Ojaank IAS Academy




15 November 2022 – Current Affairs

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Places of Worship Act

Paper 2 – Polity

Why You Should Know?

The Supreme Court gave the Central government more time to file an affidavit on the challenges to the Places of Worship Act of 1991.

In detail –
  • The Act prohibits the “conversion of any place of worship” and states places like churches, temples, mosques, etc. cannot be changed from as they stood on August 15, 1947.
  • Challenges to the Act have been posed through petitions filed by many people.
About Places of worship act
  • In providing a guarantee for the preservation of the religious character of places of public worship as they existed on 15 August 1947 and against the conversion of places of public worship, Parliament determined that independence from colonial rule furnishes a constitutional basis for healing the injustices of the past by providing the confidence to every religious community that their places of worship will be preserved and that their character will not be altered.
  • The State, has by enacting the law, enforced a constitutional commitment and operationalized its constitutional obligations to uphold the equality of all religions and secularism which is a part of the basic structure of the Constitution.
  • Section 3 of the Act bars the conversion, in full or part, of a place of worship of any religious denomination into a place of worship of a different religious denomination — or even a different segment of the same religious denomination.
  • Section 4(1) declares that the religious character of a place of worship “shall continue to be the same as it existed” on August 15, 1947.
  • Section 4(2) says any suit or legal proceeding with respect to the conversion of the religious character of any place of worship existing on August 15, 1947, pending before any court, shall abate — and no fresh suit or legal proceedings shall be instituted.
Challenge in court?

no conversion of a place of worship be challenged in court but there are a few exceptions.

  • Section 4(2) says any suit or legal proceeding with respect to the conversion of the religious character of any place of worship existing on August 15, 1947, pending before any court, shall abate — and no fresh suit or legal proceedings shall be instituted.
  • But the proviso to this subsection saves suits, appeals and legal proceedings that are pending on the date of commencement of the Act if the conversion of the religious character of a place of worship took place after the cut-off date.
  • Section 5 also states the Act shall not apply to the Ramjanmabhoomi-Babri Masjid case, and to any suit, appeal or proceeding relating to it.
Why is the law being challenged now?

The law has been challenged on the ground that

  • It bars judicial review, which is a basic feature of the Constitution,
  • Imposes an “arbitrary irrational retrospective cutoff date” and
  • Abridges the right to religion of Hindus, Jains, Buddhists and Sikhs.

Sources – IE

East Asia Summit

Paper 2 – International Relations

Why You Should Know?

Vice President Jagdeep Dhankhar on November 13, 2022 addressed the East Asia Summit on the last day of his visit to Cambodia, as the three-day Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) summit concluded.

In detail –
What is the East Asia Summit?
  • The East Asia Summit (EAS) is the Indo-Pacific’s premier forum for strategic dialogue.
  • It is the only leader-led forum at which all key Indo-Pacific partners meet to discuss political, security and economic challenges facing the region, and has an important role to play in advancing closer regional cooperation.
  • Australia participated, as a founding member, in the inaugural EAS held in Kuala Lumpur on 14 December 2005.
  • The EAS has 18 members – the ten ASEAN countries (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam) along with Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea, Russia and the United States.
  • The United States and the Russian Federation joined at the 6th East Asia Summit in 2011.
  • ASEAN leads the forum, and the chair position rotates between ASEAN Member States annually.
  • In 2021 EAS members represented 53.1 per cent of the world’s population and accounted for 59.5 per cent of global GDP worth an estimated US$57.2 trillion.
  • In 2020-21, Australia’s two-way trade with EAS countries was worth A$601.4 billion, 72.6 per cent of Australia’s total two-way trade.
  • Simply, the EAS is an ASEAN initiative and refers to the annual Meeting of Heads of States/Governments of these countries, where they are able to discuss common concerns and interests.
  • Its creation was based on the idea of enhancing cooperation among East Asian countries and those in the neighbouring regions.
  • Six priority areas of cooperation were identified –
  • environment and energy,
  • education,
  • finance,
  • global health issues and pandemic diseases,
  • natural disaster management, and
  • ASEAN Connectivity.
  • In the past, the issues of claims over the South China Sea, the United Nations Convention on the Law Of the Sea, terrorism, the actions of North Korea and the conflict situation in Myanmar have been discussed by the countries.
  • This year marks the 30th anniversary of ASEAN-India relations and is being celebrated as the ASEAN-India Friendship Year.
  • In a joint statement, ASEAN-India acknowledged the deep civilisational linkages, maritime connectivity, and cross-cultural exchanges between Southeast Asia and India which have grown stronger over the last 30 years, providing a strong foundation for ASEAN-India relations.
  • VP Dhankhar on November 13, 2022  announced an additional contribution of USD 5 million to the ASEAN-India science and technology fund to enhance cooperation in sectors of public health, renewable energy and smart agriculture.
  • ASEAN-India Strategic Partnership stands on a strong foundation of shared geographical, historical and civilizational ties. ASEAN is central to our Act East Policy and our wider vision of the Indo-Pacific.

