Ojaank IAS Academy




13 July 2022 – Current Affairs

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National Conference of State Agriculture & Horticulture Ministers

Paper 3 – Agriculture
Why Should You Know?

On 14-15th July, 2022 Two days’ National Conference of State Agriculture & Horticulture Ministers to be organized in Bengaluru, Karnataka

In details –
  • To commemorate Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav the Department of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, Government of India is organizing a two days’ National Conference of State Agriculture & Horticulture Ministers in Bengaluru on 14-15th July, 2022 in the presence of Shri Narendra Singh Tomar, Union Minister of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, Ministers of State for Agriculture & Farmers Welfare Sushri Shobha Karandlaje and Shri Kailash Choudhary and Ministers of Agriculture & Horticulture of the States.
  • Technical sessions would be conducted during the conference focusing on nine thematic areas, viz. Digital Agriculture, Pradhanmantri Fasal Bima Yojana, Natural Farming, FPO, e-NAM, Pradhanmantri Kisan Samman Nidhi, National Food Security Mission, Agriculture Infrastructure Fund, New Technology by ICAR.
  • A separate session on the best practices in the agriculture & allied sector adopted in various states across the country would be integrated with the technical sessions during the conference.
  • One of the major interventions of this conference would be launching of e-NAM Platform of Platform by Union Minister of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare to promote trade & marketing of agriculture produce for getting better prices of agriculture commodities to farmers.
  • Government of India has taken a novel initiative for participation of the all stakeholders through this “Platform of Platforms (PoPs) under e-NAM” towards next level revolution in Agri- Produce Marketing which will facilitate the Indian Farmers to sell their produce beyond their state boundaries.
  • This will enhance farmers’ accessibility digitally to multiple numbers of markets, buyers, service providers and to bring transparency in trade transactions with the intent to improve price discovery mechanism for better price realization of farm produce to the farmers. The e-NAM as Platform of Platforms will pave way to create an efficient and effective “One Nation One Market” ecosystem.
  • This conference is being organized to commemorate 75 Years of ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’ which is a step forward towards building a self-reliant India.
What is ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’?
  • The Government of India decided to celebrate the 75 years of Independence of India, with great excitement and tribute to freedom fighters. So, they decided to do various programs and the government named the celebration as ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’.
  • Amrit Mahotsav means 75 years of independence.The Government will celebrate it from 2021 to 2022.
  • The individual States & Cities of India will also celebrate the same at their local level. Thane, one of the popular cities of India has created its own version of Utsav 75 at Thane, which will be held from August 12 to 15 and spread all over the city. The celebrations include various programs, performances, various rallies, community carnivals, etc.
  • The ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’ is being celebrated in the year 2021 from March 12 and this festival will end on August 15, 2023.

Marburg virus disease

Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), two suspected cases of Marburg virus disease have been reported in Ghana.

In details –
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), two suspected cases of Ebola-like Marburg virus disease have been detected in Ghana. Both of them have died due to this virus.
  • The WHO says that a preliminary analysis of samples taken from two patients in Ghana’s southern Ashanti region showed that the individuals were suffering from Marburg virus.
  • However, the samples have been sent for full confirmation to the Pasteur Institute in Dakar, Senegal, which works with the United Nations health agency.
  • The WHO said that it is very important to prepare for how this virus can spread further and how it can be dealt with. So further investigation is going on. Health officials and experts in Ghana have been alerted.
What is Marburg virus?
  • Marburg virus disease is a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease that belongs to the same family as the Ebola virus.
  • It spreads from bats to humans. The infectious virus is spread among people through direct contact with bodily fluids of infected people and surfaces.
  • The incubation period of the virus is from 2 to 21 days. T
  • he virus has previously been reported in Angola, Kenya, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Africa and Uganda.
Symptoms of Marburg –
  • Common symptoms of Marburg virus disease include high fever, severe malaise, severe headache, muscle pain, etc.
  • On the third day after infection, the patient may also experience symptoms such as diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain and cramps. These symptoms persist for a week.
Treatment –
  • No treatment or vaccine has yet been developed for Marburg. Patients are treated through rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids.
  • However, Marburg disease has shown a mortality rate of 24% to 88%.

World Malala Day 2022

Paper 2 – Social Issues
Why Should You Know?

every year on July 12, the World Malala Day is celebrated.

