Ojaank IAS Academy




15 July 2022 – Current Affairs

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Platform of Platforms (POP) under eNAM

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?

Recently Union Agriculture Minister Shri Tomar launches Platform of Platforms (POP) under eNAM.

In details –
  • The Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Shri Narendra Singh Tomar, launched the Platform of Platforms (POP) under the National Agriculture Market (e-NAM) on the sidelines of the State Agriculture and Horticulture Ministers’ Conference in Bengaluru, Karnataka.
  • Equity grant of over Rs 37 crore was also released to 1,018 Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) that will benefit about 3.5 lakh farmers.
  • With the introduction of POP, farmers will be facilitated to sell the produce outside their state borders. This will increase farmers’ digital access to multiple markets, buyers and service providers and bring transparency in business transactions with the aim of improving price search mechanism and quality commensurate price realisation.
  • 41 service providers from different platforms are covered under POP facilitating various value chain services like trading, quality checks, warehousing, fintech, market information, transportation etc.
  • The PoP will create a digital ecosystem, which will benefit from the expertise of different platforms in different segments of the agricultural value chain.
Integration of different platforms –
  • e-NAM integrates the platform of Service Providers as “Platform of Platforms” which includes Composite Service Providers (Service Providers who provide holistic services for trading of agricultural produce including quality analysis, trading, payment systems and logistics), Logistics Service Provider, Quality Assurance Service Provider, Cleaning, Grading, Sorting & Packaging Service Provider, Warehousing Facility Service Provider, Agricultural Input Service Provider, Technology Enabled Finance & Insurance Service Provider, Information Dissemination Portal (Advisory Services, crop forecasting, weather updates, capacity building for farmers etc.) and other platforms (e-commerce, international agri-business platforms, barter, private market platforms etc.).
  • The inclusion of various service providers not only adds to the value of the e-NAM platform, but also gives the users of the platform options to avail services from different service providers. It enables farmers, FPOs, traders and other stakeholders to access a wide variety of goods and services across the agricultural value chain through a single window, thereby giving more options to the stakeholders.
  • Moreover, while selecting a good quality Goods/Service Provider, it saves the time and labour of the stakeholders. The POP can be accessed through e-NAM mobile app which can be downloaded from Google Play Store.
Grant for FPOs-
  • On the occasion, Shri Tomar released an equity grant of more than Rs 37 crore to 1,018 FPOs under the CSS which will benefit about 3.5 lakh farmers leading to the goal of setting up of 10 thousand FPOs. The Producer Members’ equity, supplemented by a similar equity grant from the Central Government, would strengthen the financial base of the FPOs and help them to avail loans from financial institutions for their projects and working capital requirements for business development.
  • Under the scheme, upto Rs. 18 lakh financial aid per FPO will be provided for a period of 3 years. In addition, a loan of Rs. 2,000 for each farmer member of the FPO within a limit of Rs.15 lakh per FPO will be available. There is also a provision of project loan or equivalent grant from any eligible lending institution of up to Rs.2 crore per FPO.
  • The Coffee Table Book released by the Agriculture Minister showcases the endeavour and journey of e-NAM in bringing transparency and efficiency in the trade of agricultural products in the country through innovation and technology. Coffee Table Book on e-NAM focuses on showcasing the benefits and success of farmers and stakeholders by facilitating digitization of APMC mandis.
What is E-NAM ?
  • National Agriculture Market or eNAM is an online trading platform for agricultural commodities in India.
  • The market facilitates farmers, traders and buyers with online trading in commodities.
  • It was launched by the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. The electronic market pilot across India was launched on 14 April 2016 by Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi.
  • The Portal is managed by Small Farmers’ Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) with the technology provider, NFCL’s iKisan division.
  • On the ENAM platform, farmers can opt to trade directly on their own through the mobile app or through registered commission agents.

Right to Repair law

Paper 2 – Governance
Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?

Department of Consumer Affairs sets up committee to develop comprehensive framework on the Right to Repair.

