Ojaank IAS Academy




2 September 2022 – Current Affairs

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Kochi Metro Project

Paper 3- Infrastructure
Why Should You Know?
Recently, Hon’ble Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi during his visit to Kerala inaugurated Kochi Metro and laid the foundation stone of many other rail projects.
In details –
  • On September 1, 2022 The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone and dedicated to the nation various projects of Kochi Metro and Indian Railways worth around Rs 4500 crore in Kochi.
  • Earlier the Prime Minister visited Shri Adi Shankara Janmabhoomi Kshetram at Kalady village in Kochi.
  • PM inaugurated phase I of Kochhi metro and laid the foundation stone of Phase II.
  • Remarking on the implementation of The Unified Metropolitan Transport Authority in Kochi, the Prime Minister said that this authority will work to integrate all the modes of transport, such as metro, bus, waterway etc. “With this model of multimodal connectivity, the city of Kochi will have three direct benefits.
  • This will reduce the travel time of the people of the city, reduce the traffic on the roads and reduce the pollution in the city. To protect the environment, India has taken the colossal pledge of net zero, it will also help in that. This will reduce the carbon footprint”, the Prime Minister added.
About the Projects –
  • The Prime Minister inaugurated the Phase I extension of the Kochi Metro Rail Project from Petta to SN junction. The total cost of the project is over Rs 700 crores.
  • Kochi Metro Rail project will be one of the most sustainable metro projects in the country with nearly 55% of its energy needs being met by solar power.
  • The Prime Minister laid the foundation stone for the Phase –II stretch of the Kochi Metro rail project from JLN stadium to Infopark, having a length of 11.2 km and covering 11 stations.
  • The total estimated cost of this project is around Rs. 1,950 crores.
  • The proposed Phase II corridor of the Kochi Metro Rail Project is aimed at catering to the growing transportation needs of Kochi City and is planned in such a way that it connects the District Headquarters, Special Economic Zone and IT Hub of the city with the existing metro rail network.
  • On completion, the combined Phase I and Phase II metro network will link the major residential and commercial hubs in the city with major transit hubs such as railway stations and bus stands, thus reinforcing the concept of multi-modal integration and last-mile connectivity.
  • The Prime Minister also dedicated to the nation, the doubling of the Kuruppanthara-Kottayam-Chingavanam rail section, completed at the cost of nearly Rs.750 crore.
  • With this, the entire stretch from Thiruvananthapuram to Mangaluru is fully doubled, promising faster and seamless connectivity.
  • Significantly, lakhs of devotees bound for Sabarimala Lord Ayyappa Shrine can conveniently alight at Kottayam or Chengannur railway station in the doubled section and proceed by road to Pamba.
  • The Prime Minister also dedicated to the nation the newly electrified rail section between Kollam – Punalur.
  • The Prime Minister also laid the foundation stone for the redevelopment of three railway stations in Kerala – Ernakulam Junction, Ernakulam Town and Kollam.
  • The total estimated cost of these station redevelopment projects is around Rs. 1050 crores. These railway stations will be equipped with state-of-the-art amenities and world-class facilities such as dedicated arrival/departure corridors, skywalks, solar panels, sewage treatment plants, energy-efficient lighting, rain-water harvesting and intermodal transport facilities.

