggs harvested from the wild were incubated artificially.
About The Great Indian Bustards –
- The Great Indian Bustard or Son Bird is one of the heaviest flying birds in the world, this bird is mainly found in the Indian subcontinent.
- Like an ostrich, GIB has a long neck, long bare legs. Their length is about one meter and weight is between 10 and 15 kg.
- GIB has the ability to fly at altitudes ranging from 20 to 100 meters.
- GIB was once the pride of The States of Punjab , Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, including Uttar Pradesh, today it has been reduced to Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
- The GIB, which is the state bird of Rajasthan, is also considered india’s most critically endangered bird and is protected under the Wildlife Protection Act.
- About 150 people in Rajasthan make up 95% of the world’s population.
- In 2019, the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change in association with the Wildlife Institute of India Dehradun has launched a programme for conservation of the Great Indian Bustard
- During the British period, due to indiscriminate hunting, the number of GIB started decreasing.
- Due to this existential crisis, the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources has placed GIB in the Red Data Book of threatened species.
- Infact, today this crisis has deepened because the grasslands considered to be their main habitats have started shrinking.
- The lack of Direct Vision ability of GIB has also proved fatal for it. They are also having unnatural deaths by colliding with electric wires.
- If they continue to die at this rate, there is a fear of GIB’s complete demise in the near future.
- Another reason for their declining numbers is a low fertility, the average lifespan of the Great Indian Bustard is 15 or 16 years and the reproductive age of the male Great Indian Bustard is 4 to 5 years, while for the female it is 3 to 4 years.
- A female Great Indian Bustard lays only one egg in 1 to 2 years and the survival rate of the chick coming out of it is 60%-70%.
- The GIB was added to the World List of Protected Species of the ‘Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals’ during its 13thconference in Gandhinagar in 2020. Pakistan is a signatory to the Conference of parties (COP).
Sources – IE
Paper 3–Science & tech
Why Should You Know?
On November 23, e-services at the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) were crippled by what is being suspected to be a ransomware attack.
In details –
What is ransomware?
- Ransomware is a type of malicious software, used by cyber criminals, to infect a computer system by blocking access to the stored data by encrypting the files.
- A ransom is then demanded from the owner in exchange for the decryption key.
- While it is not yet clear as to how exactly the AIIMS computer systems were targeted, the malware may usually be injected remotely by tricking the user into downloading it upon clicking an ostensibly safe web link sent via email or other means, including hacking.
- It can spread throughout the network by exploiting existing vulnerabilities. Ransomware attacks can also be accompanied by theft of sensitive data for other sinister motives.
- In India, several cases of ransomware attacks targeting commercial and critical infrastructure have been reported in the recent past.
- In May, Spicejet had faced such a threat, while Public Sector Undertaking Oil India was targeted on April 10.
- Cybersecurity firm Trellix, in its third-quarter global report, has identified 25 major ransomwares in circulation.
- According to the Interpol’s first-ever Global Crime Trend report presented at its 90th General Assembly meeting in Delhi this October, ransomware was the second highest-ranking threat after money laundering, at 66%. It is also expected to increase the most (72%).
Deal with cyber-attacks
- Set up in 2004, the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) is the national nodal agency that collects, analyses and circulates inputs on cyber-attacks; issues guidelines, advisories for preventive measures, forecasts and issues alerts; and takes measures to handle any significant cyber security event. It also imparts training to computer system managers.
- The National Cyber Security Coordinator, under the National Security Council Secretariat, coordinates with different agencies at the national level on cybersecurity issues, while the National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre has been set up for the protection of national critical information infrastructure.
- According to the government, the Cyber Swachhta Kendra (Botnet Cleaning and Malware Analysis Centre) has been launched for detection of malicious software programmes and to provide free tools to remove the same, while the National Cyber Coordination Centre works on creating awareness about existing and potential threats.
These are some best practices recommended by CERT-In
- Maintain regularly offline data backups — the backup data needs to be encrypted, immutable and should cover the entire organisation’s data infrastructure;
- regularly check data and code/scripts integrity;
- all accounts should have strong and unique passwords;
- have an account lockout policy;
- multi-factor authentication for all services to the extent possible;
- have separate administrative network from business processes with physical controls and Virtual Local Area Networks, no unnecessary access to administrative shares;
- a host-based firewall should be installed to only allow connections to such shares via server message block from a limited set of administrator machines; disable remote desktop connections;
- have the least-privileged accounts for remote desktop usage; have a proper Remote Desktop Protocol logging and configuration, and spam-proof email validation system;
- anti-virus software should be updated;
- users must not open attachments or URL links (even ostensibly benign) in unsolicited e-mails and use secure web browsers, etc.