Sources –IE

Multimodal Logistics Park

Paper 3 –Economy

Why You Should Know?

Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) has bagged India’s first multi modal logistics park (MMLP) that has been awarded by the Ministry of Road, Transport, and Highways.

In detail –
  • It is estimated to a cater to 7.17 Million Metric Tonne (MMT) cargo in horizon period of 45 years.
  • this 184.27 acres park award to RIL is in Chennai. This will be developed in three phases with estimated developer investment of Rs 783 crores.
  • The Phase-1 development is targeted within 2 years (by 2025) leading to commercial operations.
  • The total estimated project cost is Rs 1424 crores while the total concession period is 45 years.
  • Under the PM Gati Shakti National Master Plan (NMP), the Transport Ministry is developing 35 MMLPs, out of which 15 are prioritized in the next three years.
  • These MMLPs lay the foundation of development of large-scale infrastructure projects in Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode for which both the Central Government and State Government have come together.
  • A government special purpose vehicle (SPV) was formed for the same amongst National Highways Logistics Management Limited, Rail Vikas Nigam Limited, Chennai Port Authority, and Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation.
  • The SPV will provide 4 lane NH connectivity of 5.4 kilometres (km) at an estimated cost of Rs 104 crores and a new rail siding to the MMLP of 10.5 km, costing of Rs 217 crores.
What are Multi-Modal Logistics Parks
  • Multi-Modal Logistics Parks (MMLPs) is a key policy initiative of the Government of India, led by National Highways Logistics Management Limited under Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) and the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI),
  • To develop Multi-Modal Logistics Parks in hub-and-spoke model to improve the country’s freight logistics sector by lowering overall freight costs and time, cutting warehousing costs, reducing vehicular pollution and congestion, improving the tracking and traceability of consignments through infrastructural, procedural, and information technology interventions.
  • MMLP is officially defined as a freight-handling facility with a minimum area of 100 acres (40.5 hectares), with various modes of transport access, mechanized warehouses, specialized storage solutions such as cold storage, facilities for mechanized material handling and inter-modal transfer container terminals, and bulk and break-bulk cargo terminals.
  • Logistics parks will also provide value-added services such as customs clearance with bonded storage yards, quarantine zones, testing facilities, and warehousing management services.
  • Provisions will also be made for late-stage manufacturing activities such as kitting and final assembly, grading, sorting, labelling and packaging activities, re-working, and returns management.

Source – TH


Janjatiya Gaurav Divas

Paper 1 –History

Why You Should Know?

Government of India has declared 15th November as Janjatiya Gaurav Divas dedicated to the memory of brave tribal freedom fighters.

In detail –
  • To commemorate the contribution of the tribal freedom fighters,  the Ministry of Education  in association with the AICTE, UGC, Central Universities, Private Universities, other HEIs, CBSE, KVS, NVS and Skilling institutions is celebrating ‘JanjatiyaGaurav Divas’.
  • The nationwide celebrations of Janjatiya Gaurav Divas will witness a large number of programmes such as debate competition on the theme ‘Contribution of Janjati Heroes in freedom struggle’, social activities, etc in the educational institutions across the country.
  • The contributions of brave tribal leaders like Bhagwan Birsa Munda and others will be highlighted during these celebrations.The students will also be felicitated for the good work.
  • These celebrations will inspire the future generations acknowledge their sacrifices of the tribal freedom fighters for the country, take forward their legacy and the conservation of tribal culture, art and rich tribal heritage.
About ‘Janjatiya Gaurav Diwas’
  • Last year, the Government had declared 15th November as ‘Janjatiya Gaurav Divas’ dedicated to the memory of brave tribal freedom fighters.
  • 15th November is the birth anniversary of Birsa Munda who is revered as Bhagwan by tribal communities across the country.
  • Birsa Munda was an iconic freedom fighter, social reformer and revered tribal leader of the country, who fought bravely against the exploitative system of the British colonial government, and became a legendary figure in his lifetime, often referred to as ‘Bhagwan’.
  • He organized and led the tribal movement, giving a call for “Ulgulan” (Revolt) to the tribals. He encouraged tribals to understand their cultural roots and observe unity.
Tribal freedom fighters –

