Ojaank IAS Academy




16 November 2022 – Current Affairs

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8 Billion Population

Paper 2 – International Issues

Why You Should Know?

The human population touched 8 billion on November 15, 2022  a milestone that heralds both opportunities and challenges.

In detail –
  • India, which is set to become the world’s most populous country next year by surpassing China.It is both a challenge and an opportunity for India.
  • the United Nations hailed the 8-billion figure as “a testament to humanity’s achievements”, it also sounded a note of caution.
  • The growth of our population is a testament to humanity’s achievements, including reductions in poverty and gender inequality, advancements in health care, and expanded access to education.
  • These have resulted in more women surviving childbirth, more children surviving their early years, and longer, healthier lifespans, decade after decade.
  • But population growth can make challenges of hunger and poverty steeper.
  • Rapid population growth makes eradicating poverty, combating hunger and malnutrition, and increasing the coverage of health and education systems more difficult.
Unequal distribution
  • The UN population report said the global population is growing at its slowest rate since 1950, having fallen under 1 per cent in 2020.
  • The world’s population could grow to around 8.5 billion in 2030 and 9.7 billion in 2050.
  • It is projected to reach a peak of around 10.4 billion people during the 2080s and to remain at that level until 2100.
  • More than half of the projected increase in the global population up to 2050 will be concentrated in eight countries: the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines and the United Republic of Tanzania.
  • Countries of sub-Saharan Africa are expected to contribute more than half of the increase anticipated through 2050.
About India
  • India is projected to overtake China as the world’s most populous country in 2023.
  • with prospects to reap the demographic dividend as the median age of an Indian this year was 28.7 years, compared to 38.4 for China and 48.6 for Japan against a global value of 30.3 years.
  • The population prospects report had said that India’s population stands at 1.412 billion in 2022, compared to China’s 1.426 billion.
  • India is projected to have a population of 1.668 billion in 2050, way ahead of China’s 1.317 billion people by the middle of the century.
  • According to United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) estimates, 68 per cent of India’s population is between 15-64 years old in 2022, while people aged 65 and above comprise seven per cent of the population.
  • As per UN estimates, over 27 per cent of the country’s population is between the ages of 15-29. At 253 million, India is also home to the world’s largest adolescent population (10-19 years).
  • UNFPA has noted that India has its largest ever adolescent and youth population.
  • According to UNFPA projections, India will continue to have one of the youngest populations in the world till 2030 and is currently experiencing a demographic window of opportunity, a “youth bulge” that will last till 2025.
About China
  • China, which is weighed down by a rapidly increasing ageing population, is projected to enter a “severe ageing” phase in 2035 with 400 million people above 60 years.
  • This can be blamed mainly on its decades of one-child policy.
  • China’s elderly population reached 267 million last year, accounting for 18.9 per cent.
  • It is estimated that the elderly population will top 300 million by 2025 and 400 million by 2035.
  • China’s population grew by less than half a million-last year to 1.4126 billion as the birth rates fell for the fifth consecutive year.
  • Since last year, China has allowed couples to have three children and even announced incentives for people to have more children.

Sources – IE


Birsa Munda

Paper 1 – History

Why You Should Know?

On the occasion of the birth anniversary of tribal leader Birsa Munda, the Centre marked the second Janjatiya Gaurav Divas on November 15 to celebrate the contributions of tribal communities to Indian culture.

