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OJAANK IAS ACADEMY

19 August 2022 – Current Affairs

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Vinbax 2022

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?
Recently Vietnam-India Bilateral Army Exercise Vinbax 2022 Concluded at Chandimandir
In details –
  • Vietnam-India Bilateral Army Exercise VINBAX 2022 concluded at Chandimandir with an impressive display of Multi Agency Humanitarian Assistance in Disaster Relief (HADR) demonstration and an equipment display showcasing the Make in India and Atmanirbhar Bharat initiatives.
  • The exercise had commenced on 01 August and was focused on deployment of Army Engineer and Medical teams in UN Peacekeeping operations.
  • What made the exercise unique was the fact that it was the first time ever that the Vietnam People’s Army (VPA) was undertaking a Field Training Exercise with any foreign Army. The fact that Vietnam chose India for this honour, speaks volumes about the value the two countries place on their mutual relationship.
  • Over a period of three weeks, the soldiers of the two Armies rubbed shoulders with each other learning from each other and sharing best practices. Vietnam has deployed a contingent in UN peacekeeping operations for the first time in South Sudan while India has a long and rich tradition of contributing to UN peacekeeping operations.
  • The contingents from the two countries underwent theory classes followed by practical exercises to validate the learning.
  • The final validation exercise nicknamed ‘Men in Blue’ was built around the setting up of a base in a remote African location faced with myriad challenges.
  • The closing ceremony was attended by H.E Pham Sanh Chau the Ambassador of Vietnam to India and a high-level observer delegation of VPA who had flown down especially for the purpose.
  • On the Indian side Lt Gen Nav Kumar Khanduri, GOC in C Western Comd presided over the event which was hosted by Lt Gen Pratik Sharma, GOC Kharga Corps. Speaking on the occasion the dignitaries emphasised the close relationship and convergence of interests between Vietnam and India.
  • The next edition of VINBAX will be hosted in Vietnam in 2023.
About Vietnaam –
  • Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia.
  • , and shares maritime borders with Thailand through the Gulf of Thailand, and the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia through the South China Sea.
  • Its capital is Hanoi and largest city Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Buddhism is the main religion here which accounts for 85% of the country’s population and it is the third largest country in the world in terms of Buddhist population (after China and Japan).
  • The official currency is Vietnamese dong.

Inida’s First ‘Har Ghar Jal’ Certified State/UT

Paper 3- Infrastructure
Why Should You Know?
Goa becomes the First ‘Har Ghar Jal’ Certified State & Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diubecomes the First ‘Har Ghar Jal’ Certified UT in the Country.
In details –
  • Goa and Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu (D&NH and D&D) becomes the first ‘Har Ghar Jal’ certified State and UT in the country respectively, where people from all the villages have declared their village as ‘Har Ghar Jal’ through a resolution passed by Gram Sabha, certifying that all households in the villages have access to safe drinking water through taps, ensuring that ‘No One is Left Out’. 
  • All 2.63 lakh rural households of Goa & 85,156 of Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu have access to potable water through tap connection.
  • Jal Jeevan Mission is a flagship programme of Government of India which was announced from the ramparts of Red Fort by visionary Prime Minister on August 15, 2019.
  • The mission aims to make provision of potable tap water supply in adequate quantity, of prescribed quality and on regular & long-term basis to every rural household of the country by 2024. The program is implemented by Government of India in partnership with States/UTs.
  • Despite various disruptions and challenges faced during COVID-19 pandemic, the consistent efforts by Panchayat representatives, Pani Samitis, District and State/UT officials of Goa and D&NH and D&D have led tothis achievement.All schools, anganwadi centres, public institutions including Gram Panchayat buildings, healthcare centres, community centres, ashramshalas, and other government offices have now access to potable water through tap connection.
Process of certification –
  • The process of certification has been detailed out in the Margdarshika of Jal Jeevan Mission according to which first of all, the field engineer submits a completion certificate regarding water supply scheme to the Panchayat during Gram Sabha meeting.
  • The villages confirm through a resolution of the Gram Sabha, that every household is getting regular supply of water of prescribed quality and not a single household is left out.
  • They also confirm that all schools, anganwadi centers and other public institutions also getting tap water.
Village Water and Sanitation Committee –
  • Village Water and Sanitation Committee (VWSC) or paani samiti has been constituted in all the 378 villages of Goa and 96 villages of D&NH and D&D.
  • VWSC is responsible for operation, maintenance and repair of water supply infrastructure developed under ‘Har Ghar Jal’ programme.
  • This sub-committee of Gram Panchayat also has the responsibility to collect user charge which will be deposited in the bank account and shall be used to pay honorarium of the pump operator and carry out minor repair work from time-to-time.
  • Water Quality is an important aspect of the mission and to ensure the same, at least five women in every village are trained to carry out water testing. Today more than 10 lakh women in the country have been trained to use Field Test Kits (FTKs) for testing the quality of water supplied in rural households. More than 57 lakh water samples have been tested by these women using Field Testing Kits (FTKs)
  • According to a data more than 52% rural households in the country are now connected with tap water which was only 17% at the time of launch of this transformational mission on August 15, 2019.