In details –
  • International Malala Day is celebrated every year on July 12 on the occasion of young activist Malala Yousafzai’s birthday.
  • This date was designated by the United Nations (UN) to honour the young woman who has been advocating for female education. The 24-year-old activist, who currently works for women’s right to education globally, was never allowed to enter school as a young girl.
  • The day is used as an opportunity to appeal to world leaders to ensure compulsory and free education for every child across the globe.
History –
  • Born in Swat Valley, Malala was never permitted to enter school as the Taliban had banned girls from going to school in Pakistan.
  • On October 9, 2012, while Malala was returning home from school, she was attacked by a Taliban gunman who shot her in the head and the neck. She received preliminary treatment in Pakistan, but was later sent to England for further recovery. Nine months after being shot, Malala delivered a moving speech at the UN headquarters on her 16th birthday.
  • At the age of 17, Malala received Nobel Peace Prize and became the youngest recipient to receive it.
  • After the violent assassination attempt at Malala, Pakistan passed the first Right to Education Bill. She has received over 40 awards and honours for her relentless courage. University of King’s College has also awarded her with an honourary doctorate in the year 2014.
Who is Malala Yousafzai?
  • Malala Yousafzai was born in Mingora, Pakistan in 1997. She began advocating for girls’ education at the young age of 11 years.
  • Aware of the fact that the Taliban for decades has been against women’s education, Malala Yousafzai continued with her social work and advocacy for women’s education. She even highlighted how life is under the Taliban.
  • Malala soon caught the attention of the world media and started giving interviews to newspapers and television channels. She was attacked by the Taliban in 2012.

Har Ghar Tiranga campaign

Paper 1 – Art & Culture
Why Should You Know?

The central government will soon launch the nation-wide Har Ghar Tricolor campaign

In details –
  • The Central government will soon launch a nationwide campaign Har Ghar Tiranga to inspire countrymen to hoist the national flag at their homes to mark the 75th Independence Day.
  • The initiative has been taken under the aegis of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav, for which the Ministry of Culture is the nodal ministry.
  • The Indian National Flag is a symbol of national pride for the entire nation and to further honor the national flag, Union Home Minister Amit Shah who oversees all efforts under Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav has approved the program of ‘Har Ghar Tiranga’.
  • It envisages encouraging  Indians everywhere to hoist the national flag. Har Ghar Tiranga campaign in the 75th year of Independence is not only an act of personal connection with the Tricolour but also an embodiment of our commitment to nation-building. The idea behind the initiative is to invoke the feeling of patriotism in the hearts of people and promote awareness about our national flag.
Flag Code of India, 2002 –
  • The use, display, and hoisting of the Indian National Flag are guided by the Flag Code of India, 2002. The Flag Code brings together all laws, conventions, practices, and instructions for the display of the National Flag and governs the display of the National Flag by Private, Public, and Government Institutions. The Flag Code of India took effect on 26th January 2002.
  • In December last year, the Flag Code of India, 2002, was amended and the National Flag made of polyester or machine-made have been allowed. Now, the National Flag shall be made of handspun and handwoven or machine-made, cotton, polyester, wool, silk, and khadi bunting.
  • The National Flag shall be rectangular in shape and it can be of any size but the ratio of the length to the width of the Flag shall be 3:2. As per Clause of the Flag Code of India, there shall be no restriction on the display of the National Flag by members of the general public, private organizations and educational institutions inconsistent with the dignity and honour of the National Flag.

First I2U2 Leaders Virtual Summit

 Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?

On July 14, 2022 the First I2U2 Leaders’ Virtual Summit is being organized in which Prime Minister Narendra Modi will participate.

In details
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi will participate in the First I2U2 (India-Israel-UAE-USA) Leaders’ Virtual Summit tomorrow (July 14, 2022) along with Prime Minister of Israel Yair Lapid, President of the UAE Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan and President of the USA Joseph R. Biden.
  • The Leaders will discuss the possible joint projects within the framework of I2U2 as well as the other common areas of mutual interest to strengthen the economic partnership in trade and investment in the respective regions and beyond. These projects can serve as a model for economic cooperation and offer opportunities for businesspersons and workers.
  • The I2U2 Grouping was conceptualized during the meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the four countries held on 18th October last year. Each country also has Sherpa-level interactions regularly to discuss the possible areas of cooperation.
  • I2U2 is aimed to encourage joint investments in six mutually identified areas such as water, energy, transportation, space, health, and food security. It intends to mobilize private sector capital and expertise to help modernize the infrastructure, and low carbon development pathways for the industries, improve public health and promote the development of critical emerging and green technologies.
About I2U2 –
  • The grouping is known as ‘I2U2’ as ‘I’ stands for India and Israel and ‘U’ for the US and the UAE.
  • I2U2 was initially formed in October, 2021 following the Abraham Accords between Israel and the UAE, to deal with issues concerning maritime security, infrastructure and transport in the region. At that time, it was called the ‘International Forum for Economic Cooperation’.
  • The organisation addressed marine security, infrastructure, digital infrastructure, and transportation challenges.
  • The grouping aims to strengthen the ties and discuss food security, maritime and other areas of cooperation among these four nations.
  • India, Israel and the UAE are technological hubs and there are many areas where these countries can work together such as technology, trade, climate, COVID-19 and security as well.
  • I2U2 tries to explore security cooperation among the four nations within the framework of the new grouping.