The tribal freedom fighters, who were unsung heroes of freedom struggle,  Some tribal freedom fighters are as follows:

  • Tilka Majhi rebelled against the atrocities of the British East India Company. He mobilised the Pahadia tribe to which he belonged and raided the Company treasury. He was hanged.
  • Thalakkal Chanthu of the Kurichiyar tribe was an invaluable part of Pazhassi Raja’s war against the East India Company. He was hanged.
  • Budhu Bhagat of the Oraon tribe was shot down in one of his many encounters with the British, along with his brother, seven sons and 150 men from his tribe.
  • Tirot Singh, a Khasi chief, realised the duplicity of the British and waged war against them. He was captured, tortured and imprisoned. He died in prison.
  • Raghoji Bhangre belonged to the Mahadeo Koli tribe. He revolted against the British  and continued his struggle even though his mother was imprisoned. He was captured and hanged.
  • Sidhu and Kanhu Murmu from the Santhal community, revolted against the British and their stooges. They led the Santhal in the Hul rebellion. Both were betrayed, caught and hanged.
  • Rendo Manjhi and Chakra Bisoi of the Khond tribe objected to the British interfering in their customs. Rendo was caught and hanged while Chakra Bisoi became a fugitive and died in hiding.
  • The Indian Uprising in Meerut had begun. Nilambar and Pitamber who belonged to the Bhogta clan of the Kharwar tribe were inspired to revolt and led their people to rise up against British oppression. They were both captured and hanged.
  • Ramji Gond of the Gond tribe rose against the feudal system by which    wealthy landlords   oppressed the poor with the support of the British. He was caught and hanged,
  • Telanga Kharia of the Kharia tribe, refused to accept the tax system of the   British and their governance. He insisted that they follow their traditional method of self-governance and organized raids on the treasury. He was betrayed and shot dead.
  • Tantiya Bhil, known as the Robin Hood of the Central Provinces, robbed trains carrying British wealth and distributed it among his tribe, the Bhils. He was trapped and hanged.
  • Major Paona Brajabasi of Manipur, fought to defend the kingdom of Manipur. He was the hero of the Anglo-Manipur war. He fought like a lion but was overpowered and beheaded.
  • Birsa Munda, of the Munda tribe, became a legend in his opposition to the British. He led the Mundas in a series of confrontations with them. He was caught and imprisoned and according to British records, died of cholera. He was 25 years old when he died.
  • Matmur Jamoh of the Adi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh, rebelled against the arrogance of the British. He and his companions surrendered to the British as their villages were being burnt. They were sent to the Cellular Jail and died there.
  • Tana Bhagat of the Oraon tribe was inspired by a divine vision to preach to his people and make them aware of the exploitation of their British overlords. He was caught and tortured severely. He was released, a broken man, and died subsequently.
  • Malati Mem of the Tea-garden community was inspired to join Mahatma Gandhi’s satyagraha movement. She fought against the British monopoly over opium and educated her people about the dangers of opium addiction. During an encounter with the police, she was shot dead.
  • Laxman Naik of the Bhuyan tribe, was also inspired by Gandhi and campaigned extensively to get tribes to join the freedom movement. The British framed him for the killing of a friend and he was hanged to death.
  • Helen Lepcha of the Lepcha tribe, was an ardent follower of Mahatma Gandhi. Her influence over her people made the British restless. She was shot at, imprisoned and hounded but she never lost courage. In 1941 she helped Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose escape from house arrest and travel to Germany. She was awarded the Tamra Patra for her invaluable contribution to the freedom struggle.
  • Pulimaya Devi Podar heard Gandhi when she was in school and wanted to join the freedom struggle immediately. Despite stiff opposition from her family she joined the movement after her studies and encouraged women to join her. She was imprisoned for her participation in protests. After independence she continued to serve her people and was awarded the title of ‘Swatantra Sainani’.

Sources –TH

Shrinking Mangroves

Paper 3 – Environment

Why You Should Know?