In details –
  • Recently, the U.K has also passed a law that includes all the electronic appliance manufacturers to provide the consumers with spare parts for getting the repair done either by themselves or by the local repair shops.
  • In Australia, repair cafes are a remarkable feature of the Australian system.
  • These are free meeting places where volunteer repairmen gather to share their repairing skills. Further, the European Union passed legislation that required manufacturers to supply parts of products to professional repairmen for a time of 10 years.
  • Last month, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi launched the concept of LiFE movement (Lifestyle for Environment) in India. This includes the concept of reuse and recycling various consumer products.
  • Repair is a critical function of all forms of re-use and even for the sustainable life of the products. A product that cannot be repaired or falls under planned obsolescence i.e. designing a product with an artificially limited useful life, not only becomes e-waste but also forces the consumers to buy new products for want of any repair to reuse it. Thus, restricting the repair of products forces consumers to deliberately make a choice to purchase a new model of that product.
What is “Right to Repair” –
  • The LiFE movement calls for mindful and deliberate utilization of product. The rationale behind the “Right to Repair” is that when we buy a product, it is inherent that we must own it completely for which the consumers should be able to repair and modify the product with ease and at reasonable cost, without being captive to the whims of manufacturers for repairs.
  • However, over a period of time it has been observed that the Right to Repair is getting severely restricted, and not only there is a considerable delay in repair but at times the products are repaired at an exorbitantly high price and the consumer who has once bought the product is hardly given any choice. Often the spare parts are not available, which causes consumers great distress and harassment.
India’s Initiative –
  • In a bid to emphasize on LiFE (Lifestyle for the Environment) movement through sustainable consumption, the Department of Consumer Affairs has taken a significant step for developing an overall framework for the Right to Repair.
  • The aim of developing a framework on right to repair in India is to empower consumers and product buyers in the local market, harmonize trade between the original equipment manufacturers and the third-party buyers and sellers, emphasize on developing sustainable consumption of products and reduction in e-waste.
  • Once it is rolled out in India, it will become a game-changer both for the sustainability of the products and as well as serve as a catalyst for employment generation through Aatmanirbhar Bharat by allowing third-party repairs.
  • The Department in this regard, has set up a committee which shall be chaired by Smt. Nidhi Khare, Additional Secretary, Department of Consumer Affairs, Government of India. The committee includes Shri Anupam Mishra, Joint Secretary DoCA, Justice Paramjeet Singh Dhaliwal, former Judge of Punjab and Haryana High Court, Former President of State Consumer Dispute Redressal Commission, Punjab, Prof. (Dr.) G.S. Bajpai Vice-Chancellor, Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law, Patiala, Prof. Shri Ashok Patil, Chair of Consumer Law and Practice and representatives from various stakeholders like ICEA, SIAM, Consumer Activists & Consumer Organizations as members.
  • The committee held its first meeting on 13th July, 2022 wherein important sectors for right to repair were identified. The sectors identified include Farming Equipment, Mobile Phones/ Tablets, Consumer Durables and Automobiles/Automobile Equipment.
  • The pertinent issues highlighted during the meeting include companies avoid the publication of manuals that can help users make repairs easily. Manufacturers have proprietary control over spare parts (regarding the kind of design they use for screws and other). Monopoly on repair processes infringes the customer’s’ “right to choose”. Digital warranty cards, for instance, ensure that by getting a product from a “non-recognized” outfit, a customer loses the right to claim a warranty.
  • Controversy Surrounding Digital Rights Management (DRM) and Technological Protection Measure (TPM), DRM is a great relief for copyright holders. Manufacturers are encouraging a culture of ‘planned obsolescence’. This is a system whereby the design of any gadget is such that it lasts a particular time only and after that particular period it has to be mandatorily replaced. When contracts fail to cede full control to the buyer-the legal right of owners are damaged.
  • During the deliberations, it was felt that the tech companies should provide complete knowledge and access to manuals, schematics, and software updates and to which the software license shouldn’t limit the transparency of the product in sale. 
  • The parts and tools to service devices, including diagnostic tools should be made available to third parties, including individuals so that the product can be repaired if there are minor glitches.  Fortunately, in our country, there exists a vibrant repair service sector and third party repairs, including those who cannibalize the products for providing spare parts for circular economy.
  • Further, the international best practices, steps that have been taken by other countries and how the same could be included in the Indian scenario were also discussed in the meeting.
  • The right to repair has been recognized in many countries across the globe, including the U.S.A, U.K and European Union. In USA, the Federal Trade Commission has directed manufacturers to remedy unfair anti-competitive practices and asked them to make sure that consumers can make repairs, either themselves or by a third-party agency.

22nd Bharat Rang Mahotsav, 2022

Paper 1 – Art & Culture
Why Should You Know?

“Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav – 22nd Bharat Rang Mahotsav, 2022 (Azadi Khand)” festival will be organized by National School of Drama from 16th July to 14th August 2022.

In details –
  • Ministry of Culture, Government of India is celebrating India’s 75 years of Independence as Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav. On this occasion, National School of Drama (NSD), New Delhi is organizing a festival “Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav – 22nd Bharat Rang Mahotsav, 2022 (Azadi Segment)” to remember and pay tribute to our freedom fighters, under “Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav 2022”
  • under this series, 30 plays would be showcased in different cities of India. The festival will be inaugurated on 16th July 2022 at Kamani auditorium, New Delhi and subsequently it will be organized in 5 other cities of the country namely Bhubaneswar, Varanasi, Amritsar, Bengaluru and Mumbai.
  • A special show for the culmination of this festival will be organized in Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, New Delhi on 14th August 2022
  • under the Azadi segment, NSD will hold a special play on the eve of Kargil Vijay Diwas, Kargil Ek Natya Katha at the premises of National War Memorial on 25th July where Minister of Defence and Chief of Army Staff have been invited. On 14th August, a special play would be organised at Jawaharlal Outdoor Stadium.
About National School of Drama –
  • National School of Drama (NSD) is a theatre training institute situated at New Delhi, India. It is an autonomous organization under Ministry of Culture, Government of India.
  • It was set up in 1959 by the Sangeet Natak Akademi and became an independent school in 1975. In 2005, it was granted deemed university status, but in 2011 it was revoked.

Y – 3023 (Dunagiri) Frigate

Paper 3- Security
Why Should You Know?

Y – 3023 (Dunagiri) Frigate will be launched into the Hooghly river at Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited, Kolkata on 15 Jul 22.

In details –
  • Dunagiri, a Project 17A frigate, will be launched into the Hooghly river at Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited, Kolkata on 15 Jul 22. Shri Rajnath Singh, Hon’ble Raksha Mantri will be the Chief Guest for the event.
  • Christened after a mountain range in the state of Uttarakhand, ‘Dunagiri’ is the fourth ship of P17A Frigates.
  • These are follow-on of the P17 Frigates (Shivalik Class) with improved stealth features, advanced weapons and sensors and platform management systems.
  • ‘Dunagiri’ is the reincarnation of the erstwhile ‘Dunagiri’, the Leander Class ASW Frigate, which in her 33 years of service from 05 May 1977 to 20 Oct 2010, had witnessed various challenging operations and multinational exercises.  The soul of a ship lives eternally and finds a suitable ship.
  • The first two ships of P17A Project, were launched in 2019 and 2020 at MDL and GRSE respectively. The third ship (Udaygiri) was launched at MDL on 17 May 22 earlier this year.
  • The launch of the fourth ship within such a short span is a testimony to the impetus provided towards self-reliant shipbuilding with a focused approach.
  • P17A ships have been designed in-house by Indian Navy’s Directorate of Naval Design (DND), which has successfully spear-headed design of numerous class of indigenous warships in the past.
  • This is a testimony of nation’s unwavering efforts towards ‘AatmaNirbharata’ as 75% of the orders for equipment & system are also being placed on indigenous firms including MSMEs.
What is Project 17A?
  • Project 17 Alpha Frigates which is known as Project 17A,  is a project approved by the Government of India.
  • Project 17A ships are being constructed by two major shipbuilding companies, The Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE), and The Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders (MDL).
  • responsible for constructing seven warships and frigates for the Indian Navy. The frigates were designed by the Directorate of Naval Design (DND) – an internal establishment within the Indian Navy responsible for designing warships.
  • Three of the Seven are being built by The Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE), and Four of the Seven Project17A ships are being built by The Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders (MDL).
  • The P-17A frigates were christened after the former-Nilgiri-class frigates, which served in the Indian Navy between 1972 and 2013; the first six ships of the series were allotted the names utilized by the older class, namely – Nilgiri, Himgiri, Taragiri, Udaygiri, Dunagiri, and Vindhyagiri.The seventh and final vessel of the P-17A series, which did not have a namesake from the older class, was given the new name of Mahendragiri.

Monkey pox outbreak in Kerala

Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?

Centre rushes High Level multi-disciplinary team to Kerala for supporting the State in public health interventions and investigating for Monkey Pox outbreak.

