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                                    Appointment of DGP’s

GS Paper -II


Context- The Nagaland government selected the State Director General of Police (DGP) in accordance with Supreme Court orders.

After the Nagaland government contested the Union Public Service Commission’s (UPSC) recommendation of the officer as the lone contender for the job, the Supreme Court (SC) instructed the Nagaland government to select a 1992-batch IPS officer as the state DGP.

What is the Appointment Process?
  • The Supreme Court’s decision on police reforms in Prakash Singh versus Union of India is followed in the nomination of the State DGP. According to the recommendations, states must compile and submit to the UPSC a list of qualified officers with at least 30 years of service, as well as their service records, performance reviews, and vigilance clearance.
  • These officials must be of the ADG or police chief (and one below) rank specified for the state. The UPSC is meant to receive the list six months before the existing DGP retires.
  • An empanelment commission led by the UPSC chairman, and having the union home secretary, state chief secretary, state DGP, and the chief of a central police agency in it, is expected to pick a panel of three officers “based on merit”.
  • The committee is intended to provide two names for smaller states that may only have one cadre post of DGP.
  • The approval of an officer is not necessary under the guidelines for his/her posting. Furthermore, the Centre has the authority to refuse to release an officer for a posting in the state.
  • The Supreme Court has ruled in rulings issued in 2018 and 2019 that no officer with fewer than six months to retirement shall be appointed to the UPSC panel.
Prakash Singh Judgement
  • Select the state’s DGP from among three senior-most officers of the department nominated for promotion to that rank by the UPSC, and give him with a minimum tenure of at least two years, regardless of his date of superannuation.
  • The UPSC must prepare the panel based on seniority, service record, and breadth of experience. The Supreme Court has also often emphasised “merit” as the foundation for nomination.
Issues with Appointments
  • The nominated DGP officer spent their whole term in interim status, which is a violation of the Supreme Court’s decision, which states that no police chiefs should be appointed on a temporary or ad hoc basis.
  • Senior officers object to the selection of junior officers as DGP based on seniority. The UPSC defended its judgement in court, citing merit above seniority.
  • Officers are occasionally granted tenure extensions above the two-year limit.
  • The centre has the authority to refuse to release an officer for posting in a state that the state recommends on the list, resulting in a fine.
Way Ahead
  • The States and UPSC should follow the Prakash Singh Judgement and the orders passed in 2018 and 2019 for the appointment process where SC clarified: None of the states shall ever conceive of the idea of appointing any person on the post of DGP on an acting basis for there is no concept of acting Director General of Police.
  • The UPSC shall not appoint any officer who has less than six months till retirement to the panel.

Source – The Hindu


            Explained: Status and proceeds of Disinvestment

GS Paper- III


Context- The government has set a disinvestment objective of 51,000 crore in the Union Budget for 2023-24, which is approximately 21% lower than the budget projection for the current year and only 1,000 crore higher than the revised estimate.


  • Disinvestment objective is the lowest in years.
  • It’s also the lowest aim in the last seven years.
  • So far, the Centre has not fulfilled the disinvestment objective for 2022-23.
  • To far, it has realised 31,106 crore, of which 20,516 crore, or over one-third of the anticipated amount, came from the IPO of 3.5% of its shares in the Life Insurance Corporation (LIC).
What is Disinvestment?
  • In this context, disinvestment or divestment occurs when the government sells its assets or a subsidiary, such as a Central or State public sector business.
  • Disinvestment can be approached in three ways.
  • Disinvestment by minorities: The government owns a majority of the corporation, usually more than 51%, assuring managerial control.
  • Majority disinvestment occurs when the government transfers power to the purchasing business while retaining a share.
  • Complete privatisation: the buyer receives complete control of the enterprise.
Objectives of disinvestment

The following main objectives of disinvestment were outlined:

  • To reduce the financial burden on the Government.
  • To improve public finances.
  • To introduce, competition and market discipline.
  • To fund growth.
  • To encourage wider share of ownership.
  • To depoliticize non-essential services.
Institutional mechanism
  • The Agency of Investment and Public Asset Management is a distinct department under the Union Finance Ministry that handles disinvestment-related proceedings (DIPAM).
Why is disinvestment required?
  • The government may decide to cut spending in order to lessen the fiscal burden or bridge the revenue gap for that year.
  • It also utilises the earnings of disinvestment to pay the fiscal deficit, invest in the economy and development, or social sector programmes, and retire government debt.
  • Disinvestment also fosters private ownership of assets and free market transactions.
  • If successful, the government will no longer be required to cover the losses of a loss-making entity.
Other importance of disinvestment lies in the utilization of funds for:
  • Financing large-scale infrastructure development
  • Investing in the economy to encourage spending
  • For social programs like health and education
Disinvestment has fared in India-
  • In India, disinvestment has had varied consequences.
  • Since taking office in 2014, the present administration has made tremendous headway in disinvestment, raising a record 1.05 trillion (US$14.6 billion) for the fiscal year 2017-18.
  • However, the government has failed to meet its disinvestment objectives in previous years for a variety of reasons, including market circumstances, investor mood, and political resistance.
  • The administration has also been chastised for failing to do enough to attract possible buyers for state-owned enterprises.
  • Despite this, some successful disinvestment transactions have occurred in recent years, including the strategic sale of Air India and the privatisation of BPCL.
Issues with CPSEs through years
  • Because of the prevalent hierarchy and bureaucracy, the entire PSU structure was not as efficient as it could have been.
  • Lack of autonomy, political intervention, nepotism, and corruption have worsened the problem.
  • Due to expenditure on things like as interest payments, PSU employee wages and salaries, and subsidies, the government has almost little surplus for capital investment on social and physical infrastructure.
  • In an LPG era, industrial competitiveness is extremely vital, demanding the privatisation or disinvestment of PSUs.
  • Despite large infusions of funding in recent decades, many public sector units (PSUs) have long been characterised by bad management, sluggish decision-making procedures, lack of accountability, low productivity, inferior quality of commodities, excessive labour use, and so on.
  • With an enormous budget imbalance and an economy in distress, the government must find resources.
  • For ideological and practical reasons, disinvestment is the favoured alternative.
  • Short-term financial constraints should not be the only rationale for the Centre’s disinvestment in vital industries such as petroleum.
  • The government might use the proceeds from the sale of PSUs to enhance public services like as infrastructure, health, and education.

Source – The Hindu


           India- Nordic can be the powerhouse of the green                                               transition globally

GS Paper II


Context- Nordic nations have been pioneers in green technology during the last few decades. Together, the Nordics and India can power the world’s needed green shift. Nordic has also been at the forefront of creating new green technologies and solutions such as hydrogen, offshore wind, batteries, and carbon capture and storage systems, which are critical for the globe to succeed in the much-needed green transition. Together, the Nordic countries and India can supply critical technology and solutions to combat climate change and promote green growth.

India- Nordic connect
  • The five Nordic Prime Ministers and India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi agreed to strengthen collaboration in digitalization, renewable energy, maritime sectors, and the circular economy at the Nordic-India Summit in Copenhagen in May 2022.
  • Modi has indicated interest in partnering Nordic solutions that might help India make the transition to a greener economy.
  • The Trade Ministers of Norway and Finland are now touring India jointly with this goal in mind. During their tour, they hope to demonstrate the extra value that collaboration can bring to India and to learn from the outstanding innovations and digital solutions being produced in India.
  • They have business delegations and firms that are industry leaders in fields like as clean energy, circular economy, digitalization, tourism, and marine. They have high hopes for expanded partnership with India.
  • The most valuable and well-known Nordic companies are already present in India and have made significant investments. In India, there are presently 240 Norwegian and Finnish firms.
India- Nordic trade links that can grow
  • Over the last year, trade and investment between Finland and India have increased significantly, and India has emerged as a key country for Finland.
  • Finland has established a new General Consulate in Mumbai. This expands the number of Nordic representatives in India’s business capital and helps to boost India-Finnish connections.
  • Nokia and Fortum, for example, consider India as their most important growth market right now and have made big investments there. The Norwegian Sovereign Wealth Fund (about $17.6 billion) is expected to become one of India’s largest single foreign investors.
  • The Norwegian government has also just launched a new Climate Investment Fund for international renewable energy initiatives, and India has been rejected as a focal country. So far, about 1,500 crore has been invested in India through the climate investment fund, and the number of investments is fast expanding.
Untapped potential for trade and further collaboration
  • Finland, as a member of the European Union (EU), is involved in the EU-India FTA discussions, whereas Norway is involved in the European Free Trade Association negotiations.
  • Trade in services has enormous potential, particularly in tourism, education, information technology, energy, marine, and financial services.
  • As India accelerates its transition to a green, digital, and inventive future, Nordic nations such as Finland and Norway stand ready to exchange experiences and contribute to India’s success.