Recently, Indian scientists told in a study that there is a possibility of some mangrove species decreasing and shifting towards land in the eastern and western sea coasts of India.

In detail –
  • Certain mangrove species in Chilika and Sundarbans along the east coast and Dwarka and Porbandar along the west coast of India is likely to reduce and shift landward by 2070 due to decline in suitable habitats in response to precipitation and sea level changes, said a study based on a prediction model.
  • The study can help identify highly suitable areas for conservation and management and develop conservation strategies for the future.
  • Mangroves support numerous ecosystem services and help reduce coastal ecological risks, yet they are one of the severely endangered ecosystems declining rapidly due to climate change, sea level fluctuations, and human activities.
  • A limited understanding of mangrove spatial distribution and species habitat requirement has reduced the success of conservation initiatives in many parts of the Indian coastline.
  • This underlines an urgent need to develop model-based studies to identify conservation target areas at Spatio-temporal scales, specifically in rich mangrove biodiversity regions along the Indian coastline.
About Study
  • Scientists at the BSIP, an autonomous institution of the Department of Science and Technology (DST), used Ensemble species distribution model to study the past and current state of two mangrove species and predict their future.
  • They found significant reduction and landward shift of mangroves in the future (2070) due to decline in suitable habitats, specifically along the east and west coast of India in response to precipitation and sea level changes in the future.
  • In contrast, the maximum range expansion of the mangroves was mapped in the past, which was validated by fossil pollen data.
  • The Indian coastline is vulnerable to the impact of climate and sea level changes, and there is not much attempt for the coastal wetland species prediction and management, with limited research carried out for their future habitat mapping.
  • To fill this gap, this study tried to project the potential impact of climate change on mangroves as coastal wetland species.
  • The findings would be useful in the implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies in the identified hotspots for conserving the coastal wetlands and reducing the impact of climate change on the coastal vegetation along the Indian coastline.
  • The study published in the journal Ecological Informatics produces a valuable resource for the conservation of coastal wetlands across India by mapping the suitable habitats of the key mangrove species in India.
  • The study suggests that establishing effective buffer zones in these conserved areas can narrow down the effect of non-conservative areas on the core conservative zone, and adopting preventive measures can turn some areas into highly suitable regions for facilitating the growth of these mangrove species.
What are mangrove forests?
  • A mangrove is a shrub or a small tree that grows along the coastlines and has roots in salty sediments, often underwater. They also grow in swamps.
  • Mangrove forests can survive extreme weather conditions and require low oxygen levels to survive.
  • The mangroves cannot survive freezing temperatures and thus are found mainly in tropical and subtropical latitudes.
  • Sundarbans in West Bengal in India is the largest mangrove forest in the world.
  • UNESCO celebrates July 26 as the International Day for the Conservation of the Mangrove Ecosystem to raise awareness about mangrove ecosystems and to promote their conservation
How are the Mangroves beneficial?
  • Mangrove forests can store ten times more carbon per hectare than terrestrial forests. Also, they can store carbon up to 400 per cent faster than land-based tropical rainforests.
  • when the mangroves are cut, the carbon stored in these plants gets released into the air. So, preserving them to keep the carbon emissions levels low is necessary.
  • Once the plants die, they take the stored carbon into the soil. This is called “Blue Carbon”.
  • Moreover, Mangrove forests act as natural barriers against rising tides and storms. Each year, they prevent property damages of over $65 billion.
  • They also provide breeding grounds for marine biodiversity and 80% of global fish populations depend on healthy mangrove ecosystems.
Mangroves in India 
  • India contributes to nearly half of the total mangrove cover in South Asia.
  • According to the Forest Survey report 2021 released in January, mangroves cover in the country is 4,992 square km, which is 0.15 per cent of the country’s total geographical area. Since 2019, the cover has risen by only 17 sq km.
  • West Bengal has the highest percentage of mangrove cover in India, mainly because it has Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world.
  • It is followed by Gujarat and Andaman, and Nicobar islands.
  • Other states that have mangrove cover are Maharashtra, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Goa and Kerala.

Sources – TH


Paper 2 – International Relations

Why You Should Know?

Finland Minister of Education and Culture, Petri Honkonen called on Union Minister of Science and Technology Dr Jitendra Singh to seek enhanced bilateral cooperation between the two countries in the field of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI).

