Doctrine of Pleasure
Paper 2 – Polity
Why You Should Know?
Recently, major differences between Kerala Governor Arif Mohammed Khan and the state government have been deepening on several issues.
In detail –
- Recently, the Governor of Kerala publicly tweeted that he has directed the Vice Chancellors of 9 universities of the state to resign.
- Following this, vice-chancellors, including the state government, refused to obey his order.
- However, the Kerala High Court later asked vice-chancellors of eight of those nine universities to continue working in their respective posts.
- The controversy was brewing when his anger flared up at the state finance minister. He asked CM Pinarayi Vijayan to remove him from the cabinet.
- In his letter to Vijayan to the CM, he said the finance minister gave a speech at a university on October 19 in which he tried to stoke the fire of regionalism and provincialism and undermine India’s unity.
- At the same time, he defied the terms of his oath. In that speech, the Kerala finance minister had made scathing remarks on the governor.
- However, the CM refused to listen and said Bal Gopal would continue to be the minister.
- The Governor then got more angry and said it was his constitutional right to recommend for the minister’s removal. Since then, the issue has been gaining momentum.
What is the Doctrine of Pleasure?
- Doctrine of Pleasure is a common law. The origin of this theory is from England.
- The Doctrine of Pleasure is a special interest of the British Crown. In England, a servant of the Crown holds office during the Crown’s offerings and can be dismissed from the Service of the Crown at any time.
- The term of office of a civil servant can be terminated at any time without any reason. Even if a special contract exists between the Crown and the civil servant concerned, the Crown is not obligated to it.
- Civil servants can be dismissed without notice and they cannot claim damages for wrongful dismissal or immaturity of service.
- The Crown is not bound by any special contract between it and the civil servant.
- In other words, even if a public servant is removed before the expiry of the job period, he cannot demand the remaining salary from the Monarch or the Crown. This is called the “Doctrine of Pleasure”.
Doctrine of pleasure under the Indian Constitution
- This british principle has been adopted by Article 310 of the Indian Constitution, according to which the public servants of the Union hold office till the pleasure of the President and the public servants of the state hold office till the pleasure of the Governor.
- Pleasure’s theory under the Indian Constitution is also based on the same policy considerations as it existed under common law in England.
- The tenures of persons serving the Union or the State are expressly provided by this Constitution.
- Every person who is a member of a defence service or a civil service of the Federal or service of all India or maintains any post associated with any State or in any civil post under the Union, holds tenure during the president’s pleasure.
- And every person who is a member of a civil service of the State or holds any civil post under the State during the pleasure of the Governor of the State.
- It is the general rule that operates except what is expressly provided for by the Constitution. This means that the principle is subject to constitutional limitations.
- While Pleasure’s theory is accepted as it has evolved in England, it has not been fully accepted in India.
- This is subject to the provisions of Article 311 which provides for procedural safeguards for civil servants.
Role of Governor in parliamentary system-
- Articles 153-161 of the Constitution describe the position, role, powers and conditions of office of the Governor.
- The governor’s position is similar to that of the president in the Union. He is the head of the executive power of the state, and, except in a few cases, acts on the advice of the Council of Ministers, which, according to the parliamentary system, is responsible to the state legislature.
- The Governor is appointed by the President (on the advice of the Central Government) and, therefore, acts as an important link between the Central and State Governments.
- The term was envisaged as being apolitical; However, the role of governors has been a contentious issue in Centre-state relations for a decade.
- The governor enjoys certain powers such as approving or withholding a bill passed by the state legislature or determining the time required for a party to prove majority — or which party should be called first to do so, usually after a hung assembly — which successive central governments have weaponised against political opposition.
Can the Governor dismiss a Minister?
- Article 164(1) says that “ministers shall hold office until the pleasure of the Governor”.
- The Governor of Kerala was referring to this provision. The Governor does not need to take anyone’s advice while appointing the Chief Minister, he can appoint a Minister only on the recommendation of the Chief Minister.
- The governor does not have the power to choose anyone to be made a minister.