Model to Trace Elusive Exo-Moons

Paper 1 – Geography
Why Should You Know?
Recetly Scientists formulated a model to trace elusive exo-moons from James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) data.
In details –
  • Scientists have developed a model to trace the so far elusive exomoons – natural satellites that revolve around exoplanets (planets orbiting stars other than the Sun) with the help of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), launched in December 2021.
  • This may also help detect habitable exo-moons in the future and understand new worlds beyond our own.
  • So far, five thousand exoplanets — planets orbiting stars other than the Sun, have been discovered by using several ground-based and space telescopes such as Kepler, CoRoT, Spitzer, and Hubble space telescopes. However, the natural satellites or exomoon around any of these planets still remain untraced.
  • The Solar system is constituted of a large number of natural satellites with various sizes and mass, and many of them influence the ambient environment of the Solar planets. Therefore, a large number of exomoons are expected to be present, and they may play a crucial role in the habitability of rocky exoplanets in the habitable zone of their host stars. While most exoplanets are detected through photometric transit method, signals from exo-moons are too weak to detect mainly because of their extremely small size.
  • Scientists at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, an autonomous institute of the Department of Science and Technology, have demonstrated that the newly launched James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is sufficiently powerful to detect the transit signal of exomoons in the photometric light curves of moon hosting exoplanets.
  • Professor Sujan Sengupta and his graduate student Suman Saha have developed an analytical model that uses the radius and orbital properties of the host planet and its moon as parameters to model the photometric transit light curve of moon-hosting exoplanets by incorporating various possible orientations of the moon-planet-star system.
About Model –
  • The co-alignment or non-coalignment of the orbits of the planet and the moon are used as parameters (using two angular parameters), and they can be used to model all the possible orbital alignments for a star-planet-moon system.
  • Using these generic models and the analysis of photometric transit light curves of exoplanets that is being obtained by JWST, a large number of exomoons can be detected in near future.
  • According to the researchers, an exo-moon around a gas giant planet like Jupiter in the habitable zone of the host star where temperature is appropriate for water to exist in liquid state may harbour life.
  • Under favourable alignment of moon-planet-star, such exomoon may also be detected by JWST. The research has been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal, which is published by the American Astronomical Society (AAS).
About James Webb Space Telescope –
  • The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space telescope designed primarily to conduct infrared astronomy. As the largest optical telescope in space, its high infrared resolution and sensitivity allow it to view objects too early, distant, or faint for the Hubble Space Telescope.
  • The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) led JWST’s development in collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).
  • The telescope is named after James E. Webb, who was the administrator of NASA from 1961 to 1968 during the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs.
  • The James Webb Space Telescope was launched on 25 December 2021 on an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana, and arrived at the Sun–Earth L2 Lagrange point in January 2022. The first image from JWST was released to the public via a press conference on 11 July 2022.The telescope is the successor of the Hubble as NASA’s flagship mission in astrophysics.
  • JWST’s primary mirror consists of 18 hexagonal mirror segments made of gold-plated beryllium, which combined create a 6.5-meter-diameter (21 ft) mirror, compared with Hubble’s 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in). This gives JWST a light-collecting area of about 25 square meters, about six times that of Hubble.
  • This is expected to enable a broad range of investigations across the fields of astronomy and cosmology, such as observation of the first stars and the formation of the first galaxies, and detailed atmospheric characterization of potentially habitable exoplanets.