In detail –
  • India and Finland agreed to carry mutual cooperation between the two countries to a new level in a number of areas of bilateral as well as global interests.
  • Two nations decided to enhance cooperation in areas such as Digital Partnership in Future ICT, Future Mobile Technologies and Digital Education.
  • The two countries also emphasised on having institutionalised joint working groups on areas of mutual interest.
  • the bilateral STI collaboration between the two countries is an attempt to stimulate innovative R&D projects that address a specific need or challenge; demonstrate high industrial relevance and commercial potential; and aim to deliver benefit to all participants, and more broadly, to both nations.
  • experts from both sides are working out detailed plan for establishment of the Indo-Finnish Virtual Network Centre on Quantum Computing and targeting to develop 20 qubits superconducting based Quantum Computer in 1st phase and further scale it up to 54 qubits in second phase.
Cooperation in various fields
  • Dr Jitendra Singh conveyed to the Finland Minister that India is keen to develop research collaborations with Finnish R&D institutions and technology collaboration with Finnish Industry especially focusing on the application of Quantum Computing in areas such as:
  • Sustainable Energy Technologies (generation, conversion, storage and conservation),
  • Environment and Clean Technologies,
  • Bio-based Economy, Bio Banks and Bio based materials for different applications of water and Marine Technologies,
  • Food & Agri Technologies,
  • Affordable Healthcare (including Pharmaceuticals and Biomedical Instrumentation) and
  • Technologies for Advanced Manufacturing Integration of AI and Machine Learning in all domains.
  • India and Finland have strong bonding in Science, Technology and Innovation.
  • Within the framework of S&T agreement, the Department of Science and Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Government of India and the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment of Finland together with Business Finland and Academy of Finland have been successfully collaborating for over a decade.
About Finland –
  • Finland is the Nordec country in Northern Europe.
  • It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland across Estonia to the south.
  • Eastern neighbour Russia has had a deep influence here for centuries but it is the first Nordic country to adopt the European currency euro.
  • The natural lakes of this country enhance the beauty here. Saima, the largest lake here, is the fourth largest lake in Europe.
  • There are some 187,888 lakes in Finland larger than 500 square metres and 75,818 islands of over 0,5 km2 area, leading to the denomination “the land of a thousand lakes”
  • Some mountains exist in the northern part where the highest parts of the country are included.
  • The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is Finland’s national animal. It is also the largest carnivore in Finland.
  • The southern part of the country (Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland) includes a lot of islands, with the Alanda Archipelago being prominent. Being close to the North Pole leads to long winters which makes life difficult.
  • Finland is the eighth largest in Europe by area and the least populous country in the European Union by population density.
  • The mother tongue of most of the people living here is Finnish, in addition  to 5.5 percent of the population is also Swedish speakers.
  • The capital Helsinki is also located on the southern coast.

Sources – PIB

India’s Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy

Paper 3 –Environment

Why Should You Know?

India submitted its Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), during the 27th Conference of Parties (COP27).

In details –
  • The Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy was launched by the Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Shri Bhupender Yadav, who is leading the Indian delegation to COP 27, being held at Sharm-el-Sheikh, Egypt from 6-18 November, 2022.