In detail –
  • President Droupadi Murmu, who was appointed India’s first tribal woman president this year, visited Ulihatu village in the Khunti district of Jharkhand – the birthplace of ‘Bhagwan’ Birsa Munda – and paid floral tributes.
  • As Union Tribal Affairs Minister Arjun Munda announced recently, national and state-level programmes are being organised to celebrate Janjatiya Gaurav Divas from November 15 to 22.
  • The government has also paid tributes to other pre-independence era tribal leaders recently, with the statue of Alluri Sitharama Raju inaugurated by the Prime Minister this year and new ‘tribal museums’ announced.
Jharkhand’s tribals
  • The Munda tribe inhabited the Chota Nagpur region of today’s Jharkhand.
  • When Birsa Munda was born in 1875, the British were attempting to establish control over and exploit forest lands, disrupting the tribal way of life.
  • This was done in part by allying with local zamindars, who helped force the tribals into bonded labour.
  • A feudal zamindari system was introduced, destroying the tribal “Khuntkatti” agrarian and land ownership system that was more community-based.
  • The Raj brought in outsiders — moneylenders and contractors, as well as feudal landlords — to aid them.
Role of  Birsa Munda
  • Munda received his early education under the guidance of his teacher Jaipal Nag. Influenced by him, Birsa converted to Christianity in order to join the German Mission school. He, however, opted out of the school after a few years.
  • With the impact of British rule in the region, as well as the activities of Christian missionaries, many tribals became critical of the British and missionaries’ presence.
  • From 1886 to 1890, Birsa Munda spent a large amount of time in Chaibasa, which was close to the centre of the Sardari agitation.
  • The Sardars’ activities had a strong impact on him and he became a part of the anti-missionary and anti-government programmes.
  • By the time he left Chaibasa in 1890, Birsa was strongly entrenched in the movement against the British oppression of the tribal communities.
  • Birsa soon emerged as a tribal leader who brought people together on fighting for these issues.
  •  He became a God-like figure, with him leading the faith of ‘Birsait’. Soon, members of the Munda and Oraon communities started joining the Birsait sect and it turned into a challenge to British conversion activities.
The Ulgulan movement
  • The Ulgulan movement of 1899 also involved the use of weapons and guerrilla warfare to drive out foreigners.
  • Munda encouraged the tribals to refuse following colonial laws and paying rent.
  • He encouraged changes in the social sphere too, challenging religious practices to fight against superstition, and became known as ‘Bhagwan’ (God) and ‘Dharati Aba’ (Father of the earth) by his followers.
  • But the British were soon able to halt the movement. On March 3, 1900, Munda was arrested by the British police while he was sleeping with his tribal guerilla army at Jamkopai forest in Chakradharpur.
  • It is believed he died in Ranchi jail due to an illness on June 9, 1900, at the young age of 25.
  • Though he lived a short life and the movement died out soon after his death.
  • Birsa Munda is known to have paid a significant role in mobilising the tribal community against the British and forcing the colonial officials to introduce laws protecting the land rights of the tribals.

Sources –IE

National Press Day

Paper 2 –Governance

Why You Should Know?

India celebrates 16th November as National Press Day every year and the day is observed in honor of the Press Council of India.

In detail –
  • The day is meant to mark the presence of the free and responsible press in India.
  • The Press Council of India is responsible for examining the quality of reportage from the Indian media, while also keeping a check on other journalistic activities.
  • In the year 1956, the First Press Commission decided to form a body bestowed with statutory authority, meant to fulfill the responsibility of maintaining the ethics of journalism.
  • The Commission felt that a managing body was required in order to connect with the people of the press and also to arbitrate on any issues that arose.
  • In 1966, on 16the November, the PCI was formed and following this, the National Press Day has been celebrated ever since on 16th November, every year to commemorate the establishment of the council.
  • According to the Press Council of India’s official website, the council is traditionally chaired by a retired Supreme Court Judge and 28 additional members of which 20 are members of the media outlets operating in India.
  • Five members are nominated from the Houses of the Parliament and the remaining three represent cultural, legal and literary fields.
Significance of Press Freedom
  • The freedom of the press is an essential aspect to maintain the independence of the press.
  • This ensures the integrity of the press as it is often referred to as the the voice of the voiceless, a connecting link between the all-powerful rulers and those who are being ruled.
  • The goal of the press is to bring to light any injustice faced by the people and highlights the malaise of the system.
  • It is meant to help the government find solutions to these problems, while strengthening the values of the democratic system of governance.
  • For this very reason, the press is often referred to as one of the four pillars of a strong democracy and is the only aspect where the common citizen can directly participate in.
  • The other three pillars are the Executive, Legislative, and the Judiciary – a gang of select few.
  • The council is extremely important to India as it was inherently constructed to protect the fourth pillar of a democracy, that is, the free press.
  • Hence, it works consistently to ensure that the credibility of journalism is not compromised.

Source – AIR


Shabd Shala

Paper 2 –Education

Why You Should Know?

The Commission for Scientific and Technical Terminology will soon launch Shabd Shala website.