All Male Tilapia Aquaculture Project

Paper 3 – Agriculture
Why Should You Know?
Inspired by Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana, and to bring ‘Blue Revolution’ Technology Development Board- Department of Science and Technology (TDB-DST) supports its first aquaculture project.
In details –
  • Fisheries is one of the fastest growing sectors amongst the primary producing sectors. The sector plays a vital role in economic and overall development of the country, also referred as the “sunrise sector”, it is poised to bring in immense potential through equitable and inclusive growth.
  • The sector is recognized as a powerful engine for providing employment to 14.5 million people and sustaining livelihood for 28 million fishermen community of the country. Thus, the sector urges young entrepreneurs of the country to come forward and offer solutions, resolving on-ground challenges through technology interventions and innovative solutions.
  • To promote this, the cabinet under the chairmanship of Hon’ble Prime Minister, came up with ‘Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY)’ to bring about ‘Blue Revolution’ through sustainable and responsible development of fisheries sector in India.
  • The scheme targets to enhance fish production to 220 lakh metric tons by 2024-25, at an average annual growth rate of about 9%. The ambitious scheme also aims to double the export earnings to Rs.1,00,000 crore and generate about 55 lakhs direct and indirect employment opportunities in fisheries sector over a period of next five years.
  • Realizing the potential of Fisheries sector, Technology Development Board, a statutory body under Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India supports M/s Fountainhead Agro Farms Private Limited, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra for ‘Advanced, Intensive, All Male Tilapia Aquaculture Project with Israeli Technology’.
  • The board has penned an mutual agreement, to provide loan assistance of  Rs. 8.42 crores out of the total project cost of Rs. 29.78 crores to the company.
  • ‘Tilapia’ has emerged to be one of the most productive and internationally traded   food   fish   in   the   world. The culture of tilapia has become commercially popular in many parts of the  world  and  the  fishery experts have dubbed the tilapia as “aquatic chicken” due to its quick growth and low maintenance cultivation. Today, if any fish that could be named as global fish, no better name can be thought of than Tilapia.
  • In order to facilitate the  culture  of  Tilapia  in  India  in  responsible  manner,  M/s Fountainhead Agro Farms Private Limited envisages setting up of a complete production line (from breeding to full fish) in Mudhol (Karnataka).
  • The company aims to produce 500 tons of Tilapia, to be grown from the imported parent broodstock ‘Hermon’ from Nir David Fish Breeding Farm, Israel. Hermon is a hybrid of two selected strains of Tilapia, namely Oreochromis Niloticus (Male) and Oreochromis Aureus (Female), and is known for special characteristics such as high growth rate; resistance to low temperature; light (attractive) colour; all hybrid fry progeny of males only, without the conventional system of usage of hormones.
Advanced Israeli Technology –
  • The company has adopted advanced Israeli Technology from Aquaculture Production Technology Limited (APTIL), Israel (under Technology Service Agreement signed in October, 2020) for land locked locations through closed loop farming for arid zone with seasonal water supply from rivers, which may be replicated throughout India in multiple arid landlocked locations with reasonable water sources.
  • In order to suit Indian conditions, the complete engineering of the facility is tuned as per the requirement of site conditions such as land availability, water availability, weather conditions, availability of the surrounding resources, soil conditions, topography.
About Tilapia Fish –
  • Tilapia are mainly freshwater fish inhabiting shallow streams, ponds, rivers, and lakes, and less commonly found living in brackish water.
  • Historically, they have been of major importance in artisanal fishing in Africa, and they are of increasing importance in aquaculture and aquaponics.
  • Tilapia can become a problematic invasive species in new warm-water habitats such as Australia, whether deliberately or accidentally introduced, but generally not in temperate climates due to their inability to survive in cold water.
  • Now a days Tilapia is the most consumed fish in the world. The popularity of tilapia came about due to its low price, easy preparation, and mild taste.