The salient features of the strategy

Utilization of resources
  • The focus will be on the rational utilization of national resources with due regard to energy security. The transitions from fossil fuels will be undertaken in a just, smooth, sustainable and all-inclusive manner.
  • The National Hydrogen Mission launched in 2021 aims to make India a green hydrogen hub.
  • The rapid expansion of green hydrogen production, increasing electrolyser manufacturing capacity in the country, and three-fold increase in nuclear capacity by 2032 are some of the other milestones that are envisaged alongside overall development of the power sector.
Use of biofuels
  • Increased use of biofuels, especially ethanol blending in petrol, the drive to increase electric vehicle penetration, and the increased use of green hydrogen fuel are expected to drive the low carbon development of the transport sector.
  • India aspires to maximise the use of electric vehicles, ethanol blending to reach 20% by 2025, and a strong modal shift to public transport for passenger and freight.
  • While urbanisation will continue as a strong trend from our current relatively low base.
  • Future sustainable and climate resilient urban development will be driven by smart city initiatives, integrated planning of cities for mainstreaming adaptation and enhancing energy and resource efficiency, effective green building codes and rapid developments in innovative solid and liquid waste management.
Energy efficiency
  • India’s industrial sector will continue on a strong growth path, in the perspective of ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’ and ‘Make in India’.
  • Low carbon development transitions in the sector should not impact energy security, energy access and employment.
  • The focus will be on improving energy efficiency by the Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme, National Hydrogen Mission, high level of electrification in all relevant processes and activities, enhancing material efficiency and recycling leading to expansion of circular economy, and exploring options for hard-to-abate sectors, such as steel, cement, aluminium and others.
Forest cover
  • India has a strong record of enhancing forest and tree cover in the last three decades alongside high economic growth.
  • India’s forest fire incidence is well below global levels, while its forest and tree cover are a net sink absorbing 15% of CO2 emissions in 2016.
  • India is on track to fulfilling its NDC commitment of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of additional carbon sequestration in forest and tree cover by 2030.
Climate finance
  • The transition to low carbon development pathway will entail several costs pertaining to the development of new technologies, new infrastructure, and other transaction costs.
  • While several estimates exist, varying across studies, they all fall generally in the range of trillions of dollars by 2050.
  • Provision of climate finance by developed countries will play a very significant role and needs to be considerably enhanced, in the form of grants and concessional loans, ensuring scale, scope and speed, predominantly from public sources, in accordance with the principles of the UNFCCC.    
India’s approach
  • The Paris Agreement in Article 4, paragraph 19, states, “All Parties should strive to formulate and communicate long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies, mindful of Article 2 taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.”
  • Further, COP 26 at Glasgow in November 2021, in Decision 1/CP.26, inter alia, (i) urged Parties that have not yet done so to communicate their LT-LEDS by COP 27 (November 2022).
  • The document has been prepared after extensive consultations held by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change with all relevant Ministries and Departments, State Governments, research institutions, and civil society organisations.
  • India’s approach is based on the following four key considerations that underpin its long-term low-carbon development strategy:
  • India has contributed little to global warming, its historical contribution to cumulative global GHG emissions being minuscule despite having a share of ~17% of the world’s population.
  • India has significant energy needs for development.
  • India is committed to pursuing low-carbon strategies for development and is actively pursuing them, as per national circumstances
  • India needs to build climate resilience.
  • The two themes of “climate justice” and “sustainable lifestyles”, alongside the principles of Equity and Common But Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR-RC), in the light of national circumstances, that India had emphasized at Paris, are at the heart of a low-carbon, low-emissions future.
  • Similarly, the LT-LEDS has been prepared in the framework of India’s right to an equitable and fair share of the global carbon budget, which is the practical implementation of India’s call for “climate justice.”
  • This is essential to ensure that there are no constraints on realizing India’s vision of rapid growth and economic transformation, while protecting the environment.
  • The LT-LEDS is also informed by the vision of LiFE, Lifestyle for the Environment, that calls for a world-wide paradigm shift from mindless and destructive consumption to mindful and deliberate utilization.

Sources – PIB


“In our LiFEtime” Campaign

Paper 3 – Environment

Why You Should Know?

“In our LiFEtime” Campaign launched by India at COP 27, Sharm El-Sheikh.