In detail –
  • Selfie’, ‘drones’, ‘metaverse’, and ‘Artificial Intelligence’ are among the new, “technical” English words that become a part of Indian psyche and culture but have no formal translations into Indian languages.
  • Unable to find standardised vernacular versions of these words in common usage, the government body responsible for their coinage in Indian languages is turning to crowdsourcing.
  • The Commission for Scientific and Technical Terminology (CSTT), which has the mandate to evolve technical terminology in all Indian languages, will soon launch ‘Shabd Shala’, a website which will invite suggestions for translation of words that are recent additions to the English language and are used widely in India.
  • People across India can log onto the ‘Shabd Shala’ website and provide suggestions for possible translations of these words or their most prevalent usages in their respective languages.
  • The website is expected to be functional in six months.
  • After collating all the suggestions, the Technical Words Selection Committee will zero in on the most popular or appropriate translations for each word, following which a glossary would be brought out in all the respective languages.
  • The committee, to be constituted in consultation with the Education Ministry, will comprise of subject experts in science and technology, and experts in linguistics and the Sanskrit language.
What is CSTT?
  • CSTT which refers to Commission for Scientific and Technical Terminology was established on October 01, 1961 in pursuance of a Presidential Order dated April 27, 1960.
  • The objective ofCSTTestablishment isto evolve technical terminology in all Indian Languages.
  • The Commission was established under clause (4) of Article 344 of the Constitution of India as a follow up of recommendations of a Committee in this regard.
  • The main function of the Commission is to evolve standard terminology, propagate its use and distribute it widely.
  • In the process of evolution of scientific and technical terminology and reference material in Hindi and Indian Languages, the Commission shall have collaboration of State Governments, Universities, Regional Text-Book Boards and State Granth Academies.
  • Presently, CSTT is functioning under Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Government of India with its headquarters at New Delhi.
  • Twenty two State Granth Academies / State Text-Book Boards / Universities Cells, etc. are also associated with this Commission to produce University Level Text-Books / reference materials in Hindi and other Indian Languages with the use of standard terminology as evolved by the CSTT.
  • Till date, CSTT has standardized the terminology of about eight lakhs technical terms in different subjects and in different languages.
  • Besides this, CSTT has published large number of Definitional Dictionaries, Glossaries, Text-Books, Reference Materials and Monographs, Quarterly Journals named ‘Vigyan Garima Sindhu’ and ‘Gyan Garima Sindhu’ and many more works of similar nature.
  • CSTT has also taken care of Administrative and various Departmental Glossaries that are widely used by various Government Departments, Institutions, Research Laboratories, Autonomous Organization, PSUs etc.

Sources –TH

Artemis 1 Mission

Paper 3 – Science & Tech

Why You Should Know?

NASA launched the most powerful rocket ever built on a journey to the Moon on November 16, 2022 in a spectacular blaze of light and sound that marked the start of the space agency’s new flagship program, Artemis.

In detail –
  • Artemis 1, is an uncrewed Moon-orbiting mission, the first spaceflight in NASA’s Artemis program, and the first flight of the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket and the complete Orion spacecraft.
  • Artemis 1 was successfully launched from Kennedy Space Center on 16 November 2022 at 1:47:44 am EST (6:47:44 UTC).
  • Formerly known as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1), the mission was renamed following the creation of the Artemis program.
  • The mission lifted off from Launch Complex 39B at the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Space Launch System rocket.
  • The Orion spacecraft has been launched on a mission of between 26 and 42 days, with at least six of those days in a distant retrograde orbit around the Moon.
  • After reaching Earth orbit and performing a trans-lunar injection (burn to the Moon), the mission will deploy ten CubeSat satellites.
  • The Orion spacecraft will later enter a distant retrograde orbit for six days.
  • The Orion spacecraft will then return and reenter the Earth’s atmosphere, protected by its heat shield, and splash down in the Pacific Ocean.
  • The mission will certify Orion and the Space Launch System for crewed flights beginning with Artemis 2.
  • After the Artemis 1 mission, Artemis 2 will perform a crewed lunar flyby and Artemis 3 will perform a crewed lunar landing, five decades after the last lunar Apollo mission.
  • Artemis 2 will involve a flyby of the Moon with astronauts in 2024, while Artemis 3 will see boots on lunar soil, no sooner than 2025.
  • It’s been a half century since the six Apollo human Moon landings between 1969 and 1972.
  • Since then, spacecraft have travelled beyond the solar system, exploratory missions have probed Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, more than 500 astronauts have made return trips to space, and permanent space labs have been set up.
  • Artemis 1 is seen as the first step into that new space age. In the missions that will follow, human beings will go back to the Moon, explore the possibilities of long lunar stays, and assess the potential of the Moon as a launch pad for explorations into deep space.
  • While the mission objectives of Artemis 1 itself are humble — it is only a lunar Orbiter mission even though, unlike most Orbiter missions, it has a return-to-Earth target — it is intended to lay the foundations for more complex and ambitious missions.