Bulk Drug Parks

Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?
Recently the Central Government has given ‘in-principle’ approval for the construction of a total of three Bulk Drug Parks in Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh.
In details –
  • The Department of Pharmaceuticals has conveyed ‘in-principle’ approval to the proposals of the three States Viz, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh under the Scheme for “Promotion of Bulk Drug Parks”, a key initiative to support the Bulk Drugs manufacturing in the country. 
  • The Scheme, with a financial outlay of Rs. 3,000 crores notified in 2020, provides for financial assistance to three States for establishing Bulk Drug Parks and aims to bring down the cost of manufacturing of bulk drugs by creation of world class common infrastructure facilities supported by the Central Governmentand thereby increase the competitiveness of the domestic bulk drug industry.
Why the Need?
  • Notebly The Indian Pharmaceutical industry is the 3rd largest in the world by volume. India exported pharmaceuticals worth Rs. 1,75,040 crore in the financial year 2021-22, including Bulk Drugs/ Drug Intermediates. 
  • Also, India is one of the major producers of Active Pharma Ingredients (API) or bulk drugs in the world. India exported Bulk Drugs/ Drug Intermediates worth Rs. 33,320 crore in financial year 2021-22.
  • However, the country also imports various Bulk Drugs/ APIs for producing medicines from various countries. Most of the imports of the Bulk Drug/APIs being done in the country are because of economic considerations.
  • The Government strives to minimize country’s dependence on imports and to give fillip to indigenous manufacturing. In order to make the country self-reliant in APIs and drug intermediates, the Department of Pharmaceuticals is implementing various schemes and one of the key interventions is the Scheme for Bulk Drug Parks.
Significance –
  • The Bulk Drug Parks to be developed under the scheme will provide common infrastructure facilities at one place thereby creating a robust ecosystem for the Bulk Drug manufacturing in the country and also reducing the manufacturing cost significantly.
  • This scheme is expected to encourage domestic manufacturing of bulk drugs to reduce import dependence and to establish a dominant position in the global market by providing easy access to standard testing & infrastructure facilities.
  • This scheme will also help industry meet the standards of environment at a reduced cost through innovative methods of common waste management system and also to exploit the benefits arising due to optimization of resources and economies of scale.
Financial Assistance –
  • Under the scheme, proposals were received from 13 States. The Department was guided by an Advisory Committee under CEO, NITI Aayog in the appraisal of the proposals, based on the quantitative as well as qualitative methodology.
  • The financial assistance to the proposed Bulk Drug Park in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh would be 70% of the project cost of common infrastructure facilities.
  • In case of Himachal Pradesh, being Hilly States, financial assistance would be 90% of the project cost.
  • Maximum assistance under the scheme for one Bulk Drug Park would be limited to Rs. 1000 crores.
Cooperative Federalism –
  • The scheme reflects the spirit of co-operative federalism where the Central Government and State Governments will partner to develop the Bulk Drug parks for better performance of the sector.
  • As per the proposals submitted by these States, the Bulk Drugs will be established in 1402.44 acres of land at Tehsil Haroli, District Una, Himachal Pradesh, 2015.02 acres of land at Tehsil Jambusar, District Bharuch, Gujarat and 2000.45 acres of land at K.P. Puram &Kodhada of Thondagi Mandal of East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh.
  • These three States were instructed to submit their Detailed Project Reports in next 90 days, to appraise the same and to process for issuance of final approval under the scheme.
  • Other interventions of the Department, in ensuring domestic manufacturing of the Bulk Drugs, include,
  • Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme for domestic manufacturing of KSMs/ Drug Intermediates (DIs) and APIs. Under this scheme, a total of 51 projects have been approved, out of which, 14 projects have already commissioned and started manufacturing of the drugs.
  • PLI for Pharmaceuticals, provides for financial incentive to 55 selected applicants for manufacturing of identified products under three categories and eligible drugs under this scheme include APIs.

