Ojaank IAS Academy




14 July 2022 – Current Affairs

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Dhammacakka day 2022

Paper 1 – Art & Culture
Why Should You Know?

Recently President of india addressed dhammacakka day 2022 celebrations at Sarnath through a video message.

In details –
  • The President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind addressed the Dhammacakka Day 2022 celebrations at Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh today (July 13, 2022) through a video message.
  • Addressing the gathering, the President said that Buddhism has been one of the greatest spiritual traditions of India. Many holy sites associated with the life and teachings of Lord Buddha are located in India.
  • Among those many places, there are four main places – first Bodh Gaya, where he attained enlightenment; second Sarnath, where he gave his first sermon; third Shravasti where he spent most Chaturmases and gave most of the sermons; and the fourth Kushinagar, where he attained the Mahaparinirvana.
  • He said that after the Mahaparinirvana of Lord Buddha, many monasteries, places of pilgrimage, universities associated with his teachings were established which have been centers of knowledge. Today all these places are part of the Buddha-circuit which attract pilgrims and religious tourists from across India and abroad.
  • The President said that our democracy has been deeply influenced by Buddhist ideals and symbols. The national emblem is taken from the Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath, which also has the Dharma Chakra engraved on it.
  • Behind the chair of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the sutra “Dharma Chakra Pravartanaya” is inscribed. The chief architect of our Constitution, Babasaheb Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar had said that in our parliamentary democracy, many processes of ancient Buddhist associations have been adopted.
  • The President said that according to Lord Buddha there is no greater joy than peace. In the teachings of Lord Buddha, emphasis has been given on inner peace.
  • The President said that the purpose of remembering these teachings on this occasion is that all people should inculcate the right meaning of the teachings of Lord Buddha and remove all the evils and inequalities to make a world full of peace and compassion.
  • It is noteworthy that The Ministry of Culture in association with the International Buddhist Confederation is celebrating the Āshaḍha Pūrṇima Divas, as part of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav. 
What is Dhammacakka day?
  • Every year we celebrate Dhammacakka Day on the Asalha Purnima, this year it falls on 13th July 2022.
  • It is also known as Guru Purnima, because Lord Buddha gave the first sermon on the full moon day and became the teacher-Guru of gods and men. 
  • THE DHAMMACAKKA PAVATTANA SUTTA is the first discourse that Bhagavan Buddha delivered at the historic Sage’s Landing Retreat (Isipatana), in modern Sarnath, near Varanasi.
  • The main topic of this sutta is the Four Noble Truths, which refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism in a formulaic expression. This sutta also refers to the Buddhist concepts of the Middle Way, impermanence, and dependent origination.
  • The Dharmachakrapravtansutra is available in more than twenty forms, including Pali, Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese forms.
  • It is noteworthy that Buddha gave this teaching to his five former companions (Kundinya, Assaji, Vappa, Mahanama, Bhaddiya). These five monks are called ‘Panchvargika’.

Bundelkhand Expressway

Paper 3- Infrastructure
Why Should You Know?

on 16th July, 2022 Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi will visit UP and inaugurate Bundelkhand Expressway.

In details –
  • Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi will visit Uttar Pradesh on 16th July, 2022 and inaugurate Bundelkhand Expressway at Kaitheri village in Orai tehsil of Jalaun district.
  • It is noteworthy that The central government has been committed to enhancing connectivity across the country, a key feature of which has been the work towards improvement in road infrastructure.
  • A significant endeavour towards this was the laying of foundation stone for the construction of Bundelkhand Expressway by the Prime Minister on 29 February, 2020.
  • The work on the Expressway has been completed within 28 months and it will now be inaugurated by the Prime Minister.
About that expressway –
  • The 296 Km, four-lane expressway has been constructed at a cost of around Rs 14,850 crores, under the aegis of Uttar Pradesh Expressways Industrial Development Authority (UPEIDA), and can later be expanded upto six lanes as well.
  • It extends from NH-35 at Gonda village near Bharatkoop in Chitrakoot district to near Kudrail village in Etawah district, where it merges with the Agra-Lucknow expressway.
  • It passes through seven districts, viz. Chitrakoot, Banda, Mahoba, Hamirpur, Jalaun, Auraiya and Etawah.
Significance –
  • Along with improving connectivity in the region, the Bundelkhand Expressway will also give a major boost to economic development, resulting in the creation of thousands of jobs for the local people.
  • Work on the creation of industrial corridor in Banda and Jalaun districts, next to the Expressway, has already been started.
Expressways of India –
  • Expressways are the highest class of roads in India. As of January 2022, India has a total length of 2,074.5 km (1,289.0 mi) of expressways.
  • These are controlled-access highways where entrance and exits are controlled by the use of ramps that are incorporated into the design of the expressway, whereas National highways are at-grade roads.
  • Currently, the longest expressway in India is the Purvanchal Expressway at 340.8 km (211.8 mi) and the widest expressway is the Delhi–Meerut Expressway with 14 lanes.
  • The National Expressway Authority, which operates under the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, will be in charge of construction and maintenance of highways.
  • The density of highways in India is very low compared to the world.