Sources – IE

Senna Spectabilis Tree

Paper 3 – Environment

Why You Should Know?

An invasive species of tree (Senna spectabilis) has been spreading rapidly in the buffer and core zone of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve (MTR) located in the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu for the last five years.

In detail –
  • This exotic tree has so far occupied 800 to 1200 hectares of MTR. This tree is spreading faster than other species of trees.
  • Environmentalists say that due to this, local species of plants or trees are not getting a chance to flourish.
  • However, the stateForest department claims to have drawn up a comprehensive strategy to stop the spread of invasive species that are fast spreading in this buffer zone.
  • The invasive species Senna spectabilis tree is mostly used as firewood in areas of South and Central America.
  • But only during the last few years, this tree is spreading rapidly in the Sigur Plateau of both the core and buffer zone of MTR in Tamil Nadu.
  • In the last few years its bright yellow flowers are appearing in abundance in the Tiger Reserve.
  • Environmental conservationists say the invasive weed has a negative impact on local biodiversity.
  • Due to this native species do not thrive in their midst. In such a situation, the opportunities for availability of food for wildlife are gradually getting limited.
  • Now the situation has become such that these days it can be seen anywhere in the entire district. They are growing rapidly everywhere.
  • According to the Forest Department, at present its employees are demarcating all the areas where these invasive species of trees are spreading.
  • According to forest department officials, they are waiting for a response from Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Limited (TNPL) that they will use the wood of the invasive species Senna spectabilis trees to make paper.
  • Officials say that the funds received from TNPL will be used to bring back the native species.
Ten-year Plan
  • Apart from this, the forest department is also preparing a ten-year plan to remove trees of another invasive species called Lantana camara.
  • Because these invasive weeds are also fast becoming a threat to the biodiversity of both the core and buffer zones of the Tiger Reserve.
  • Senna spectabilis and Lantana camara are among the five major invasive weeds that have taken over vast areas of Eucalyptus.
  • According to the Forest Department, cedar is also an exotic species of tree to say, but it does not spread as fast as other species and it is easy to control.
Several PILs
  • The Madras High Court is hearing several PILs seeking removal of invasive species from the tiger reserve, says the forest department.
  • And as a result of this, the judges also inspected the tiger reserve this year to know the progress of the work on removal of invasive species.
Spreading in core area
  • The forest department says that the invasive species Senna spectabilis tree is spreading rapidly in Singara, Masinagudi forest range in the MTR buffer zone and also in the Kargudi range in the core area of ​​the reserve. The department says that policy decisions are being prepared in this regard at the departmental level.
  • Only under this, TNPL will get permission so that it can make paper using trees of invasive species.
  • The Forest Department says that they have removed the invasive species Lantana camara from an area of ​​125 hectares in 2021 and 70 hectares of the weed are yet to be removed this year.

Sources – Down to Earth

‘Khadi India’ Pavilion

Paper 3 –Economy

Why Should You Know?