In details –
  • Union Ministry of Health & Family Welfare has rushed a high-level multi-disciplinary team to Kerala to collaborate with the State Health Authorities in instituting public health measures in view of the confirmed case of Monkey Pox in Kollam district of Kerala.
  • The Central team to Kerala comprises of experts drawn from National Center for Disease Control (NCDC), Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi and senior official from Ministry of Health & Family Welfare along with experts from Regional Office of Health & Family Welfare, Kerala.
  • The team shall work closely with the State Health Departments and take a stock of on-ground situation and recommend necessary public health interventions.
  • Govt of India is taking proactive steps by monitoring the situation carefully and coordinating with states in case of any such possibility of outbreak occurs.
What is Monkey pox ?
  • On Monkeypox, the World Health Organization (WHO) has also warned about Monkeypox.  The WHO said that in countries where the infection has not spread, more cases of monkeypox may be reported, and monkeypox is spreading to people who have come into physical contact for some reason.
Background –
  • monkeypox was reported for the first time in humans in 1970. So far, the presence of  this virus has been confirmed in 11 countries of Africa. The initial cases of MonkeyPox  were reported in 1958. When the disease spread to monkeys kept for research. The first case of monkeypox in humans  was reported in 1970 in Cango (Africa).
How does it spread?

Monkeypox virus can spread in many ways. However, according to the WHO, the transition from one human to another is quite low. However, when the infected person sneezes and coughs, the virus is present in the droplets, which can spread like Covid.
In addition, the virus spreads to humans due to exposure to the blood, body fluids or skin of infected animals.

Symptoms –
  • According to the WHO, it can take 6 to 13 days for symptoms to appear after a monkeyvirus infection. Infected people may feel severe weakness with fever, sharp headaches, back and muscle pain. Inflammation of the lymph nodes is considered to be its most common symptom.
  • A sick person may have large rashes on his face and hands and feet. If the infection is severe, these rashes can also affect the cornea of the eyes.
The treatment –
  • Smallpox vaccines (made from the vaccinia virus) are considered to be protective against monkeypox.
  • People exposed to the virus are often given some doses of smallpox vaccines, as it is currently shown to be effective against Monkeypox. 
  • The European Center for Disease Prevention and Control has recommended that all suspected patients be isolated and those at high risk be vaccinated with smallpox.

India’s places in “World’s 50 Greatest Places of 2022”

Paper 3 – Tourism
Why Should You Know?

Recently two Indian states included in the list of World’s 50 Greatest Places of 2022”, TIME magazine, lets know about it.

In details –
  • Ahmedabad city and the state of Kerala have been listed by TIME magazine among the “50 extraordinary destinations to explore” in its list of the world’s greatest places of 2022.
  • TIME said that As persistent as the challenges of life in 2022 is the hope that understanding and human connection can be found through travel. So, with much of the global population now vaccinated against COVID-19, world travelers are again hitting the road—and the skies. The hospitality industry is reopening and excited to safely welcome them and revitalise local communities.
  • India’s first UNESCO World Heritage City, Ahmedabad “boasts both ancient landmarks and contemporary innovations that make it a mecca for cultural tourism, from the serene Gandhi Ashram that sits on 36 acres on the banks of the Sabarmati River to Navratri, a vibrant nine-day celebration billed as the longest dance festival in the world.”
  • It added that Ahmedabad’s Gujarat Science City, a “sprawling entertainment center and theme park”, unveiled three major attractions last year, including a 20-acre nature park to educate the public on local flora as well as provide new spaces for playing chess and practicing yoga.
  • “There is also a new interactive robot gallery that celebrates innovation in robotics and features a towering replica of a Transformer. And Science City’s new aquarium, which showcases aquatic species from around the globe, is now India’s largest,” it added.
  • TIME said that on the southwest coast of India, “Kerala is one of India’s most beautiful states. With spectacular beaches and lush backwaters, temples, and palaces, it’s known as “God’s own country” for good reason.”
  • “This year, Kerala is boosting motor-home tourism in India to inspire a new pas de deux of exploration and accommodation. The state’s first caravan park, Karavan Meadows, opened in Vagamon, a scenic hill station,” it said.
  • “In the wake of the state’s success with houseboat cruising, caravans are expected to follow suit with a similar promise of sustainable tourism,” it said adding that over 1,000 campers have already begun to traverse the land, a fresh and unique way to experience Kerala’s beaches and verdant plantations.
  • The publication said that to compile this list of the World’s Greatest Places, the top spots to visit this year, TIME solicited nominations of places from its international network of correspondents and contributors, “with an eye toward those offering new and exciting experiences.” The list also includes Ras Al Khaimah, UAE; Park City, Utah; Seoul; Great Barrier Reef, Australia; The Arctic; Valencia, Spain; Trans Bhutan Trail, Bhutan; International Space Station; Bogota; Lower Zambezi National Park, Zambia; Istanbul and Kigali, Rwanda.