- So if a minister really lowers the dignity of the governor or his office, as alleged by Khan’s office, the Raj Bhavan can ask the chief minister to inquire.
- If it is found that the minister has defamed or insulted the governor, he can ask the chief minister to remove the minister.
Source – TH
Paper 2 – Health
Why You Should Know?
South Indian actress Samantha Ruth Prabhu is suffering from a disease called myositis these days, let’s know what is this myositis disease?
In detail –
- Myositis is caused by inflammation in the muscles.
- Myositis is considered an autoimmune condition in which the muscles of the body are extremely affected.
- The prevalence of this condition is about 4-22 cases per one lakh population. Women are more likely to be affected by this disease than men.
- According to the researchers, myositis can be caused by autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus and viruses such as the common cold, flu and HIV drug side effects.
- There are five types of myositis- dermatomyozygositis, inclusion-body myositis, juvenile myositis, polymyositis, toxic myositis.
- Talking about its common symptoms, it has muscle aches and pains, fatigue, trouble swallowing, and difficulty breathing.
- It usually affects the muscles of the arms, shoulders, legs, hips, abdomen and spine.
- In advanced stages it can affect the esophagus (food pipe), diaphragm and eye muscles.
- Patients usually experience difficulty standing after sitting, climbing stairs, and lifting objects.
- According to the researchers, there is no medical treatment for myositis yet. But in this disease, along with physical treatment, exercise, stretching and yoga, immunosuppressant medicines are given.
- Which helps to keep the muscles strong and flexible. It also helps prevent muscle weakness.
- If you notice symptoms of myositis, you are advised to contact the doctor as soon as possible. So that this disease can be treated in time.
Paper 3 – Disaster
Why You Should Know?
Recently, a cable bridge over the Machhu river in Morbi, Gujarat, suddenly collapsed, causing several people to fall into the river.
In detail –
About Morbi District
- Morbi district was created on August 15, 2013 along with several other new districts. The district has five talukas — Morbi, Malia, Tankara, Wankaner and Halwad. Wankaner was earlier in Rajkot district, and Halvad was in Surendranagar district.
- The district is bounded by Kutch district to the north, Surendranagar district to the east, Rajkot district to the south and Jamnagar district to the west.
- Morbi is famous for its ceramic industry. Several hundred ceramic productionunits, mainly medium and small scale units, are functioning in the district .
- About 70 per cent of India’s ceramics are produced in Morbi, and ceramic tiles manufactured here are exported to countries in the Middle East, East Asia and Africa.
- Morbi’s ceramic industry has an annual turnover of Rs 50,000 crore and its annual exports are around Rs 15,000 crore. The major competition for the Morbi ceramic industry comes only from China.
About Machhu River
- Morbi town is located 35 km from sea on Machhu river and 60 km from Rajkot. It is the administrative headquarters of the district.
- Machhu is a small river that originates from the Madla hills and flows 130 km in the Rann of Kutch.
- In 1979, after a dam on the river failed, a major tragedy ensued, morbi town was inundated and a large number of people died –
- Some estimates put the death toll at 25,000. A Gujarati film titled Machhu was also made on the failure of this dam .
‘Jhulto bridge’ over river
- The suspension bridge, “Jhulto Bridge”, was a pedestrian bridge inaugurated in 1879 during the reign of Sir Waghji Raoji,
- It was completed in 1880 at a cost of around Rs 3.5 lakh. All the stuff came from England.
- Thakur Sahib of Morbi (1858-1922) Sir Waghji is credited with planning and building the entire city.
- Morbi, which includes India’s first Art Deco palace and a European-style central square known as Green Chowk.
- The official website of Morbi district says the bridge spanned 233 metres and was 1.25 metres wide.
- It connected Darbargarh Palace and Lakhdhirji Engineering College in the city.
- The bridge was a tourist attraction, and had long been known as a spectacular engineering marvel.
- The bridge was closed for renovation two years ago, and reopened to the public only on October 26 this year.