Khadi India Pavilion to be showcased at India International Trade Fair 2022

In details –
  • The Khadi India pavilion, depicting the theme of “Vocal for Local, Local to Global”.
  • The Khadi India pavilion has set-up more than 200 stalls for participation by Khadi artisans through Khadi Institutions,
  • Units established under Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Program (PMEGP) & units established under SFURTI Cluster from across the country, showcasing the finest handcrafted Khadi and Village Industry products.
  • The theme pavilion also depicts the core areas of Khadi, i.e. rural economy, technology, infrastructure, youth participation and global outreach, as five pillars of “Aatmanirbhar Bharat”, the Vision of  Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi.
  • Live demonstration of Charkha Spinning activity, making pottery items, Agarbatti making, Embroidery on Pashmina & Wool by J&K women artisans, etc. are being done at the Khadi India pavilion,
  • It is to educate and motivate youths to take up self-employment activities and to become ‘Job provider, instead of Job seeker’.
  • A special Facilitation Desk’ will also guide the budding entrepreneurs about setting up manufacturing / service units under Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Program (PMEGP).
  • A range of premium Khadi fabric like; Muslin of West Bengal, Pashmina from Jammu & Kashmir, Patola silk of Gujarat, Banarasi Silk, Bhagalpuri Silk, Phulkari of Punjab, Kalamkari & Punduru Khadi products of Andhra Pradesh and several other varieties of cotton, silk and wool fabric are displayed at the Khadi India Pavilion.
  • A wide range of village industry products produced in the rural atmosphere by the Khadi artisans are attracting the visitors.
What is Khadi?
  • Khadi derived from khaddar, is a hand-spun and woven natural fibre cloth promoted by Mahatma Gandhi as swadeshi (self-sufficiency) for the freedom struggle of the Indian subcontinent, and the term is used throughout India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
  • The first piece of the hand-woven cloth was manufactured in the Sabarmati Ashram during 1917–18. The coarseness of the cloth led Gandhi to call it khadi.
  • The cloth is made from cotton, but it may also include silk or wool, which are all spun into yarn on a charkha.
  • It is a versatile fabric that remains cool in summer and warm in winter. To improve its appearance, khadi is sometimes starched to give it a stiffer feel.
  • It is widely accepted in various fashion circles.Popular dresses are made using khadi cloth such as dhoti, kurta, and handloom saris such as Puttapaka Saree, Kotpad Handloom fabrics, Chamba Rumal, and Tussar silk.
  • Gajam Anjaiah, an Indian master handloom designer and a recipient of the Padma Shri, is known for his innovation and development of tie-dye handloom products along with the Telia Rumal technique of weaving products based on the Ikat process.
About Khadi Development and Village Industries Commission –
  • Khadi and Village Industries Commission is a statutory body created by the Government of India under the ‘Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act 1956’ of the Parliament.
  • It is an apex body under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (Government of India) dealing with Khadi and Village Industries in India,
  • Its main objective is to plan, promote, provide facilities and assistance for the establishment and development of Khadi and Village Industries in rural areas, in which it can also take the help of other agencies working in the field of rural development as per the requirement.
  • In April 1957, it took over the full charge of the erstwhile All India Khadi and Village Industries Board.
  • It is headquartered in Mumbai, while other divisional offices are located in Delhi, Bhopal, Bangalore, Kolkata, Mumbai and Guwahati.
  • Apart from the divisional offices, it also has offices in 28 states to implement its various programmes.
What is Ponduru Khadi –
  • This Khadi is produced from Ponduru, a village in Srikakulum district in North Andhra Pradesh.
  • The uniqueness about this fabric is the fiber. It is produced from a special variety of cotton called Punas cotton, hill white cotton and red cotton. The cotton is of very short staple length produced in Srikakulum area.
  • The second uniqueness about this fabric is the method of spinning.
  • The raw seeded cotton is ginned with the help of Valuga fish jawbone. This fish is only found in that area. Then it is fluffed and smoothed with the help of fine sticks which also remove the waste.
  • Slivering is done with a bow and carding is done with the help of a wooden machine. The slivers are handmade and kept in a dried banana stem.
  • This is one of the only places where still single spindle charkha is used for spinning. Yarn upto 120s count can be spun in white cotton while upto 60s can be spun with red cotton.

Sources – PIB


“Yudh Abhyas 2022”

Paper 3 – Security

Why You Should Know?

The 18th edition of Indo – US joint training exercise “YUDH ABHYAS 22” is scheduled to be conducted in Uttarakhand this month.