Despite having a far lower population than India and being on the opposite side of the planet, Nordic nations offer world-leading technology and knowledge. Successful and scaled-up technologies and breakthroughs in India can be easily exported to other regions of the world. Together, the Nordics and India can be a worldwide green transition powerhouse.

Source – Indian Express



GS Paper- II


Context- The Supreme Court ruled that nominated members (aldermen) of a municipality do not have the ability to vote in meetings under the Constitution.

  • About Alderman “Alderman” refers to a member of a city council or municipal body, with specific responsibilities varying depending on where it is used. It comes from Old English.
Historical Connections
  • It initially referred to clan or tribal elders, but it quickly became a word for all king’s viceroys, regardless of age.
  • It soon became a more precise term – “chief magistrate of a county,” with both civil and military responsibilities.
  • It became particularly connected with guilds over time, with chiefs/leaders referred to as aldormonn.
  • As guilds grew more closely affiliated with city administrations in the 12th century CE, the name started to be used for executives of municipal authorities.
  • This is the meaning in which it is still used today.
Global Status
  • Britain: Until the nineteenth century, there was no one duty or definition of an alderman in the United Kingdom.
  • Municipal borough corporations were comprised of councillors and aldermen under the Municipal Reform Act of 1835.
  • With the exception of the Greater London Council and London borough councils, where they remained a possibility until 1978, the Local Government Act of 1972 eventually eliminated Aldermen with voting rights in 1974.
  • In the United States, an alderman might have been a member of the legislative or judicial municipal government, depending on the jurisdiction.
  • A “board of aldermen” is the ruling administrative or legislative body of many American cities and municipalities.
  • Historically, the term “alderman” referred to people elected to a municipal council to represent the wards.
  • As more women were elected to municipal offices, the name “councillor” gradually supplanted “alderman,” but the term “alderperson” was still used sometimes. The word is hardly used nowadays.
  • Australia and Ireland have similarly done away with the title and particular position of alderman, although in South Africa the word alderman refers to senior members of municipal councils.
  • Members of the municipal executive are referred to as mayors in the Netherlands (rather than the council).
The Scenario in Delhi
  • According to the Delhi Municipal Corporation Act of 1957, the administrator may appoint 10 members over the age of 25 to the corporation (the Lieutenant Governor).
  • These individuals should have specialised expertise or experience in municipal management. They are intended to aid the House in making important public decisions.

Source – Indian Express


                                                                                                 Facts for Prelims


ASI’s Keeladi report pushes Sangam age further back to 800 BCE


Context: Based on archaeological results from an excavation conducted by the Archaeological Survey of India, the Sangam era has been pushed back to 800 BCE.

  • According to the stratigraphy of the cultural deposits, the Sangam era archaeological site dates from the 8th century BCE to the 3rd century CE (800 BCE and 300 CE)
  • Sangam age was believed to be between 300 BCE to 300 CE.
It has been classified into three periods:
  • The pre-early historic period between 800 BCE to 500 BCE
  • The mature early history between 500 BCE to the end of 1st century BCE
  • Post-early history from 1st century BCE to 300 CE




Context: A new documentary, Dhamaals, has concentrated on the music and dance performances of Gujarat’s Siddi culture.

What exactly are Dhamaals?
  • Dhamaal is a musical and dance hybrid of Sufi and African (mostly East African) traditions. It specifically refers to the spiritual activities of Gujarat’s Siddis.
  • Almost every Dhamaal song begins with the Siddis blowing into a conch shell.
  • East African percussion instruments such as the musindo and slow foot pounding
  • Dhamaals are held to honour their spiritual masters, Bava Gor, Mai Misra, Baba Habash, and Sidi Nabi Sultan.
  • They are done in two ways: Dance Dhamaal (sitting and dancing position) and Baithaaki Dhamaal (standing and dancing posture) (only sitting position)

QR code-based Coin Vending Machine (QCVM)


 Context: The RBI is developing a pilot study using QCVM in partnership with a few large banks to enhance coin distribution.

What exactly is the QCVM?

It is a cashless coin dispenser that gives coins in return for a debit to a bank account over the Unified Payments Interface (UPI).

The QCVM, unlike typical cash-based Coin Vending Machines, does not require banknote tendering or confirmation.

Customers would have easy and quick access to coins using the UPI functio


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