Indian Ports Bill, 2022

Paper 3 – Economy
Why Should You Know?
Draft Indian Ports Bill, 2022 issued for Stakeholder Consultation
In details –
  • India has a 7,500 km long coastline, 14,500 km of potentially navigable waterways and strategic location on key international maritime trade routes. About 95% of India’s trade by volume and 65% by value is done through maritime transport facilitated by ports.
  • Under the aegis of the Sagarmala project of Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways, several initiatives on port-led development have been identified and launched.
  • The ongoing developments and committed investments (public and private) in ports needs to be aided by scientific and consultative planning, with a keen focus on ever increasing safety, security and environmental issues.
  • The Indian Ports Act, 1908 (“Act”) is more than 110 years old. It has become imperative that the Act is revamped to reflect the present-day frameworks, incorporate India’s international obligations, address emerging environmental concerns, and aid the consultative development of the ports sector in the national interest.
About the bill –
  • Accordingly, the draft Indian Ports Bill, 2022 (“IP Bill 2022”) has been prepared to consolidate and amend the laws relating to ports, for the prevention and containment of pollution at ports, to ensure compliance with the country’s obligation under the maritime treaties and international instruments to which India is a party; take  measures for conservation of ports; to empower and establish State Maritime Boards for effective administration, control and management of non-major ports in India; provide for adjudicatory mechanisms for redressal of port related disputes and to establish a national council for fostering structured  growth and development of the port sector, and ensure optimum utilization of the coastline of India, as may be necessary, and to provide for matters ancillary and incidental thereto, or connected therewith.
Objective –

The draft IP Bill 2022 seeks to repeal and replace the existing 1908 Act. The primary objectives of the proposed bill are four-fold:

  1. promote integrated planning between States inter-se and Centre-States through a purely consultative and recommendatory framework;
  2. ensure prevention of pollution measures for all ports in India while incorporating India’s obligations under international treaties;
  3. address lacunae in the dispute resolution framework required for burgeoning ports sector;
  4. usher-in transparency and cooperation in development and other aspects through use of data.
Significance –
  • The proposed bill will homogenize and streamline the development of the maritime sector, along with, promoting ease of doing business by eliminating unnecessary delays, disagreements and defining responsibilities.
  • It will incorporate State Maritime Boards in the national framework. Additionally, Maritime State Development Council will ensure cooperative federalism where Centre and State/UT Governments will work together towards preparing progressive road map for the country.
  • The redundant provisions of the Act have been deleted or replaced with contemporaneous provisions. Further, existing penalties in the Act which are outdated have been updated with respect to amounts and offences relevant to present day scenario..
  • Three earlier versions of the Bill were circulated by the Ministry to various stakeholder including Major Ports, States Governments, State Maritime Boards and various Central Government ministries. Draft IP Bill, 2022 has been formulated keeping in view all remarks that have been received.
  • Shri Sarbananda Sonowal, Union Minister for Ports, Shipping and Waterways has stated that this bill will help in instilling confidence among more players thereby increasing their participation and promoting healthy competition in maritime sector. He said this will lead to increased economic activity, wider markets, and a significant increase in associated employment possibilities, resulting in achieving the vision of Atmanirbhar Bharat of Prime Minister.
  • The Ministry intends to seek feedback and suggestions on the draft IP Bill 2022 from all the stakeholders. The document can be accessed from the websites of the MoPSW and Sagarmala on the links https://shipmin.gov.in/ and https://sagarmala.gov.in/ respectively and suggestions can be sent to sagar.mala[at]gov[dot]in.