Taranga Hill-Ambaji-Abu Rd rail line

Paper 3- Infrastructure
Why Should You Know?

Recently Cabinet approves Taranga Hill-Ambaji-Abu Rd rail line for improved mobility.

In details –
  • Recently The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) approved Taranga Hill-Ambaji-Abu Road new rail line to provide connectivity and improve mobility, Union Information and Broadcasting Minister Anurag Thakur said in a Cabinet briefing.
  • The estimated cost of this project is Rs 2798.16 crores and will be completed by 2026-27.
  • The total length of the new rail line will be 116.65 km and will be constructed by the Ministry of Railways. The project will generate direct employment during construction for about 40 lakh man-days.
  • In line with Indian government’s vision of a New India, the project is going to enhance connectivity and improve mobility leading to the overall socio-economic development of the region.
Significance –
  • and is one of the 51 Shaktipeeths in India and attracts millions of devotees from Gujarat as well as other parts of the country and abroad every year.
  • The construction of this line will facilitate easy travel for these millions of devotees. Further, the devotees visiting the Ajitnath Jain temple (one of the 24 holy Jain Tirthankaras) at Taranga Hill would also be greatly benefitted by this connectivity.
  • This line will facilitate faster movement of agricultural and local products and also provide improved mobility of the people in the region within the state of Gujarat and Rajasthan and also to other parts of the country.
  • This project will also provide an alternative route for the existing Ahmedabad-Abu Road railway line.
  • The alignment of the proposed doubling will traverse through the Sirohi district of Rajasthan and the Banaskantha and Mahesana districts of Gujarat.
  • The construction of a new rail line will attract investment and lead to the overall socio-economic development of the region.

New policy made to stop air pollution in Delhi-NCR

Paper 3- Environment
Why Should You Know?

Taking a big step, the Air Quality Management Commission (CAQM) has prepared a comprehensive policy to curb air pollution in and around Delhi-NCR.

In details –
  • Taking a big step, the Air Quality Management Commission (CAQM) has prepared a comprehensive policy to curb air pollution in and around Delhi-NCR.
  • The policy focuses on preventing, controlling and minimizing air pollution caused by industries, vehicles/transport, construction and demolition (C&D), dust generation on roads and open areas, solid waste and stubble burning etc. Will go In this policy, steps will be taken to reduce pollution within the geographical limit as well as in the time frame.
  • In this policy, the CAQM has also incorporated sector wise recommendations for Central Pollution Control Boards (CPCBs) and State Pollution Control Boards (PCBs) of NCR as well as agencies and departments of the Central Government, NCR State Governments and GNCTD.
  • Thermal power plants (TPP), clean fuel, electric mobility, public transport, road traffic management, diesel generators, firecrackers etc. have also been covered in this policy. Along with this, measures will also be taken to reduce pollution with the help of greenery and plantation.
  • The scope of this comprehensive plan formulated by CAQM is mainly to reduce air pollution in Delhi and NCR. Due to lack of infrastructure and systems in the sub-regions of NCR, wide variation in infrastructure and different levels of urbanization, a different approach and time-frame has been suggested for different sub-regions. It covers the following areas:
  • National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT).
  • NCR districts around Delhi – Gurugram, Faridabad, Sonipat, Jhajjar, Rohtak, Ghaziabad, Gautam Buddha Nagar and Baghpat.
  • Other NCR Districts.
  • In the non-NCR districts of Punjab and Haryana, the main focus will be to address the incidents of stubble burning.
What was the matter ?
  • It may be noted that the Supreme Court in Aditya Dubey (minor) vs ANR/UOI et al. on 16 December 2021 had directed the CAQM to find a permanent solution to the air pollution menace in Delhi NCR every year. For this, the court had said to take suggestions from the general public as well as field experts.
  • In this matter, on the order of the Court, the Commission had constituted an expert group on 07 January 2022. Considering the suggestions received, the group also interacted with the interventionists and experts as well as various stakeholders and representatives of the state government.
  • Taking into account the suggestions received on the basis of this, the group had reviewed and examined the existing scientific literature, relevant policies, regulations, programs and funding strategies, the current status of action in various areas of the Central and State Governments. The suggestions were related to mitigation in key areas of air quality management, monitoring framework and institutional strengthening for implementation.
what issues are covered –
  • The scope of this multi-sectoral assessment includes industries, power plants, vehicles and transport, diesel generator sets, construction and demolition projects/roads and open areas for dust generation, solid waste/biomass/stubble burning, firecracker release, and dust generation. sources were included.
  • The consultations made with the stakeholders and the inputs and suggestions received from them were appropriately incorporated in the relevant sections. It was this partnership that emphasized the need for a comprehensive policy to curb air pollution in Delhi-NCR. The Expert Group has suggested actions for the short-term (one year), medium-term (one to three years), and long-term (three to five years), taking into account the issues and complexities involved.
  • This time frame has been varied for different sub-regions/regions/districts/cities to give adequate time to all to achieve the air quality target. If seen, the areas that need to be worked on to achieve national air quality standards include industry, transportation, affordable clean fuels for households and wider access to technology.
  • This includes building infrastructure for mass commuting, electric vehicles, walking and cycling travel, and reducing the use of personal vehicles.
  • At the same time, circular economy has been emphasized to prevent dumping and burning of waste. Along with this, it has also been said to focus on C&D works, rights of roads/ways, proper technology, infrastructure, management of dust in open areas with plantation. Along with this, the commission has talked about its strict time bound implementation, better monitoring and compliance.