- It is alleged that this bridge was opened to the public without conducting a safety audit , as well as more people were present on this bridge at the time of the accident, due to which this bridge could not bear that load and broke.
- The rescue operation was launched immediately after the accident. Along with the police and administration, local people also joined in help.
- SRP team with three platoons each of NDRF and SDRF, Garud commandos of Indian Navy and Indian Air Force besides 7 teams of fire brigade were deployed in the rescue work.
Sources – IE
White-Winged Wood Duck
Paper 3 – Biodiversity
Why You Should Know?
Recently, researchers have said in one of their research that climate change is pushing the state bird of Assam towards extinction.
In detail –
- The state bird of Assam, the white-winged wood duck (Asarcornis scutulata), locally called the Dev Han or divine bird. It is an endangered forests wetland-dwelling species.
- Researchers have warned that the Indian Eastern Himalayas (IEH) region is on the verge of extinction due to the impact of climate change and other anthropogenic pressures.
- Many bird species are being affected due to climate change around the world.
- In the Indian Eastern Himalayas (IEH) region, particularly Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur, more than half of the 800 global population of white-winged wood ducks live 450, declared as an endangered species by the International Union for conservation of nature (IUCN) in 1999.
- This bird species is found in India and some other countries that share the border of the Northeast. This bird was declared the state bird of Assam in 2003.
- A study of the effects of climate change on Assam’s state bird has said that 436.61 square kilometres of habitat will be destroyed by 2070.
- Tropical forests are great for white-winged wood duck populations to live in. It is anticipated that climate change will have a profound impact on tropical forest ecosystems around the world.
- Under the impact of climate change worldwide, a large part of the natural habitat of white-winged wood ducks is expected to be destroyed from 2050 to 2070, the study said.
- An area with an annual average temperature range of 22 to 30 degrees Celsius and an annual rainfall of 1,000 to 1,200 mm is most likely to have bird species, the study said. But except Meghalaya, climate change is expected to lead to a decline in the potential distribution in every state.
- According to the study, changes in the annual temperature range, precipitation in the warmest months (June to September), and a decrease in precipitation in the warmest quarter (October to December) will be major bio-climatic changes, leading to maximum loss of habitats.
- Areas on the Bhutan and Assam border will increase the ability of white-winged wood to support ducks as the species requires an average annual rainfall of about 1,000-1,200 mm, it said.
- The study further said that due to climate change, anthropogenic hazards such as habitat loss, fragmentation of forest, destruction of habitat, water pollution and drying up of water bodies have reduced the population of bird species in their natural habitat.
- Hunting and collecting eggs for food is further endangering their survival.
- In the tropical forests of Assam, the decline in white-winged duck population has been observed mainly due to destruction of forest habitats and cleaning of forests near water bodies.
Source – DE
Paper 2 – Health
Why You Should Know?
A new study by a researcher at the School of Medicine at Indiana University has revealed that exposure of women to the herbicide glyphosate during pregnancy can make babies weigh less than normal at birth.
In detail –
- Research has also revealed that due to this, the risk of keeping newborns in the intensive care unit also increases much more.
- During this time, about 99 percent of pregnant women involved in the study have been confirmed to have glyphosate in their bodies.
- Earlier, researchers had conducted a similar study in 2018, in which glyphosate was confirmed to be found in 93 percent of pregnant women.
- That study also showed its effects on the duration of pregnancy, according to research, due to this herbicide, the duration of pregnancy in women was reduced. Not only this, this has also been confirmed in other recently published studies.
- Exposure to pesticides during pregnancy, especially in early pregnancy, can affect DNA and cause changes in genes.
- However, he says that little information is available about how these chemicals can affect the human embryo and its development.
- Previous studies have shown that not only farmers but other people who consume foods can also be exposed to glyphosate, even packaged foods are not safe from it.
What is Glyphosate?
- Glyphosate is a chemical commonly found in herbicide roundups. It is used to kill weeds in fields.
- Not only this, this weedicide is extensively used all over the world to kill weeds along gardens, playgrounds, roads and rail tracks along many crops like maize, wheat, soy and cotton.