Sources – TH
UNDP’s plastic waste management programme
Paper 3 – Environment
Why You Should Know?
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is helping the people working in the waste segregation industry in India to move into formal economy, by helping them access government welfare programmes.
In detail –
- As part of the initiative, the United Nations Under-Secretary-General Usha Rao-Monari would distribute the `Jan Dhan’ account kits to waste segregation workers during her first visit to the country, on December 1.
- The opening of the `Jan Dhan’ accounts has been facilitated through the UNDP’s plastic waste management programme.
- The waste management promotes the collection, segregation, and recycling of all plastics to move towards a circular economy for the same.
- This is done at ‘Swachhta Kendra’ or material recovery facilities. The plastic collected and processed so far has already crossed 1,38,000 metric tonnes.
Financial inclusion of `SafaiSathis’
- The programme also ensures the well-being and financial inclusion of the `SafaiSathis’ or waste-pickers, by linking them to the social protection schemes.
- According to the UN agency, a key objective of the programme is to help move the sector from informal to formal.
- So, the UNDP has been assisting the ‘SafaiSaathis’, who contribute immensely to resource management and yet occupy the lowest rung of the ladder of the circular economy.
- This is done by linking them to social protection schemes like the `Jan Dhan’ accounts, Aadhar cards, `Ayushman Bharat’, pension schemes, and scholarships for children, among others.
- A baseline survey done by the UNDP earlier shows that the ‘SafaiSathis’ are employed mainly on the margins of the urban informal sector.
- Their low income and job security are compounded by the fact that nearly 70% come from socially- backward groups and over 60% have no formal education.
- More than 90% workers reported owning an Aadhar card but only a tiny subset have an income, caste, or occupation certificate.
- The survey says, “This thwarts any attempts at formalising their work and limits their access to government social security schemes.
- Less than 5% of those surveyed had any health insurance, indicating very high degrees of health-shock vulnerabilities”.
- Of those `SafaiSathis’ who had a bank account, only 20% were linked to the `Jan Dhan Yojana’ – the government’s flagship financial inclusion programme.
- Half of the samples reported owning and using a ration card and this proportion was even smaller in cities where migrants formed a larger share among surveyed workers.
About plastic waste management programme
- India generates 15 million tonnes of plastic waste every year but only one fourth of this is recycled due to lack of a functioning solid waste management system. This leads to burden on the landfills and poor socio-economic conditions of the waste pickers, mostly women.
- United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) India, in partnership with Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Private Limited (HCCBPL), Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL), HDFC Bank & Coca Cola India Foundation (CCIF) is building on existing systems to reduce the impact of plastic waste on environment in India.
- The partnership promotes collection, segregation and recycling of all kinds of plastics to move towards a circular economy.
This project aims to:
- Create a socio-technical model for taking plastic waste management from informal to formal economy
- Establish Material Recovery Centres for sustained practices in waste management
- Institutionalize SwachhtaKendras within governance framework
- structures and improved socio-economic conditions of waste pickers.
- Develop technology-supported knowledge management:PromoteCloud-based traceability, accountability and digital governance along waste value chain through our technical partner Mindtree through field implementing partners.
Sources – TH
Great Barrier Reef
Paper 1 –Geography
Why You Should Know?
UN panel recommended that Australia’s Great Barrier Reef should be listed as a world heritage site that is “in danger”.
In detail –
- Frequent bleaching events are threatening the reef, including four over the last seven years and the first during a La Nina phenomenon, which typically brings cooler temperatures, this year.
- Bleaching happens when the water warms too much, causing corals to expel the colourful algae living in their tissues and turn white.
- Australia’s government has pledged to spend A$1.2 billion ($800 million) in coming years to protect the reef. The parliament in September passed a legislation for net zero emissions by 2050.
- Canberra has lobbied for years to keep the reef – which contributes A$6.4 billion ($4.3 billion) to the economy – off the endangered list as it could lead to losing the heritage status, taking some shine off its attraction for tourists.
- Last year, Australia dodged an “in danger” listing for the reef after heavy lobbying by the previous government led UNESCO to postpone a decision to this year.
About Great Barrier Reef
- The Great Barrier Reef is the world’s largest coral reef system.
- it iscomposed over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2,300 kilometres (1,400 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (133,000 sq mi).
- The reef is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia, separated from the coast by a channel 100 miles wide in places and over 200 feet deep.