BRICS Labour and Employment Ministers’ Meeting 2022

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?

BRICS Labor and Employment Ministers’ meeting held virtually on 14 july 2022.

In details –
  • The Union Minister for Labour & Employment, Shri Bhupender Yadav attended the BRICS Labour and Employment Ministers’ Meeting on July 14, 2022 held under the Chinese Presidency.
  • The Ministers of the member countries viz. Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa participated in the meeting.  Discussions were held on three priority issues, namely, Promoting Green Jobs for Sustainable Development; Developing Skills for Resilient Recovery; and Protecting Workers’ Right in New Forms of Employment.
  • During the session on discussion among BRICS Ministers, Shri Bhupender Yadav elucidated the steps taken by India to provide relief to workers during the pandemic. 
  • Shri Yadav highlighted various initiatives taken towards providing free ration, enhancing the number of days of assured employment under MNREGA, collateral free loans provided to 2.9 million street vendors to help them resume their businesses under PMSVANidhi Yojana during the pandemic.
  • As regards the priority issues discussed in the meeting, the Minister said that Climate change is necessitating a shift towards more sustainable development and green jobs. He further informed that a Sector Council for Green Jobs has been set up in India to develop strategy and implement programs for Skill development in green sector. 
  • The variety of Decentralized Renewable Energy livelihood opportunities which are being developed in India, including myriad solutions like solar dryer, biomass powered cold storage/chiller, were also enunciated. In addition, the Minister also stressed upon the measures taken to harness the potential of Blue Economy and Agro-Forestry in India.
  • Various skill development initiatives undertaken by the Government were also highlighted by the Minister during the meeting.  Further, various steps such as e-Shram Portal, conducting of All India Surveys of Migrant Workers and Domestic Workers taken by the Government of India towards welfare of informal sector workers were also highlighted.
  • The Minister also informed about the legislative initiatives taken by India such as the Code on Social Security, 2020, which defines the new forms of workers i.e. gig and platform workers and the steps taken to provide social security benefits to such workers were also emphasized.
  • One of the significant outcomes of the aforesaid meeting was the adoption of the BRICS Labour & Employment Ministers’ Declaration. The Declaration recognized the need for promoting green jobs for sustainable development, strengthening of cooperation in skills development and; protection of workers’ rights in new forms of employment.
What is BRICS?
  • BRICS is an organization of five countries, Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, whose purpose is to increase economic and other types of cooperation in these countries.
  • It was formed in 2006 and is headquartered in Shanghai.
  • Earlier only Brazil, Russia, India and China were included in it and South Africa was included in 2010.
  • The top leaders of the BRICS countries and other ministerial conferences are held annually.
Importance –
  • How important is the BRICS group, it can be gauged from the fact that almost half of the world’s population (47 percent) lives in these countries and its combined GDP is $ 6 trillion, which is 24 percent of the global GDP.
  • Apart from this, BRICS countries also have 17 percent share in global trade, while they also have 50 percent share in global economic development.
  • China has the highest share of 68 percent of the total GDP of the group.

Skill India Mission

Paper 3 – Economy
Why Should You Know?

7th anniversary of Skill India program being celebrated today (15 july 2022).

In details –
  • The 7th anniversary of the Skill India program is being celebrated today. This scheme is also called National Skill Development Mission. It was started in 2015.
  • The Skill India Mission aims to enable Indian youth to take up industry-related skill training that will help them achieve better livelihoods.
  • More than one crore youth are getting trained every year under the Skill India Mission. So far more than one crore 36 lakh youth have been trained under the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana.
  • Under Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushal Yojana, more than 11 lakh 28 thousand candidates have been trained and about seven lakh people have got employment.
About Skill India Mission
  • On the occasion of International Youth Skill Development Day on 15 July 2015, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi launched the “Skill India Mission” i.e. National Skill Development Scheme.
  • One of the ambitious plans of the Prime Minister, Skill India Mission is to develop the skills of the youth of the country and get them to work accordingly. This mission works to provide employment to unemployed youth by providing them skills.
  • Under the Skill India Mission, 4 other schemes (National Skill Development Mission, National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana and Skill Loan Scheme) have been included. The Skill India Mission works under the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship.
  • The Skill India mission enables Indian youth to take industry related training, to help them earn a better livelihood. Through this scheme, the government provides training to the less educated or the youth who have left school in 10th or 12th class due to any reason.