In detail –
  • National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), under the Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), jointly launched “In Our LiFEtime” campaign to encourage youth between the ages of 18 to 23 years to become message bearers of sustainable lifestyles.
  • This campaign envisions to recognize youth from around the world taking climate action initiatives that resonate with the concept of LiFE.
  • This was launched in a side event at the India Pavilion at COP 27, Sharm El-Sheikh.
  • The campaign gives a global call for ideas from youth across the world who are passionate about living environment conscious lives.
  • The youth will be encouraged to submit their climate actions that contribute to lifestyles for the environment within their capacity, which are sustainable and scalable, and serve as good practices that can be shared globally.
  • This  campaign  aims  to encourage  a  generation  of  Pro-Planet-People  that  adopt  sustainable  lifestyle practices and grow into leaders that support lifestyle for the environment.
Eligibility criteria
  • Young people who have a passion for the environment and an environmental consciousness
  • Must be between 18 –23 years of age, as of 15 August 2023.
Themes for the submissions
Sustainable Water Management
  • Water is an important resource upon which all living beings are dependent. With increasing water scarcity, challenges are increasing for humans and other living beings on the planet.
  • It is estimated that by 2040, roughly 1 in 4 children  worldwide  will be  living in areas  of extremely high water stress.
  • Climate action in sustainable water management under any of the following areas can be submitted:
  • Conservation of water bodies and community water resourcesb.
  • Improving efficiency of or reducing consumption ofdomestic water resourcesc.
  • Rainwater management
Waste Management
  • India  generates  62  million  tonnes  of  waste  every  year,  of  which  less  than  60%  is  collected  and around 15% processed.
  • There is a pressing need to devise innovative solutions for reducing waste using the principle of reuse, recycle and re-innovate.
  • Climate action in any of the following areas can be submitted:
  • Food wasteb.
  • Fabrics wastec.
  • Paper & other school supplies wasted.
  • Plastic waste
Energy Efficiency
  • One  of  the  Panchamitras,  as  announced  by  the  Hon’ble  Prime  Minister  at  COP26,  is  the  aim  to reduce the total projected carbon emission by one billion tonnes till 2030.
  • Towards that end, climate action that improve energy efficiency and reduce excessive consumption can be submitted in the following areas:
  • Electricity
  • Fuel
  • 4.Biodiversity Conservation
  • Biodiversity describes the richness and variety of life on Earth. It is significant for both the ecology as well as the economy as it provides several important resources as well as services without which life  would not sustain.
  • India  has ambitious  biodiversity targets  and has recently joined  the  High Ambition Coalition for Nature and People, encouraging the adoption of the global goal to protect at least 30 percent of the world’s land and ocean by 2030 (30×30).
  • Thus, climate action that support conservation of biodiversity in the following areas can be submitted:
  • Land restoration
  • Conservation of coastal ecosystem
Sustainable Fashion
  • It is estimated that approximately 60% of fast fashion items are produced with plastic-based (which is made from fossil fuels) fabrics. These fabrics significantly contribute to the worldwide plastic
  • pollution crisis throughout their life  cycles.  With eachwash and  dry, especially the  latter, sheds microfilaments  that  move  through  our  sewage  systems  and  end  up  in  waterways. 
  • Researchers estimate that half a million tons of these contaminants reach the ocean each year.
  • Climate action in the area of sustainable fashion can also be submitted.

The top 10 ideas will be announced on the 14thof October, 2023.

  • The ideas of the top 10 winners will be showcased at the next UNFCCC COP.
  • The “In our LiFEtime” book will be curated with all the best practices received and launched at the next UNFCCC COP.
  • An  Innovation  Summit  to  promote  the  exchange  and  enhancement  of  ideas  among  students, colleges, and experts will also be facilitated by the Government of India at UNFCCC COP 28.

Source – PIB



Paper 3 – Security

Why Should You Know?

The third edition of the ‘Pan-India’ Coastal Defence Exercise ‘Sea Vigil-22’ will be conducted on 15-16 Nov 22.

In detail –
  • This National Level Coastal Defence Exercise was conceptualised in 2018 to validate various measures that have been instituted towards enhancing maritime security since ‘26/11’.
  • Coastal Security being a major sub-set of Coastal Defence construct, the concept of ‘Sea Vigil’ is to activate the Coastal Security apparatus across India and assess the overarching Coastal Defence mechanism.
  • The exercise will be undertaken along the entire 7516 km coastline and Exclusive Economic Zone of India and will involve all the Coastal States and Union territories along with other maritime stakeholders, including the fishing and coastal communities.
  • The exercise is being conducted by the Indian Navy in coordination with the Coast Guard and other ministries entrusted with the task of maritime activities.
  • The scale and conceptual expanse of the exercise is unprecedented in terms of the geographical extent, the number of stakeholders involved, the number of units participating and in terms of the objectives to be met.
  • The exercise is a build up towards the major Theatre Level Readiness Operational Exercise (TROPEX), which the Indian Navy conducts every two years.
  • Sea Vigil and TROPEX together will cover the entire spectrum Maritime Security challenges.
  • Assets of the Indian Navy, Coast Guard, Customs and other maritime agencies will participate in Ex Sea Vigil.
  • In addition to the Ministry of Defence, the conduct of this exercise is also being facilitated by the Ministries of Home Affairs, Ports Shipping and Waterways, Petroleum and Natural Gas, Fisheries Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Customs, and other agencies of Centre/ State.
  • While smaller scale exercises are conducted in Coastal States regularly, including combined exercises amongst adjoining states, the conduct of exercise Sea Vigil at the national level is aimed to serve a larger purpose.
  • It provides opportunity, at the apex level, to assess our preparedness in the domain of Maritime Security and Coastal Defence.
  • Exercise Sea Vigil-22 will provide realistic assessment of our strengths and weaknesses and thus will help in further strengthening Maritime and National Security.

Sources – PIB


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