Switch EiV 22 Bus

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?
Recently Union Minister for Road Transport & Highways, Nitin Gadkari launched Ashok Leyland Electric Double Decker Bus in Mumbai.
In details –
  • Union Minister for Road Transport & Highways, Shri Nitin Gadkari launched Ashok Leyland Electric Double Decker Bus named Switch EiV 22 in Mumbai on, August 18, 2022.
  • Launching the electric bus, Union Transport Minister Shri Nitin Gadkari said, “There is a need to transform the country’s transport system, looking from a long-term perspective. With a focus on reforming urban transport, we are trying to build a low carbon footprint and high passenger density integrated Electric Vehicle (EV) mobility ecosystem. With growing consumer demand for greener transport solutions, the Government’s vision and policies aim to encourage higher adoption of electric vehicles.”
  • As per Ashok Leyland, Switch EiV 22 is India’s first and unique electric double decker air-conditioned bus, which has been designed, developed and manufactured in India.
  • The company informs that Switch EiV 22 is equipped with the latest technology, ultra-modern design, highest safety and best-in-class comfort features.
  • Sharing his vision for the Delhi-Mumbai Express Highway, the Union Minister said: “My plan is to connect Nariman Point to Delhi. 70% of work has already been completed.” Exhorting the automobile companies, he added, “Let us plan luxury electric buses that can travel from Mumbai to Delhi in just 12 hours.”
About Switch EiV –
  • The Switch electric double decker can ferry nearly twice the number of seated passengers as compared to a single-decker bus, with just 18% increase in kerb weight (without the passengers).
  • With contemporary styling and feel-good interiors and exteriors, the double decker boasts of wide front and rear doors, two staircases and an emergency door complying with the latest safety standards. The AC offers effective cooling in India’s hot climatic conditions, while the optimized seating for 65 passengers is the maximum number of seats to be offered in the given footprint.
  • Each seat has a lightweight cushion and the interiors come with car like comfort for passenger convenience. This state-of-the-art electric double decker serves as an ideal solution for urban commuting, as they occupy less road, terminal and depot floor space per seated passenger.

Dornier Maritime Reconnaissance Aircraft

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?
Recenlty India Gifted Dornier Maritime Reconnaissance Aircraft to Sri Lanka.
In details –
  • On August 15, 2022 India handed over a Dornier maritime surveillance aircraft to the Sri Lankan Navy at a ceremony which will further enhance the bilateral defense partnership.
  • Vice Admiral SN Ghormade, Vice Chief of the Indian Navy, along with Indian High Commissioner to Colombo Gopal Baglay handed over maritime surveillance aircraft to the Sri Lankan Navy at a Sri Lanka Air Force base at Katunayake near Colombo International Airport. Admiral Ghormade is on a two-day visit to Sri Lanka.
  • It is noteworthy that The celebrations took place at a time when India is celebrating its 76th Independence Day. Sri Lankan President Ranil Wickremesinghe was also present at the ceremony.
Benefits –
  • The aircraft would act as a force multiplier, enabling Sri Lanka to tackle multiple challenges such as human and drug trafficking, smuggling and other organised forms of crime in its coastal waters more effectively
About Dornier 228 –
  • The Dornier 228 is a twin-turboprop STOL utility aircraft, designed and first manufactured by Dornier GmbH (later DASA Dornier, Fairchild-Dornier) from 1981 until 1998. Two hundred and forty-five were built in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany.
  • In 1983, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) bought a production licence and manufactured another 125 aircraft in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. In July 2017, 63 aircraft were still in airline service.
  • The Dornier 228 is a twin-engine general purpose aircraft, capable of transporting up to 19 passengers or various cargoes.
  • The Dornier 228 is typically promoted for its versatility, low operational costs, and a high level of reliability – possessing a dispatch reliability of 99%.
  • The Dornier 228 has been promoted in various capacities, including as a commuter aircraft, a military transporter, cargo hauler, or as a special missions aircraft. Special missions include maritime surveillance, border patrol, medevac, search and rescue, paradrop and environmental research missions, in which capacity the type has proven useful due to a ten-hour flight endurance, a wide operating range, low operational cost, and varied equipment range.

Special equipment available to be installed include a 360-degree surveillance radar, side-looking airborne radar, forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor, search light, operator station, real-time datalink, enlarged fuel tanks, satellite uplink, stretches, air-openable roller door, and infrared/ultraviolet sensors.