BRICS Anti-Corruption Ministerial Meet

 Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?

Recently BRICS Anti-Corruption Ministerial Meeting held on July 13, 2022 in which central minister Dr Jitendra Singh took part.

In details –
  • On July 13, 2022 all BRICS countries- Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) participated in Anti-Corruption Working Group (ACWG) virtual meeting.
  • The purpose of the ACWG Ministerial meeting is to foster greater consensus regarding the BRICS anti-corruption agenda, share best practices on anti-corruption efforts, suggestions, learn from expertise of international organisations, and contribute to the global fight against corruption.
  • The objectives of the ACWG include strengthening international cooperation on issues of focus among BRICS member countries, enhancing the use of tools to combat corruption, including through cooperation on asset recovery, and providing technical assistance to each other.
India’s participation –
  • From India side in this meeting, Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Science & Technology; Minister of State (Independent Charge) Earth Sciences; MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances, Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr Jitendra Singh  Dr Jitendra Singh participated and told about india’s steps towards anti corruption.
  • Dr Jitendra Singh referred to the India’s Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988, which the government amended after 30 years in 2018 to introduce a number of new provisions including criminalizing the act of giving bribe also in addition to taking bribe and at the same time putting in place an effective deterrence for such actions by individuals as well as corporate entities.
  • He also pointed out that the institution of Lokpal has been operationalized by appointment of Chairperson and Members. Lokpal is statutorily mandated to directly receive and process complaints as regards alleged offences against public servants under the Prevention of Corruption Act,1988.
  • Dr Jitendra Singh informed the Ministers of the BRICS countries and distinguished delegates the various anti-corruption efforts taken by India in the recent past like the effective implementation of e-Governance through extensive use of ICT tools which has reduced the scope of corruption substantially at all levels.
  • He said, steps like MCA21 (for corporates & business houses e-measures), Fully automated Income Tax compliances, Commercial taxes compliances, Passport & Visa services, Digi Locker, Pensions, Direct Benefit Transfers (DBT) through Aadhaar Payment Bridge (APB), Common Services Centres (CSCs), etc. are few of the successful e-Government endeavours launched under various e-Governance initiatives.
  • Dr Jitendra Singh also pointed out that systemic improvements and reforms to provide transparent citizen-friendly services and disbursement of welfare benefits directly to the citizens under various schemes of the Government in a transparent manner through the Direct Benefit Transfer initiative checked the menace of corruption in a significant manner.
  • He also added that the National e-Governance Services Delivery Assessment (NeSDA) framework which was conceptualized and launched in August 2018, assesses the effectiveness / quality of the e-Governance service delivery mechanism from the citizen’s perspective.
  • Dr Jitendra Singh told the delegates that the Central Vigilance Commission in India is the nodal agency entrusted with the task of overseeing preventive and punitive measures. He listed various preventive measures like Leveraging Technology and automation, ensuring transparency, accountability and Integrity in public procurement, encouraging e-tendering and e-procurement practices, adoption of Integrity Pact and appointment of Independent External Monitors and advising exemplary punishment in all cases of proven misconduct to create deterrence, etc.
What is BRICS?
  • BRICS is an organization of five countries, Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, whose purpose is to increase economic and other types of cooperation in these countries.
  • It was formed in 2006 and is headquartered in Shanghai.
  • Earlier only Brazil, Russia, India and China were included in it and South Africa was included in 2010.
  • The top leaders of the BRICS countries and other ministerial conferences are held annually.
Importance –
  • How important is the BRICS group, it can be gauged from the fact that almost half of the world’s population (47 percent) lives in these countries and its combined GDP is $ 6 trillion, which is 24 percent of the global GDP.
  • Apart from this, BRICS countries also have 17 percent share in global trade, while they also have 50 percent share in global economic development.
  • China has the highest share of 68 percent of the total GDP of the group.