- The Great Barrier Reef can be seen from outer space and is the world’s biggest single structure made by living organisms.
- This reef structure is composed of and built by billions of tiny organisms, known as coral polyps.
- It supports a wide diversity of life and was selected as a World Heritage Site in 1981.
- A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, which helps to limit the impact of human use, such as fishing and tourism.
- The Great Barrier Reef supports an extraordinary diversity of life, including many vulnerable or endangered species, some of which may be endemic to the reef system.
- Due to its vast biodiversity, warm clear waters and accessibility from the tourist boats called “live aboards”, the reef is a very popular destination, especially for scuba divers. T
- Climate change, pollution, crown-of-thorns starfish and fishing are the primary threats to the health of this reef system.
- Other threats include shipping accidents, oil spills, and tropical cyclones.
- Skeletal Eroding Band, a disease of bony corals caused by the protozoan Halofolliculinacorallasia, affects 31 coral species.
Source – HT
Paper 3 –Biodiversity
Why You Should Know?
The Food Safety and Standard Authority of India (FSSAI) has approved the Himalayan Yak as a ‘food animal’.
In detail –
- The move is expected to help check the decline in the population of the high-altitude bovine animal by making it a part of the conventional milk and meat industry.
- Food Animals are those that are raised and used for food production or consumption by humans.
- The National Research Centre(NRC)-Yak had in 2021 submitted a proposal to the FSSAI, for considering the yak as a food animal.
- The FSSAI responded with an official approval recently after a recommendation from the department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying.
- FSSAI’s recognition of Yak as food producing animal will help farmers benefit economically for rearing the animal and it will open up several vistas of economic benefits for both farmers and food processors
- The animal play multi-dimensional socio-cultural-economic role for the pastoral nomads who rear yaks mainly for earning their nutritional and livelihood security due to virtual inexistence of other agricultural activity in the high reaches of Himalayan region.
- Traditionally, yaks are reared under transhumance system which is primitive, unorganised and full of hardship.
- Yak farmers produce various traditional meat products. These products are confined to local community level, produced and sold locally, Yak meat is known to be very lean and it is better than beef.
- the Yak population in the country is decreasing at an alarming rate over the years.
- As per the latest census carried out in 2019, India has 58,000 yaks which is around 25 per cent drop from last livestock census carried out in 2012.
- The decline in yak population could be attributed to less remuneration from yak and so the younger generations are reluctant to continue with nomadic yak rearing.
- It is mainly because yak milk and meat are not a part of the conventional dairy and meat industry; their sale is limited to local consumers.
- Yak milk is highly nutritious, rich in fat, contain essential minerals and have medicinal value.
- Yak is a herbivorous mammal of the Bovidae family of the Ungulata group, whose habitat is the high plateau of Tibet.
- This is a type of wild animal of the cow race, some species of which have been domesticated, but some still live in the wild in the forests.
- In India it is found around northern Ladakh at an altitude of 15-20 thousand feet. These animals are used to carry goods and travel between India and Tibet.
- Yak is also called Chamri and Suragai, in which the big yak is the largest in height.
- Yak’s shoulder is high, back is flat, legs are short and stocky. The hair on its back and sides of the body is short, but the hair on the lower chest and upper legs is longer. Its tail is very dense, round and shaggy, which is used to make chamar.
- The wild type of skin is black, but domesticated yaks are also black, white and brindle. Some part near their muzzle remains white and after getting old, some part of the back of the males becomes dirty.
- Yaks are not bigger than domesticated cows, but due to high shoulders and long hair, they appear more robed than them.
- Wild yaks, which are larger than domesticated yaks, are six feet high and about seven feet long. The female is slightly smaller than the male.
- Yaks are straightforward and timid animals, but attack fiercely when injured. Their main food is grass. They drink a lot of water and keep quenching their thirst by eating snow in winter.
- Yak is a very useful animal for the people of Tibet. The people there eat its milk and meat, as well as ride on it and use it to carry goods.
- The female of Yak gives birth to one child on 257 and 270 days. The female finds a secluded spot to give birth, but the calf is able to walk within ten minutes of birth and both soon rejoin the herd.
Source – TH
Paper 1 –Art & Culture
Why You Should Know?
On 30 November 2022 The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi addressed the Manipur Sangai Festival via video message.
In detail –
- Labelled as the grandest festival in the state, the Manipur Sangai Festival helps in promoting Manipur as a world-class tourism destination.
- The festival is named after the state animal, Sangai, the brow-antlered deer found only in Manipur.