Paper Import Monitoring System

Paper 3 – Economy
Why Should You Know?

Paper Import Monitoring System (PIMS) to come into effect from 1st October, 2022.

In details –
  • The Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT), has introduced Paper Import Monitoring System (PIMS) by amending the import policy of major paper products from ‘Free’ to ‘Free subject to compulsory registration under PIMS’.
  • PIMS shall come into effect from 1st October, 2022. However, the online facility of registration will be available from 15th July 2022.
  • The PIMS shall be applicable on import by a Domestic Territory Area unit on a wide range of paper products covering 201 tariff lines, such as newsprint, handmade paper, coated paper, uncoated paper, Litho and offset paper, tissue paper, toilet paper, cartons, labels, etc. However, paper products like currency paper, bank bond and Cheque paper, security printing paper, etc. have been excluded from mandatory registration.
  • As per PIMS, an importer will be required to obtain an automatic registration number through online system by paying a registration fee of Rs. 500/- only, not earlier than 75th day and not later than 5th day before the expected date of arrival of import consignment.
  • The automatic registration Number shall remain valid for a period of 75 days and multiple consignments Bill of Entry (BoEs) shall be allowed in same registration number within the validity period of registration, for the permitted quantity.
  • Further, registration under PIMS shall also be required at the point of import by a Unit in Special Economic Zone/Free Trading Warehousing Zone or at the time of import by an Export Oriented Unit of the items covered under PIMS.
  • However, registration under PIMS shall not be required by the Domestic Territory Area (DTA) Unit at the time of Customs Clearance from the SEZ/FTWZ/EOU to DTA if no processing has taken place of the item of paper that has already been registered under PIMS at the time of entry into a SEZ/FTWZ/EOU.
  • Based on the demand of domestic paper industry, the introduction of PIMS is intended to curb imports under “Others” category Tariff Lines, dumping of paper products in the domestic market by way of under-invoicing, entry of prohibited goods by mis-declaration, re-routing goods through other countries in lieu of trade agreements.  This may also promote ‘Make in India’ and ‘Atmanirbhar’ initiative under this category.
  • However, if processing has taken place in the SEZ/FTWZ/EOU with change in HS Code at 8-Digit level, then the importer in DTA will require to register under PIMS, if the processed item falls under any of the 201 tariff lines covered under PIMS.

AHIDF Conclave

Paper 3 – Agriculture
Why Should You Know?

Animal Husbandry Infrastructure Development Fund (AHIDF) Conclave to be held on 14th July 2022

In details –
  • Shri Parshottam Rupala, Union Minister of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying will launch Animal Husbandry Infrastructure Development Fund (AHIDF) projects and felicitate 75 entrepreneurs in the AHIDF conclave.
  • As part of the celebrations of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav, Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying is organising AHIDF conclave at Bhim Hall, Dr Ambedkar International centre,  Janpath, New Delhi on 14th July 2022.
  • The purpose of this conclave is to provide a platform for Knowledge Sharing, launch of AHIDF operational guidelines 2.0, revamped AHIDF online portal, Credit Guarantee Online Portal, inauguration of five major plants setup with the support of AHIDF scheme, facilitation of Entrepreneurs/ lenders & Networking between all stakeholders and upcoming entrepreneurs. The one-day Conclave will have various sessions followed by discussion by a group of highly esteemed panel members.
  • Prime Minister’s AtmaNirbhar Bharat Abhiyan stimulus package mentioned about setting up of Rs. 15000 crore Animal Husbandry Infrastructure Development Fund (AHIDF).
  • AHIDF scheme has been approved for incentivizing investments by individual entrepreneurs, private companies, farmers producers organizations (FPOs) and Section 8, companies to establish:
  • Dairy processing and product diversification infrastructure
  • Meat processing and product diversification infrastructure
  • Animal feed plant
  • Breed Improvement Technology and Breed Multiplication Farms
  • Setting up of Veterinary Vaccine and Drugs Production Facilities
  • Animal Waste to Wealth Management (Agri waste management)
Organizing –
  • Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying is organising the conclave in collaboration with Small Industries Development Bank of India and Industry Associations etc.
  • The conclave is aimed at ensuring the participants with best possible knowledge inputs related to the AHIDF Scheme and facilitation of various stakeholders.
  • The conclave is expected to see the participation of about 500 Entrepreneurs/ Stakeholders, Lenders/SLBC’s, Government Officials (State and Centre Government), Common Service Centers, Industry Associations/ farmers associations and Government organisations.
Online Portal –