Development of an innovative mechanism to inactivate SARS-CoV-2

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?

Recently Scientists developed a novel mechanism to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 by blocking their entry to cells & reducing infection ability.

In details –
  • Researchers have reported the design of a new class of synthetic peptides that can not only block the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus entry into cells but also clump the virions (virus particles) together, reducing their ability to infect.
  • This novel approach provides an alternative mechanism to render viruses like SARS-CoV-2 inactive, promising a new class of peptides as antivirals.
  • The rapid emergence of new strains of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has diminished the protection offered by COVID-19 vaccines calling for new approaches to prevent infection by the virus.
  • It is known that protein-protein interaction is often like that of a lock and a key. This interaction can be hampered by a synthetic peptide that mimics, competes with, and prevents the ‘key’ from binding to the ‘lock’, or vice versa.
  • Scientists at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), in collaboration with researchers from the CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, have exploited this approach to design peptides that can bind to and block the spike protein on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This binding was further characterised extensively by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and other biophysical methods.
  • The research was supported under the COVID-19 IRPHA call of the SERB Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), a statutory body of the Department of Science and Technology (DST).
  • The designed peptides are helical, hairpin-shaped, each capable of pairing up with another of its kind, forming what is known as a dimer. Each dimeric ‘bundle’ presents two ‘faces’ to interact with two target molecules.
  • In the study published in Nature Chemical Biology, the researchers hypothesised that the two faces would bind to two separate target proteins locking all four in a complex and blocking the targets’ action. The team decided to test their hypothesis by using a peptide called SIH-5 to target the interaction between the Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 protein, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor in human cells.
  • The S protein is a trimer – a complex of three identical polypeptides. Each polypeptide contains a Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) that binds to the ACE2 receptor on the host cell surface. This interaction facilitates viral entry into the cell.
  • The SIH-5 peptide was designed to block the binding of the RBD to human ACE2. When a SIH-5 dimer encountered an S protein, one of its faces bound tightly to one of the three RBDs on the S protein trimer, and the other face bound to an RBD from a different S protein.
  • This ‘cross-linking’ allowed the SIH-5 to block both S proteins at the same time. Under cryo-EM, the S proteins targeted by SIH-5 appeared to be attached head-to-head, and the spike proteins were being forced to form dimers. Subsequently, the researchers showed that SIH-5 inactivated the viruses efficiently by cross-linking the spike proteins from different virus particles.
  • The team consisting of B Khatri, I Pramanick, SK Malladi, RS Rajmani, P Ghosh, N Sengupta, R Varadarajan, S Dutta and J Chatterjee from Indian Institute of Science (IISc), R Rahisuddin, S Kumar, N Kumar, S Kumaran and RP Ringe from CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, tested the peptide for toxicity in mammalian cells in the lab and found it to be safe. When hamsters were dosed with the peptide and subsequently exposed to a high dose of SARS-CoV-2, they showed decreased viral load as well as much less cell damage in the lungs compared to hamsters exposed only to the virus, demonstrating the promise of this class of peptides as antivirals.
  • The researchers believe that with minor modifications and peptide engineering, this lab-made mini protein could inhibit other protein-protein interactions as well.

National Plastic Surgery Day

Paper 2 – Health
Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?

National Plastic Surgery Day is celebrated every year on 15 July in India.