- The festival is an opportunity for artisans and weavers to showcase their creativity and talent through the indigenous forms of handicrafts and handlooms.
- One can also have insights about the living-style of various tribes through the themed huts display at the heritage park.
- Locals exhibit their skills in the native sports which includes the famous martial art of Manipur – Thang Ta (a combination of Spear & Sword skills) along with other sports.
- SagolKangjei is the indigenous form of polo that is extensively played here.
- Apart from these sports, one may also enjoy and indulge in adventure sports like trekking, white water rafting and parasailing at various locations.
About Sangai festival
- Sangai festival is an annual cultural festival organised by Manipur Tourism Department every year.
- Even though many editions of this Festival has been celebrated over the past few years with the name of Tourism Festival, since 2010 this has been renamed as the Sangai Festival to stage the uniqueness of the shy and gentle brow-antlered deer popularly known as the Sangai, a regional name given to this rare species of deer. It is the state animal of Manipur.
- As this festival is being celebrated to promote Manipur as a world class tourism destination, it showcases the states contributions to art and culture, handloom, handicrafts, fine arts, indigenous sports, cuisine, music and adventure sports, as well as the natural environment.
- it is celebrated in different parts mainly in the valley areas of imphal.
- Many tourists come from all over the world and represent their craft making.
Sources – TOI
International Conference on Cement, Concrete and Building Materials
Paper 2 – International Relations
Why You Should Know?
National Council for Cement and Building Materials (NCB) is going to organize International Conference on Cement, Concrete and Building Materials.
In detail –
- National Council for Cement and Building Materials(NCB), a premier R&D institute under Administrative Control Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Govt. of India, is organizing 17th International Conference on Cement, Concrete and Building Materials.
- This year’s theme of the conference is “Moving towards Net Zero Carbon Emission”.
- The biennial event is being organized this year from 6-9 December, 2022 at Manekshaw Centre, New Delhi.
- These conferences have emerged as a single largest event in this part of the globe, in which the cement and construction industry all over the world look forward to participation.
- The forthcoming conference has received overwhelming response from various industrial sectors, Government, academia, machinery manufacturers & consultants from India and across the globe.
- Besides panel discussions and keynote addresses from eminent speakers from industry and academia, about 150 technical papers shall be presented close to 20 technical sessions.
- More than 80 leading equipment manufacturers and service providers of India and the world, will also showcase their technological prowess, new products and services in a Technical Exhibition, in sync with conference
- National Council for Cement and Building Materials (NCB), then Cement Research Institute of India (CRI) was founded on 24th December 1962 with the objective to promote research and scientific work connected with cement and building materials trade and industry.
- Today, NCB is the premier body under the administrative control of Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Govt. of India, for technology development, transfer, continuing education and industrial services for cement and construction industries.
- NCB’s areas of work span over the entire spectrum of cement manufacturing and usage – starting with geological exploration of raw materials through the processes, the machinery, the manufacturing aspects, energy and environmental considerations to the final utilization of materials in actual construction, third party quality assurance services of construction projects, condition monitoring & rehabilitation of buildings and structures.
- It serves as the nodal agency for providing the Government the necessary support for formulation of its policy and planning activities related to growth and development of cement and construction industry.
- It is devoted to protect the interests of consumers of cement and concrete in the country. NCB’s stakeholders are Government, Industry and Society, who perceive NCB’s role as discharging national responsibility, providing adequate technology support and improving the quality of life respectively.
- Research and development of innovative technologies, their transfer and implementation in partnership with cement and construction industries
- To enhance quality, productivity and cost-effectiveness
- To improve the management of materials, energy and environmental resources.
- To develop competency and productivity in human resources.
- To develop technologies for durable infrastructure and affordable housing
Sources – AIR
BIS Standardization Chair Professor
Paper 3 – Economy
Why You Should Know?
Bureau of Indian Standards(BIS) signs MoU with top six engineering institutes of India for introducing Indian standards as a part of curriculum
In detail –
- Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with top six engineering institutes of India for introducing Indian standards as an integral part of the curriculum.
- This is initiative is towards institutionalizing engagement of BIS with the eminent institutes for securing active participation of academia.
- The MoU was signed with Indian Institute of Technology BHU, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Indian Institute of Technology Madras and National Institute of Technology Trichy on 28 November 2022 for establishment of ‘BIS Standardization Chair Professor’ at these institutes.
- The establishment will promote excellence and leadership in teaching and research & development in the field of Science and various disciplines in the respective institutes.