3D printed artificial cornea

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?
Recently in India Researchers developed a 3D printed artificial cornea.
In details –
  • have 3D-printed an artificial cornea and transplanted it into a rabbit’s eye.
  • A team of clinicians and scientists from the LV Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI), Hyderabad, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Hyderabad, and Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), have collaborated to develop the 3D-printed cornea from the human donor corneal tissue which would have otherwise been discarded for not meeting optical standards for clinical transportation.

The printed corneas need to undergo further clinical testing and development before they can be used in patients, which could take several years. The team is hopeful of a positive outcome.

About Lake Garda –
  • Lake Garda, in northern Italy, is known for its crystal clear water. At the south end, the town of Sirmione is dominated by the Rocca Scaligera, a fortress with harbor views.
  • It is  the largest lake in Italy. It is a popular holiday location in northern Italy.
  • The northern part of the lake is located in a depression that insinuates itself inside the Alps, while the southern part occupies an area of the upper Pianura Padana.
  • Lake Garda area is considered one of the most seismic in Italy.
  • The lake has also numerous small islands and five main ones, the largest being Isola del Garda.
  • Lake Garda is rich in biodiversity. Salmo carpio, also known as the carpione (carpione del Garda or Lake Garda carpione) is a rare salmonid fish endemic to Lake Garda. It has been introduced to a number of other lakes in Italy and elsewhere but unsuccessfully in all cases. The population in Lake Garda has been strongly declining, and is considered critically endangered (IUCN)
Completely natural –
  • While corneal substitutes are being actively researched throughout the world, they are either animal-based or synthetic. The Hyderabad-based team said that their product is completely natural, contains no synthetic components, and is free of animal residues. It is developed indigenously through government and philanthropic funding.
  • Corneal damage is the leading cause of blindness worldwide with more than 1.5 million new cases of corneal blindness reported every year.
  • Pointing at the wide gap between the demand and supply of donor corneal tissue worldwide, and lack of adequate eye banking networks, they said that less than 5% of new cases every year are treated by corneal transplantations due to donor tissue shortage.
Significance –
  • Corneal transplantation is the current standard of care for cases with severe disease and vision loss. The made-in-India product could offer an alternative solution to corneal blindness.
  • Each donor cornea can aid in the preparation of three 3D-printed corneas. The cornea can be printed in various diameters from 3 mm to 13 mm., and can be customised based on the specifications of the patient.
  • In addition, since the tissue used for this technology is derived from donor corneas that do not meet the optical standards for clinical transplantation, this method also finds unique use for the donated corneas that would otherwise be discarded

EXERCISE UDARASHAKTI

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?
Recently the bilateral exercise UDARSHAKTI ended, lets know about it
In details –
  • The bilateral exercise, Ex UDARASHAKTI between the Indian Air Force (IAF) and the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) culminated at the RMAF Air Base Kuantan on 16 Aug 2022
  • Spanning four days, the exercise saw the two Air Forces work in cohesion through a series of complex aerial combat drills in multiple domains and exercise settings.
  • The exercise was characterised by the display of a high degree of professionalism by all participants.
  • Ex UDARASHAKTI provided both the Air Forces, an opportunity to share each others’ best practices.
  • The culmination of the exercise was marked by a traditional closing ceremony and a seven aircraft formation flypast of Su-30MKI & Su-30 MKM aircraft over the air base. The IAF team will now fly to Darwin, Australia to participate in Ex PITCH BLACK-22.
What is a joint military exercise?
  • When two or more troops of the army or the forces of two or more countries unite together to conduct military tests, then it is called joint military exercise.
  • Such joint military exercises are conducted specifically for military strategies, training and sharing of military resources as well as to ensure combat readiness of the deployment forces and the security of the country.
  • Such exercises are conducted under a number of circumstances during a joint operation with the objective of understanding each other’s institutional structure and war processes, resulting in a high level of partnership.
  • It is also a demonstration of the country’s military might, and tries to send messages to other countries. It is also a form of diplomacy, often referred to as military diplomacy. They can be divided into two types-
  • Bilateral Exercise – As the name suggests, bilateral exercise is a military exercise taking place between two countries. Example: Indra exercise between India and Russia.