Felicitation of first 75 entrepreneurs under AHIDF (Different categories/ FPO/Farmer/ Women) will be done. Revamped Online Portal for AHIDF will be launched apart from the following:

  1. Virtual inauguration of five plants.
  2. Felicitation of the top three lenders
  3. Felicitation of the top performing states
  4. Launch of AHIDF Operation Guidelines 2.0
  5. Launch of Online portal of Credit Guarantee
  6. Inauguration of booklet on  success stories
  7. Panel discussion with Audience
  8. This conclave will not only motivate the existing beneficiaries but will also help in outreach and awareness of the scheme in the presence of all potential stake holders.
  9. Experience sharing of beneficiaries will bring the actual experience of the ease of application and the fast process of disbursement and will attract more investment from the related activities. The newly added categories which have a very wide scope will also be propagated through this Conclave.
Key Features of Portal –
  • Revamped Portal in bilingual content
  • Customized Dashboard with various analytics tools and advanced features like:
  • TAT Analysis
  • Pendency Analysis
  • Employment Analysis
  • Side by Side Comparison of two parameters
  • Year wise application Analysis
  • Disbursement Analysis
  • Pendency with Banks
  • Impact on Sector
  • Tutorial Videos of handholding applicants
  • Integration with Google Map for GIS location of project site
  • Integration with CIBIL which would be very useful for lenders
  • Integration with CGTMSE portal for Credit Guarantee Coverage
  • Development of Online claim generation module
  • AHIDF Portal Helpdesk

First full color picture of the universe

Paper 1 – Geography
Why Should You Know?

Recently, NASA released the first full color picture of the universe through the James Webb Space Telescope.

In details –
  • The James Webb Space Telescope recently took many pictures of space. Many of these images are from an unknown part of space. The first image taken by it shows the SMACS 0723 galaxy cluster. It was developed jointly by NASA, the Canadian Space Agency and the European Space Agency.
  • It was launched from Ariane rocket. This telescope has been launched to scan galaxies and stars that formed 13.7 billion years ago.
  • The cost of this telescope is 10 billion dollars. It took 15 days for the telescope to be aligned properly. It had 18 sections and all of them were manually aligned. It took 12 days to align the mirrors.
  • The alignment process is still underway and it will take three months for the telescope to be ready for its maiden flight. This telescope will be able to see even further than Hubble’s telescope. Its mirrors are connected to IR (Infra Red). The James Webb Telescope will study the extraterrestrial and atmosphere.
  • Also, this telescope will search for an atmosphere similar to that of Earth. It will search for galaxies formed during the Big Bang. It will also determine the process of evolution of galaxies. This will observe the formation of stars. In addition, the telescope will also measure the chemical and physical properties of the planets.
About James Webb Space Telescope –
  • The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space telescope designed primarily to conduct infrared astronomy.
  • As the largest optical telescope in space, its greatly improved infrared resolution and sensitivity allows it to view objects too old, distant, or faint for the Hubble Space Telescope.
  • This is expected to enable a broad range of investigations across the fields of astronomy and cosmology, such as observation of the first stars and the formation of the first galaxies, and detailed atmospheric characterization of potentially habitable exoplanets.
  • U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) led JWST’s development in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).
  • JWST was launched in December 2021 on an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana, and arrived at the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point in January 2022.

Various development projects in Deoghar

Paper 3- Infrastructure
Why Should You Know?

Recently PM inaugurates and lays foundation stone of various development projects worth more than Rs 16,800 crores in Deoghar.