- The MoU between the premium academic institutes & BIS would strengthen and enhance the standards formulation activity by facilitating Research & Development projects,
- encouraging involvement of young minds in the area of standardization process and jointly organizing seminars, conferences, workshops symposia or lectures, training and short-term education programs.
About Bureau of India Standards –
- The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is the National Standards Body of India under Department of Consumer affairs,Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, Government of India.
- It is established by the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 2016 which came into effect on 12 October 2017.
- Earlier its name was ‘Indian Standards Institution -ISI’ which was established in the year 1947.
- A new Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) Act 2016 which was notified on 22 March 2016, has been brought into force with effect from 12 October 2017.
- The Act (BIS Act-2016) establishes the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) as the National Standards Body of India.
- BIS was established for the harmonized development of standardization, marking and quality certification activities of goods and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
Sources – PIB
Paper 3 – Environment
Why You Should Know?
SumangalamPanchmahabhoot Conference Series VAYU- The vital life force to be held in Bhubaneswar.
In detail –
- To celebrate the spirit of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav in the 75th year of Independence and channel dialogue on need for clean air in the country, a conference titled ‘Vayu – The vital life force’ is being organized at Siksha O Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha from December 02 – 04, 2022.
- This Conference is focused on varied air quality issues ranging from scientific discussions on climate change and pollution control to enriching our understanding on air quality from ancient scriptures and texts.
- According to the concept of Panchmahaboot everything in nature is made up of five elements Earth, Water, Fire, Air, and Space.
- The imbalance or threat to any of these elements threatens the wellbeing of humanity.
- Thus, the clean air is vital to sustain life force and good health.
- The aim of the Vayu conference is to build upon the multidimensional efforts taken by Governments to achieve our air quality targets as set in National Clean Air Program by uniting all the important stakeholders.
- To celebrate the achievements of our cities in their efforts to achieve clean air targets, ‘National Clean Air City’ award based on Swachh Vayu Sarvekshan will be given to best performing nine cities for meeting air quality targets and implementation of corrective, preventive and mitigation actions.
- Total cash prize of about Rs. 05 Crores will be awarded to these cities to motivate them to take further concrete action towards clean air goals.
About the conference
- To constructively engage the youth of the country and give them a platform to present their innovative ideas to solve air quality challenges, an engaging youth session has been organized on December 02, 2022, wherein students will be involved in scholar sessions on atmospheric science, climate change, human health, heritage studies, agriculture issues and mitigation measures.
- An exhibition to raise public awareness on air quality, natural alternatives and showcasing heritage of Odisha will also be held.
- The conference will be attended by more than 500 participants comprising experts, students, academicians, State Pollution Control Boards, Pollution Control Committees, Municipal Commissioners, State Environment Secretaries, scientists, and engineers.
- It will be a mega participatory event to nurture Jan Bhagidari in the ongoing celebrations under Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav.
Sources – PIB
Paper 3 – Science & Tech
Why You Should Know?
The Manthan platform won NSEIT the Best Tech Initiative of the Year at the Dun & Bradstreet Business Excellence Awards 2022 on 29th November 2022 during an event in Mumbai.
In detail –
- The award was presented for building the technology infrastructure to support Manthan, a platform that promotes collaboration at scale between industry and the scientific research and development ecosystem.
- The development of the platform was conceptualized and implemented by the Office of the Principal Scientific Adviser (PSA) to the Government of India.
- Manthan is aimed at promoting collaboration between industry and the scientific research and development ecosystem.
- Launched on India’s 76th Independence Day, Manthan empowers multiple stakeholders to collaborate for co-creating solutions aligned with the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and our national scientific missions.
Dun & Bradstreet Business Excellence Awards 2022
- Dun & Bradstreet is a global provider of B2B data, insights, and AI-driven platforms for organizations around the world.
- Since 1841, companies of every size have relied on Dun & Bradstreet to help them manage risk and reveal opportunity.
- The Dun & Bradstreet SME and Mid-Corporate ‘Business Excellence Awards 2022’ is an endeavor to acknowledge and recognize the achievements and performance of SMEs and Mid-Corporates.
- The award covers 23 categories largely based on business performance parameters.
- The award nominations were reviewed by a distinguished jury panel featuring experts from the banking and energy development sectors.
- NSEIT Limited is a global technology enterprise focused on delivering excellence in a complex digital environment, primarily in the banking, insurance, and capital market ecosystem, and a 100% subsidiary of the National Stock Exchange of India.
- Their key service pillars are Application Modernization, Business Transformation, Data Analytics, Infrastructure & Cloud Services, Cybersecurity, EdTech, and online examinations solutions.
Sources – PIB