Multilateral exercise- As the name suggests, it involves the army and army of more than two countries. Example – TSENTR exercise which  was held in Russia between China, Tajikistan,  India, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan and Uzbekistan.

Joint military exercises important for India
  • The joint military exercise serves several objectives such as low-intensity conflict operations in counter-terrorism, counter-insurgency, etc.
  • The military exercise is a measure to test the capabilities of the armed forces without getting entangled in a fighter.
  • It helps train the armed forces for humanitarian relief in case of a natural calamity or disaster.
  • The military exercise also helps improve cooperation and coordination among fellow participants for any joint military operation.

Dhaara Smart Flow Meter

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?
Recently the Union Minister Dr Jitendra Singh announced financial support to a Start-up Company, incubated at IIT Kanpur to develop smart water management technologies.
In details –
  • Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Science & Technology; Minister of State (Independent Charge) Earth Sciences; MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances, Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr Jitendra Singh announced financial support of Rs. 3.29 crores to M/s Kritsnam Technologies, a Start-up Company, incubated at IIT Kanpur to develop smart water management technologies.
  • He said, the technology, initially focused on commercial users, can be a game changer in effectively monitoring & controlling the ground water exploitation across country in future.
  • An MoU was signed in the presence of Dr Jitendra Singh between the Technology Development Board (TDB) under Department of Science and Technology and M/s Kritsnam Technologies Private Limited, Ranchi, Jharkhand for production & commercialization of Dhaara Smart Flow Meter.
About ‘Dhaara Smart Flowmeter’ –
  •  ‘Dhaara Smart Flowmeter’ – is an integrated system for online monitoring using two beam ultrasonic flowmeters that is designed to track the water distribution in real-time for applications such as drinking water supply, ground water extraction, industrial water usage and precision irrigation.
  • The device collects data through sensors, stores it in the device, and transmits to the online cloud servers and thereafter the data transmitted to servers is analysed and displayed in the dashboard. This unique solution is a combination of hardware & software for flow measurement and water management respectively.
  • The Dhaara Smart Flow Meter is battery operated and does not require external power and the hardware architecture is based on the internet of things (IoT) communication circuits which is patented in India.
  • In addition, it complies with ISO and Central Ground Water Authority standards. The water usage data is automatically recorded in an online logbook through telemetry via 4G/2G. The built-in telemetry and battery-operated capabilities make it easy for users to monitor their water consumption virtually anywhere (even when the power is out).
  • The product being developed initially aims at commercial users like hotels, hospitals, malls, IT parks, schools, colleges and industrial users (food products, packaged drinking water, pharmaceuticals, paper & pulp etc.).
Decreasing Ground water –
  • It may be recalled that the Central Groundwater Authority issued guidelines under which every commercial ground water user must install a smart water meter and pay yearly bills. All the project proponents/users drawing ground water and seeking/having NOC shall have to mandatorily install tamper-proof digital water flow meters with telemetry on all the ground water abstraction structures within their premises.
  • due to reasons such as increased demand of fresh water for various uses, vagaries of rainfall, increase in population, industrialization and urbanization etc.
  • As per the assessment of Dynamic Ground Water Resources (2017) carried out by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) in collaboration with States/UTs, out of the total 6,881 assessment units (Block/ Taluks/ Mandals/ watersheds/ Firkas) in the country, 1,186 units in 17 States/UTs have been categorized as ‘over-exploited’ where ‘Annual Ground Water Extraction’ is more than ‘Annual Extractable Ground Water Resource’.
  • Dr Jitendra Singh said that Dhaara Smart Flow Meter will greatly benefit Prime Minister Modi’s Atal Bhujal Yojana (Atal Jal), a Rs.6,000 crore Central Sector Scheme, for sustainable management of ground water resources with community participation.
  • The scheme is being implemented in 80 water stressed districts and 8,565 Gram Panchayats of seven States viz. Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh from 01.04.2020 for a period of five years. He said, Dhaara Smart Flow Meter can also help bulk water consumers to budget their water usage and empower them to understand their patterns, points of inefficiencies and help them to build strong strategies for reducing water wastage.

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