Integrated Food Parks in India

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?

Recently in I2U2 Summit it is decided that UAE to invest two billion dollars to develop Integrated Food Parks in India; US and Israel to provide technology.

In details –
  • Leaders of India, Israel, UAE, and the US have said that the inaugural I2U2 Summit focussed on the food security crisis and clean energy.
  • In a Joint Statement, I2U2 leaders said, innovative ways were discussed to ensure longer-term, more diversified food production and food delivery systems that can better manage global food shocks.
  • The UAE has announced to invest two billion dollars to develop a series of Integrated Food Parks across India. These parks will incorporate state-of-the-art climate-smart technologies to reduce food waste and spoilage, conserve fresh water and employ renewable energy sources.
  • India will provide appropriate land for the project and will facilitate farmers’ integration into the food parks.
  • US and Israeli private sectors will be invited to lend their expertise and offer innovative solutions that contribute to the overall sustainability of the project.
  • These investments will help maximize crop yields and help tackle food insecurity in South Asia and the Middle East.
PM’s statement –
  • addressing the first I2U2 Summit, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said that under I2U2 Framework, India-Israel-UAE-USA are working to increase investments in the fields of water, energy, environment, health, and space.
  • Mr Modi said that I2U2 has set a positive agenda from the very first summit and by combining the skills of the nations, they can come together for the good of humanity.
  • Prime Minister said, they will work towards ensuring food security and propelling development initiatives globally. Mr Modi said that joint projects in many areas have been identified and a roadmap has been made to move forward in them.
  • Prime Minister stressed this cooperative framework is a good model for practical cooperation in the face of increasing global uncertainties.
  • Mr Modi expressed confidence that with I2U2, a significant contribution will be made toward Energy Security, Food Security, and Economic Growth globally.
About I2U2 –
  • The grouping is known as ‘I2U2’ as ‘I’ stands for India and Israel and ‘U’ for the US and the UAE.
  • I2U2 was initially formed in October, 2021 following the Abraham Accords between Israel and the UAE, to deal with issues concerning maritime security, infrastructure and transport in the region. At that time, it was called the ‘International Forum for Economic Cooperation’.
  • The organisation addressed marine security, infrastructure, digital infrastructure, and transportation challenges.
  • The grouping aims to strengthen the ties and discuss food security, maritime and other areas of cooperation among these four nations.
  • India, Israel and the UAE are technological hubs and there are many areas where these countries can work together such as technology, trade, climate, COVID-19 and security as well.
  • I2U2 tries to explore security cooperation among the four nations within the framework of the new grouping.

Mission Shakti Scheme

Paper 2 – Social Issues
Why Should You Know?

Recently Women and Child Development Ministry issued guidelines for Mission Shakti Scheme.

In details –
  • Women and Child Development Ministry has issued guidelines for Mission Shakti Scheme. This scheme has been launched for the safety, security and empowerment of women.
  • It seeks to realize the government’s commitment to women-led development by making them equal partners in nation-building.
  • The key objectives of the mission are to provide care, support and assistance to women and to put in place quality mechanisms for the rescue, protection and rehabilitation of women who are victims of crime and violence.
  • The scheme is also aimed at improving accessibility to various government services available for women at various levels.
  • Mission Shakti has two sub-schemes – Sambal and Samarthya.
  • While the Sambal stresses on safety and security of women, the Samarthya focuses on the empowerment of women.
  • The components of the Sambal sub-scheme consist of schemes including One Stop Centre, Women Helpline, Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao and Nari Adalats.
  • The components of the Samarthya sub-scheme consist of schemes of Ujjwala, Swadhar Greh and Working Women Hostel.
  • In addition, the existing schemes of the National Creche Scheme for children of working mothers and Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana have now been included in Samarthya.

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