In details –
  • Plastic surgery originated in India. The Association of Plastic Surgeons in India (APSI) introduced the concept of National Plastic Surgery Day in 2011. Since then, this day is celebrated in India on 15th July.
  • July 15 has been recognized as World Plastic Surgery Day after APSI made a presentation about the day’s success at the recently held World Council of Leaders.
  • In this sequence, Delhi AIIMS is also going to celebrate National Plastic Surgery Day on 15th July. During this, AIIMS is going to organize ‘Sushruta Film Festival-2022’.
  • Films made by doctors and experts related to plastic surgery from across the country will be screened in this film festival. These films will prove to be effective in making people aware. Singhal said that AIIMS has received 120 short films of three to seven minutes from all over the country.
  • Which are based on various topics related to plastic surgery. These films are going to show the prevalence of this mode of surgery. three best films would be awarded during the programme. One lakh rupees will be given to the first winner, 50 thousand rupees to the second winner and 25 thousand rupees to the third winner.
  • National Plastic Surgery Day was first celebrated on 15 July 2011
  • It is noteworthy that India is the father of plastic surgery. The credit for this goes to Maharishi Sushruta.
  • A film festival is being organized in his name. The whole world knows and considers him as the father or father of plastic surgery.

Growth in agricultural exports of the Northeast region

Paper 3 – Agriculture
Why Should You Know?

Northeast region registers more than 85 percent growth in export of agricultural products in the last six years.

In details –
  • Government’s initiatives helped North Eastern region export more than 85 percent growth in last six years.
  • Bangladesh, Bhutan, Middle East, UK, Europe are the major destination countries of North East region products.
  • APEDA has organized 136 capacity building programs and 22 International Buyer Seller Meets on Export Awareness in North Eastern Region during the last three years.
  • APEDA has signed an MoU with Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat for conducting various training programs and other research activities on pre-harvest and post-harvest management.
  • In order to boost the export of horticulture products grown in the states of North Eastern Region (NE), the government has now devised a strong strategy to promote locally produced agricultural products.
  • The Northeast region is geographically important as it shares international borders with China and Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Bangladesh, making it a potential hub for export of agricultural produce to neighboring countries as well as to foreign destinations.
  • As a result, there has been a significant increase in the export of agricultural produce from North Eastern Region like Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Meghalaya in the last few years.
  • The export of agricultural products in the North-East region has seen a growth of 85.34 percent during the last six years and has increased from $2.52 million in FY 2016-17 to $17.2 million during FY 2021-22. Bangladesh, Bhutan, Middle East, UK, Europe are the major destination countries for products from the North East region.
  • In order to provide potential market linkages, the Agriculture and Processed Food Products Development Authority (APEDA) under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry organizes field visits for the importers to provide first-hand information about the qualitative farming practices followed by the farmers. did. These importers were mainly from Middle East, Far Eastern countries and European countries and countries like Australia etc.
  • In the last three years, APEDA has organized 136 capacity building programs on export awareness in different parts of the North Eastern Region. The maximum number of 62 capacity building programs were conducted in the North Eastern region during the financial year 2019-20, 21 during the financial year 2020-21 and 53 such capacity building programs during the financial year 2021-22 by APEDA.
  • Apart from the capacity building initiatives, APEDA also facilitated the organization of 22 International Buyer Seller Meets and trade fairs in the North Eastern Region during the last three years.
  • APEDA also organized a conference on Export Potential of Natural, Biological and Geographical Indications (GI) in Guwahati on June 24, 2022 to tap the abundant export potential of organic agricultural products of Assam and neighboring states of North Eastern Region.
  • APEDA aims to create a platform in Assam for exporters to procure products directly from producer groups and processors. This platform will link the producers and processors of Assam and exporters from other parts of the country which will expand the export pocket base in the states of North Eastern Region including Assam and increase employment opportunities among the people of the state.
  • APEDA has signed an MoU with Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat for conducting various training programs and other research activities on pre-harvest and post-harvest management.
  • It may be mentioned that APEDA promoted GI products from North Eastern Region such as Bhut Jolokia, Assam Lemon etc. caught the attention of Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi who mentioned this during his Mann Ki Baat programme. Assam Lemon is now regularly exported to London and Middle East countries and so far more than 50 MT of Assam Lemon has been exported. Several consignments of litchi and pumpkin have also been exported by APEDA from Assam to various countries.
What is APEDA?
  • The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) was established by the Government of India under the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority Act passed by the Parliament in December 1985.
  • This authority functions under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
  • In addition to providing basic infrastructure for export of agricultural produce of the country, its main functions include promotion of export of agricultural and processed food products, providing guidance to farmers to ensure better harvest and getting their fair price, providing financial assistance. Surveying and prospecting of agricultural produce and development of industries related to export of scheduled products are also included.