Banned in India
- If seen, its use has increased manifold during the last years. Their use has also picked up, especially after the promotion of GM crops.
- Another research on this has shown that while its total consumption by farmers globally was 51 million kg in 1995, it increased by 14.6 times to 747 million kg in 2014.
- At the same time, there was a more than 9-fold increase in its use in the US agricultural sector.
- At the same time, if its use in sectors other than agriculture has increased five times in this period, it has increased from 16 million kg in 1995 to 79 million kg.
- Significantly, in view of its danger in humans and animals, the Indian government has banned the use of herbicide glyphosate and its components in India a few days ago.
- Farmers around the world have been using it for weed control for more than 40 years. which is affecting the health of farmers and others who come in contact with it.
- Glyphosate and its formulations are widely registered and are currently used in more than 160 countries, including the European Union and the US.
Harmful to children
- Studies on humans have shown that it can cause problems like obesity or diabetes in women with low birth weight in children.
- In such a situation, this herbicide needs to be studied for a long time, so that it can be known how they are causing these problems and what can be done to prevent them.
Sources – DE
Earth Surface Mineral Dust Source Investigation (EMIT)
Paper 3 – Science and Technology
Why You Should Know?
Recently, Gujarat Chief Minister Bhupendra Patel has decided to set up a committee to implement the Uniform Civil Code in the state.
In detail –
- NASA scientists have created a new tool to find out how dust affects the climate.
- They have identified more than 50 locations around the world using this tool that emit the most methane.
- It is a tool that can help combat powerful greenhouse gas.
- This exciting new development will not only help researchers better detect methane emissions, but also provide information on how they can be prevented rapidly.
- NASA’s new instrument Earth Surface Mineral Dust Source Investigation (EMIT) has been created to promote understanding of the effects of airborne dust on climate.
- EMIT, which was installed on the International Space Station in July it can monitor small areas equivalent to a football field. It has the ability to detect the presence of methane.
- More than 50 methane gas “largest emitters” have been identified so far in Central Asia, the Middle East and the southwestern United States, NASA said. Most of them are associated with fossil fuels, waste or agricultural sectors.
Methane is responsible for temperature rise
- Methane is responsible for about 30 percent of the rise in temperature worldwide to date.
- While it is in much smaller amounts in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide (CO2), it is about 28 times more potent as a greenhouse gas. In a 20-year time frame, it is 80 times more powerful.
- Methane remains in the atmosphere for only a decade, compared to hundreds or thousands of years of CO2.
- This means that a rapid reduction in emissions could reduce several tenths of projected global warming by mid-century.
- According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), it could help keep alive the Paris Agreement’s goal of limiting the rise in the earth’s average temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
- According to NASA, EMIT will potentially find hundreds of the largest emitters, some of them previously observed through air, space or ground-based measurements and others that were unknown.
- Some of the methane plumes discovered by EMIT are by far the largest observed.
- Nasa said a methane plume about 3.3 kilometers long was detected southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in the Permian Basin, one of the world’s largest oil fields.
What is methane plume?
- Methane usually leaks from oil and gas places during maintenance tasks, for example, when fixing valves or pipelines, or from compressor stations – facilities that maintain the flow and pressure of natural gas.
- It is also produced in landfills, agriculture, and coal production.
- Twelve methane-emitting sites were identified from oil and gas infrastructure in Turkmenistan, east of the Caspian Sea port city of Thousand.
- Nasa said at least a 4.8-kilometer-long methane plume was detected from a major waste processing complex south of Tehran.
Source – DE
India Water Week
Paper 3 – Natural Resources
Why You Should Know?
India Water Week is being observed from November 1 to 5, 2022.
In detail –
- The 7th edition of India Water Week (IWW) is being organized by the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, Government of India from 1st to 5th November.
- It aims to spread awareness about efforts to conserve water resources and their integrated use.
- The platform will be used to elicit views and opinions of global-scale decision makers, politicians, researchers and entrepreneurs.