In detail –
  • Exercise Yudh Abhyas is conducted annually between India and USA with the aim of exchanging best practices, Tactics, Techniques and Procedures between the Armies of the two nations.
  • The previous edition of the exercise was conducted at Joint Base Elmendorf Richardson, Alaska (USA) in October 2021.
  • US Army soldiers of 2nd Brigade of the 11th Airborne Division and Indian Army soldiers from the ASSAM Regiment will be participating in the exercise.
  • The training schedule focuses on employment of an integrated battle group under Chapter VII of the UN Mandate.
  • The schedule will include all operations related to peace keeping & peace enforcement.
  • The troops from both nations will work together to achieve common objectives. 
  • The joint exercise will also focus on Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) operations.
  • Troops from both nations will practice launching of swift & coordinated relief efforts in the wake of any natural calamity.
  • In order to derive full benefit from the professional skills & experiences of  both the armies, a Command Post Exercise and Expert Academic Discussions (EAD) on carefully selected topics will be carried out.
  • The scope of the Field Training Exercise includes validation of integrated battle groups, force multipliers, establishment and functioning of surveillance grids, validation of operational logistics, mountain warfare skills, casualty evacuation  and combat medical aid in adverse terrain and climatic conditions.
  • The exercise will involve exchanges and practices on a wide spectrum of combat skills including combat engineering, employment of UAS/Counter UAS techniques and information operations.
  • The joint Indo-US exercise is undertaken with the aim of exchanging best practices, tactics, techniques and procedures between the Armies of the two nations. The two-week training exercise serves as an opportunity for both countries’ soldiers to enhance interoperability and achieve common objectives.
  • The exercise will facilitate both Armies to share their wide experiences, skills and enhance their techniques through information exchange.

Source – PIB

“Vaccines Injecting Hope”

Paper 2 – Health

Why Should You Know?

On November 15, 2022 Shri Arjun Ram Meghwal, inaugurates international travelling Exhibition “Vaccines Injecting Hope” at National Science Centre, Delhi.

In detail –
  • This exhibition has been made possible with support from Wellcome, UK; ICMR, India and other research and scientific organisations in India.
  • NCSM and Science Museum Group, London have joined hands to tell the story of the global effort to develop vaccines.
  • Starting from November 15, 2022, the exhibition will tour five venues across India namely Delhi, Nagpur, Mumbai, Bengaluru and Kolkata till September 2025 and is expected to reach out to more than 2 million people.
  • This exhibition curated by NCSM and the Science Museum Group of UK, tells us the story of the creation of a modern day vaccine and its many facets, with its human side.
About exhibition
  • The exhibition has sections on ‘The Arrival of New Virus’, ‘Designing a New Vaccine’, ‘Trials, Results and Approvals’, ‘Scaling Up and Mass Production’, ‘Vaccine Rollout’, ‘Living with COVID’ and tells the story of the global effort to find new ways to develop vaccines at pandemic speed and look at vaccinations more broadly with a historical and contemporary view.
  • The exhibition set out the scientific principles underlying a vaccine’s creation and efficacy while capturing the behind-the-scenes work that accompanies their rapid development, production, transport, and delivery.
  • The exhibition showcases ‘Through The Lens’, an artwork commissioned by British Council and created through collaboration between Indian sculptor based in Delhi, Sushank Kumar, and a playwright in London, Nigel Townsend.
  • The artwork seeks to explore our relationship with Vaccination historically and in the light of the recent Covid-19 pandemic.
About National Council of Science Museums
  • National Council of Science Museums (NCSM), a premiere institution in the field of science communication, is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India. 
  • Primarily engaged in popularizing Science and Technology through a network of science centres, Mobile Science Exhibitions (MSE) units that visit rural schools and organise plethora of activities for public and students in particular,
  • NCSM has now become a trend setter in the field of science communication both at national and international level.
  • Presently NCSM, with its Headquarters in Kolkata, administers and manages 26 science museums/centres spread across the country and is the world’s largest network of science centres and museums that functions under a single administrative umbrella with an annual reach to about 15 million people.
  • Innovation Hubs set up by NCSM, provide expert guidance and professional lab equipment facilities to young students to nurture creativity, innovation and engagement in science.
  • 42hubs are functional in science centres/institutions across the country reaching about 10,000 students annually through each hubs.
About ICMR
  • The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research, is one of the oldest and largest medical research bodies in the world.
  • In 1911, the Government of India set up the Indian Research Fund Association (IRFA) with the specific objective of sponsoring and coordinating medical research in the country.
  • After independence, several important changes were made in the organisation and the activities of the IRFA.
  • It was redesignated the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in 1949, considerably expanded scope of functions.
  • The ICMR is funded by the Government of India through the Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • In 2007 the organization established the Clinical Trials Registry – India, which is India’s national registry for clinical trials.
  • The governing body of the council is presided over by the Union Health Minister.

Sources – PIB


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