Global Gender Gap Index 2022

Paper 2 – Social Issues
Why Should You Know?

Recently The Global Gender Gap Index for 2022 was released by the World Economic Forum.

In details –
  • On July 13, 2022 The Global Gender Gap Index for 2022 was released by the World Economic Forum (WEF),
  • it ranks India at 135 out of 146 countries. In 2021, India was ranked 140 out of 156 countries.
  • According to the report, Iceland has retained its position as the most gender-equal country in the world, followed by Finland, Norway, New Zealand and Sweden.
  • India’s position is much worse among its neighbours. It is currently behind Bangladesh (71), Nepal (96), Sri Lanka (110), Maldives (117) and Bhutan (126). In South Asia, only Iran (143), Pakistan (145) and Afghanistan (146) performed worse than India.
What is the Global Gender Gap Index?
  • The Global Gender Gap index “benchmarks the current state and evolution of gender parity across four key dimensions (Economic Participation and Opportunity, Educational Attainment, Health and Survival, and Political Empowerment)”.
  • According to the WEF it is the longest-standing index, which tracks progress towards closing these gaps over time since its inception in 2006.
  • On each of the four sub-indices as well as on the overall index the GGG index provides scores between 0 and 1, where 1 shows full gender parity and 0 is complete imparity. “The cross-country comparisons aim to support the identification of the most effective policies to close gender gaps,” states the report.
India fared –
  • India has approximately 662 million (or 66.2 crore) women. In 2022, India’s overall score has improved from 0.625 (in 2021) to 0.629. “India’s (135th) global gender gap score has oscillated between 0.593 and 0.683 since the index was first compiled.
  • In 2022, India scored 0.629, which is its seventh-highest score in the last 16 years,” states the report.
different sub-indices –
1. Political Empowerment
  • This includes metrics such as the percentage of women in Parliament, the percentage of women in ministerial positions etc. Of all the sub-indices, this is where India ranks the highest (48th out of 146).
  • However, notwithstanding its rank, its score is quite low at 0.267. Some of the best ranking countries in this category score much better. For instance, Iceland is ranked 1 with a score of 0.874 and Bangladesh is ranked 9 with a score of 0.546.
  • Moreover, India’s score on this metric has worsened since last year – from 0.276 to 0.267. The silver lining is that despite reduction, India’s score is above the global average in this category.
2. Economic Participation and Opportunity
  • This includes metrics such as the percentage of women who are part of the labour force, wage equality for similar work, earned income etc.
  • Here, too, India ranks a lowly 143 out of the 146 countries in contention even though its score has improved over 2021 from 0.326 to 0.350.
  • Last year, India was pegged at 151 out of the 156 countries ranked. India’s score is much lower than the global average, and only Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan are behind India on this metric.
3. Educational Attainment
  • This sub-index includes metrics such as literacy rate and the enrolment rates in primary, secondary and tertiary education. Here India ranks 107th out of 146, and its score has marginally worsened since last year. In 2021, India was ranked 114 out of 156.
4. Health and Survival
  • This includes two metrics: the sex ratio at birth (in %) and healthy life expectancy (in years). In this metric, India is ranked the last (146) among all the countries. Its score hasn’t changed from 2021 when it was ranked 155th out of 156 countries.

ISSF Shooting World Cup

Paper 2 – Games
Why Should You Know?

Mehuli Ghosh and Shahu Tushar Mane clinch second gold for India

In details –
  • In Shooting, the duo of Mehuli Ghosh and Shahu Tushar Mane bagged India’s second gold medal in the 10m Air Rifle Mixed Team final at the International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) World Cup stage at Changwon in South Korea.
  • Mehuli and Tushar outsmarted the Hungarian pair of Eszter Meszaros and Istvan Pen 17-13 in an evenly poised match-up.
  • The Indian pair of Palak and Shiva Narwal bagged bronze in the 10m Air Pistol mixed event, after clinching the third place play-off.
  • Palak and Shiva thrashed Kazakhstan’s Irina Loktionova and Valeriy Rakhimzhan 16-0, in what turned out to be a one-sided clash.
  • This is Tushar’s maiden gold for India at the senior level while Mehuli bagged her second yellow metal, having won her first at the 2019 South Asian Games in Kathmandu.
About ISSF Shooting World Cup –

The ISSF World Cup Rifle/Pistol/Shotgun is taking place in Changwon, Korea from July 9th to 21st, 2022.

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