- The theme of the 7th India Water Week is “Water Security for Sustainable Development and Equity”.
About the program
- The event will be inaugurated by Her Excellency The President, Smt. Draupadi Murmu. Their presence will be inspiring for all towards water challenges and management.
- The five-day event will bring together experts, planners and stakeholders from across the world on one platform.
- The programme will address issues of sustainability of water resources development and management in line with the Sustainable Development Goals
- The programme will address issues of sustainability of water resources development and management in line with the Sustainable Development Goals.
- Seminars, panel discussions, exhibitions and cultural programmes will be organised during the event.
- Denmark, Singapore and Finland will be the partner countries for the event.
- The programme will be addressed by Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Ministry of Power, Ministry of Rural Development, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Department of Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, various State Governments, Expert Organizations, Public Sector Undertakings , is being organised by major international bodies and private and public business groups.
- The theme of IWW-2022 will be held along with a multidisciplinary conference and parallel-running exhibition showcasing the technologies and solutions available to the areas under consideration during the conference.
- The multidisciplinary dialogue in the form of a conference of discussions on the theme “Water Security for Sustainable Development and Equity” will be one of the key components of the event.
- In this, a large group of international and national level eminent personalities will share their experiences in the field of water management.
- In addition, an exhibition will also be held in parallel to the theme of the event, showcasing technologies, latest developments and solutions available for the areas of water management for sustainable development.
- Exhibitors will get an opportunity to interact directly with thousands of potential customers, highly qualified visitors, promote opportunities and enhance brand visibility/image to explore joint ventures to expand their business in the fast-growing India’s water market.
- Four technical sessions will be held during the event — 10 seminars, 10 panel discussions, programmes organised by the Ministry of Jal Shakti and CWC, NMCG, NRCD, NWM and several other divisions.
- Apart from this, many programs are being organized by young professionals, World Bank, school children, ICID, IWRS, NGOs etc. working continuously towards conservation and management of this precious natural resource. Also, one will be organized by Denmark.
Water Resources of India
- India’s water resources are very important for the economy here because a large population of India is dependent on agriculture and Indian agriculture is largely dependent on rainwater.
- Most of the irrigated area is by tubewells and India is also the world’s largest ground water user.
- The amount of rainfall in India is very high, but this rainfall is not equal in the twelve months of the year but occurs in a particular season, due to which a lot of rain water flows without any use.
Availability of water resources
- India accounts for about 2.45 per cent of the world’s surface area, 4 per cent of water resources, about 16 per cent of the population.
- The total amount of water received from precipitation in the country in a year is about 4,000 cubic km. 1,869 cubic km of water is available from surface water and replenishment ground water.
- Of this, only 60 per cent of the water can be used profitably. Thus, the total utilizable water resources in the country is 1,122 cubic km.
- The availability of water resources in India is linked with lifestyle and culture at the regional level. At the same time, substantial inequality exists in its distribution.
- According to a study, 71% of the water resources in India are limited to 36% of the country’s area and the remaining 64% of the area has only 29% of the country’s water resources.
- However, looking at the total numbers, the demand for water in the country seems to be less than full. According to a study conducted in 2008, the total water availability in the country was 654 billion cubic meters and the total demand at that time was 634 billion cubic meters.
- At the same time, several studies have also clarified that the difference between demand and supply can take a worrying form in the near future.
Paper 3 – Environment
Why You Should Know?
Income Tax department constructs vertical garden using discarded plastic bottles
In detail –
- The Income Tax Department has come up with a unique idea to tackle plastic waste in urban areas and address concerns of construction of green spaces.
- This wonderful fantasy focuses on the concept of creating vertical gardens or greener walls using waste plastic bottles, led by IRS officer Mr. Rohit Mehra.
- He has executed this brilliant suggestion by using waste plastic bottles as containers to build vertical gardens on the walls of government buildings.
- Under this initiative, waste plastic is being recycled and reused for positive work towards the environment, which in a way seeks to address the two concerns simultaneously.
What is Vertical Garden?