In details –
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated Deoghar Airport in Jharkhand. He also inaugurated the Baba Baidyanath Temple, which was renovated under the PRASAD scheme of the Ministry of Tourism.
  • Spread over 654 acres of land, this airport will provide direct air service to devotees and tourists from Baba Baidyanathdham, one of the 12 Jyotirlingas in the country.
  • Shri Modi inaugurated 13 development projects and laid the foundation stone of 12 development schemes costing Rs 16,000 crore. Jharkhand Governor Shri Ramesh Bais, Chief Minister Shri Hemant Soren, Union Minister Shri Jyotiraditya Scindia, State Ministers and public representatives were present on the occasion.
  • Baba Vaidyanath Dham is an important religious place for devotees across the country. As a step to provide direct connectivity to Baba Vaidyanath, the Prime Minister inaugurated the Deoghar Airport. It has been built at an estimated cost of around Rs 400 crore. The airport’s terminal building has a capacity of about half a million passengers annually.
  • The projects inaugurated by the Prime Minister include development of two big shrine buildings with a capacity of 2,000 pilgrims, development of Jalsar Lake front, Sivaganga Talab development etc. The new facilities will improve the experience of lakhs of devotees visiting Baba Baidyanath Dham every year.
  • The Prime Minister inaugurated and laid foundation stones of several road projects worth over Rs 10,000 crore. The Prime Minister also inaugurated and laid foundation stones of various energy infrastructure projects in the region worth about Rs 3,000 crore.
  • The Prime Minister inaugurated two rail projects- Godda-Hansdiha electrification section and Garhwa-Mahuria doubling projects. The Prime Minister dedicated services related to AIIMS, Deoghar Patient (In-Patient) Department (IPD) and Operation Theater to the nation.

Successful transplant of pig heart into human

Paper 2 – Health
Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?

Recently Two pig heart transplants succeed in brain-dead recipients.

In details –
  • Surgeons at New York University (NYU) have successfully transplanted genetically-engineered pig hearts into two brain-dead people. moving a step closer to a long-term goal of using pig parts to address the shortage of human organs for transplant.
  • The hearts functioned normally during the three-day experiments in June and July, with no signs of rejection, the researchers said at a news conference.
  • The experiments followed the death in March of a 57-year-old man with terminal heart disease who made history two months earlier at the University of Maryland as the first person to receive a genetically modified pig heart. The reasons why his new heart eventually failed are still unclear.
  • NYU procured the hearts from pigs engineered by Revivicor Inc and screened them for viruses using an enhanced monitoring protocol, the researchers said. The hearts showed no evidence of a pig virus called porcine cytomegalovirus that was detected in the blood of the Maryland man and may have contributed to his death.
  • The pigs had four genetic modifications to prevent rejection and abnormal organ growth and six to help prevent incompatibilities between pigs and humans.
  • NYU researchers also transplanted pig kidneys into two brain-dead recipients in 2021.
  • For now, they believe xenotransplantation is safer in brain-dead recipients than in living patients and also more informative because biopsies can be done more often.
  • More-frequent testing provides tremendous detail, said Dr. Robert Montgomery, director of the NYU Langone Transplant Institute, and a recipient of a heart transplant at NYU. “We were able in real time to capture everything that was going on during that 72-hour period,” he said.
What is the transplant of animal parts into humans?
  • For the first time in the world, a pig’s heart has been transplanted into a human body. But even before this, there have been attempts to transplant the organs of many animals like rabbits, monkeys and langurs into humans.
  • The process of transplanting animal organs into humans is called xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation is the process in which organs such as the heart, kidney or liver of animals are transplanted into the human body.
  • Whenever an organ is transplanted in the human body, the human body considers that organ as external. This happens because the human immune system sees that the antigens on the cells of the transplanted organ do not match with the existing antigens in the body.
  • When this happens, the body rejects the transplanted organ. At times, the body reacts against the transplanted organ considering it to be harmful to the body.
  • If the transplant fails, that organ does not work properly or gives rise to a dangerous disease like cancer in the body. If organ transplant fails, there is a risk of death of the person.
  • Many times, due to organ transplant failure, a person also comes across cases of cancer like lung cancer, liver cancer or kidney. That is, if the organ whose transplant is done, there is a risk of cancer in that organ if it fails.
  • In the 19th century, a lot of work was done in this area of ​​xenotransplantation. Scientists transplanted organs from rabbits, monkeys to langurs to humans, but after 1990, scientists considered pigs to be the best option for xenotransplantation.
  • Pigs have long been considered a major option for potential human transplants, as the genes of pigs are very similar to those of humans. For example, the heart of a pig is equal to the size of an adult human heart.

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