- Nowadays, vertical gardening is becoming popular due to lack of space in the flats of people living in homes and big cities,
- In this place, different types of trees can be planted in less space.
- In this, trees and plants are grown on the boundary wall or walls of the house instead of growing on the ground, which also uses the unused space of the house.
- Hanging pots on indoor or outdoor walls, windows and placing pots in grow bags or in plant stands is called vertical gardening and the garden thus prepared is called vertical garden, also called vertical garden or vertical garden.
- The initiative has been replicated at various locations across the country at several government buildings including income tax offices and guest houses.
- Not only is plastic reused by this idea but it also leads to beautification of buildings.
- Not only this, this unique initiative also helps in reducing pollution in the surrounding area.
- So far, as per this concept, more than 7 lakh waste plastic bottles have been reused and more than 7 lakh saplings have been planted.
- As many as 900 such vertical gardens have been built in 17 states of India and more than 50 districts across the country.
- This has led to 70 tonnes (approximately) of single-use waste plastic being reused, otherwise it would have been transported to landfills.
- Also, the country’s largest vertical garden made of waste plastic bottles at an income tax office is located in Ludhiana. It is spread over an area of 10,135 square feet and is also ranked in the Limca Book of Records.
- This initiative has also been taken forward by the department in collaboration with other organizations and institutions to create vertical gardens.
- Such gardens have been built on walls in schools, colleges, gurdwaras, government buildings, IITs, court complexes, police stations, jails, corporate houses, industrial-houses, hotels, bridges and flyovers, etc.
- The initiative currently covers cities like Amritsar, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Roorkee, Bathinda, Sangrur, Patiala, Chandigarh, Jammu, Vadodara, Delhi, Surat and Mumbai.
Sources – PIB
‘India Chem 2022’
Paper 3– Economy
Why You Should Know?
‘India Chem 2022’ is being held on November 2-3.
In detail –
- Dr. Mansukh Mandaviya, Union Minister of Health & Family Welfare and Chemicals & Fertilizers will inaugurate it at Pragati Maidan in New Delhi on November 2, 2022.
- The theme is “Vision 2030: Chemicals and Petrochemicals Build India” .
What is India Chem?
- India Chem which is a flagship event of the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers and is one of the largest overall events of the industry in the Asia-Pacific region
- It includes an international conference and exhibition.
- The department is organising the 12th edition of India Chem in association with the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI).
About ‘India Chem 2022’
- ‘India Chem 2022’ will showcase the government’s policy for sustainable development in the region as well as provide a platform for national and international players to interact, exchange knowledge and build mutual cooperation.
- The event will also highlight investment opportunities especially in petroleum, chemical and petrochemical investment sectors (PCPIR) and focus on the “Make in India” initiative to make the country self-reliant.
- Events like Global CEO, Round Table during India Chem 2022; Conference on Indian Chemicals and Petrochemicals; argo-chemical industry; plant machinery, pumps, and valves; Chemicals and Petrochemicals Forums of India-US, Indo-EU and India-East-Asia and International Exhibition will be held.
Backbone of economy
- The Indian chemical and petrochemical industry is the backbone of the Indian economy and plays an important role in the development of various key sectors such as automotive, construction, electronics, healthcare, textiles and FMCG.
- The Indian chemical industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. It is currently ranked third in Asia and the world’s sixth largest market in terms of production after the United States, China, Germany, Japan and Korea.
- The chemical industry is the mainstay of the country’s industrial and agricultural development and provides building blocks for many downstream industries such as textiles, paper, paints, soaps, detergents, pharmaceuticals, varnishes, etc.
- Covering more than 80,000 products, this industry provides a large number of services in the end-use application industry.
- In India, it is estimated that more than 2 million people are employed in this industry.
- Indian chemicals exports have registered a whopping 10.6 per cent growth in 2021-22 over 2013-14.
- India’s chemicals exports for 2021-22 have reached a record level of USD 29,296 million, compared to USD 14,210 million in 2013-14.
Sources – PIB