Vostok- 2022

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?
Indian Army Contingent Participates in Exercise Vostok- 2022 at Sergeyevsky, East Military District Russia
In details –
  • A multilateral strategic and command Exercise Vostok – 2022 has commenced today at the training grounds of the Eastern Military District of Russia from 01 to 07 September 2022.
  • The exercise is aimed at interaction and coordination amongst other participating military contingents and observers.
  • The Indian Army contingent comprising of troops from 7/8 Gorkha Rifles had arrived at the exercise location and over the next seven days will undertake joint manoeuvres to include joint field training exercises, combat discussions, and firepower exercises.
  • The Indian Army contingent will look forward to sharing practical aspects and put into practice the validated drills, procedures and practice amalgamation of new technology through discussions and tactical exercises.
  • Russia has stated that Vostok-2022 will be conducted in two phases. Participating contingents include observers from the Collective Security Treaty Organisation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) and other partner states including Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China, Laos, Mongolia, Nicaragua, Syria and Tajikistan.
What is a joint military exercise?
  • When two or more columns of the army or the army of two or more countries conduct military tests together, it is called a joint military exercise.
  • Such joint military exercises are conducted specifically for military strategies, training and sharing of military resources as well as to ensure combat readiness of the deployment forces and the security of the country.
  • Such exercises are conducted under a number of circumstances during a joint operation with the objective of understanding each other’s institutional structure and war processes, resulting in a high level of partnership.
  • It is also a demonstration of the country’s military might, and tries to send messages to other countries. It is also a form of diplomacy, often referred to as military diplomacy. They can be divided into two types-
  • Bilateral Exercise – As the name suggests, bilateral exercise is a military exercise taking place between two countries. Example: Indra exercise between India and Russia.
  • Multilateral exercise- As the name suggests, it involves the army and army of more than two countries. Example – TSENTR exercise which  was held in Russia between China, Tajikistan,  India, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan and Uzbekistan.
Joint military exercises important for India
  • The joint military exercise serves several objectives such as low-intensity conflict operations in counter-terrorism, counter-insurgency, etc.
  • The military exercise is a measure to test the capabilities of the armed forces without getting entangled in a fighter.
  • It helps train the armed forces for humanitarian relief in case of a natural calamity or disaster.
  • The military exercise also helps improve cooperation and coordination among fellow participants for any joint military operation.

Mukhymantri Udayman Khiladi Unnayan Yojana

Paper 2 – Government Polices
Why Should You Know?
Recently Uttarakhand launched Chief Minister Udayman Khiladi Unnayan Yojana.
In details –
  • On the occasion of National Sports Day, Uttarakhand Chief Minister Pushkar Singh Dhami launched “Mukhyamantri Udayaman Khiladi Unnayan Yojana”.
  • In this program the sports scholarship of 1500 rupees each month is awarded to young athletes between the ages of 8-14 years.
  • To award the scholarship the best students, 3900 have been chosen from the state. With 150 girls and 150 boys from each district in the state were selected and included. In total, as part of this program the government will offer athletic scholarships for 1950 girls and 1950 boys each year in order to encourage athletic potential.
  • Keeping in view the shortage of sports coaches in the state, eight sports coaches will be appointed in each district.
  • Chief Minister Sports Development Fund will be formed soon to give financial benefits to the players as per rules. Efforts will be made again to implement 4 percent reservation for sportspersons in government jobs as before.
  • In this provision has also been made to provide accident insurance or financial assistance in case of injury to the players.
  • It has also been decided to provide travel facility to the players for participating in the competitions.
  • The advantages of this scheme is provided to students who are poor who live within rural regions in the State. This is the reason why their sports potential will excel at the national level.

Super Typhoon ‘Hinnamnor’

Paper 1 – Geography
Why Should You Know?
The strongest tropical storm of 2022, dubbed Super Typhoon ‘Hinnamnor’, has been barrelling across the western Pacific Ocean and is presently hurtling back towards the islands of Japan and South Korea, packing wind speeds of upto 241 kilometres per hour.
In details –
  • As of September 1, 2022, the category 5 typhoon — the highest classification on the scale — was about 230 km away from Japan’s Okinawa prefecture.
  • Thunderstorm warnings have been issued in several regions across the country. As it inches towards the Japanese islands once again, the typhoon is expected to develop further.
  • Hinnamnor is the 11th tropical storm this year to develop into a typhoon.
  • According to a forecast from Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the storm is expected to move towards parts of Southwestern Japan, Eastern China and South Korea over the next few days.
  • The weather department has predicted it will slow down and stall by Friday, but the system will continue to move north once again over the weekend, weather.com reported.
  • On Thursday afternoon, the JMA upgraded the typhoon’s classification to ‘violent’. According to weather.com, Hinnamnor will slowly move south of Okinawa on Friday, while continuing to intensify.
  • Between Saturday and Sunday, it will approach Japan’s Sakishima Islands and Okinawa’s main island, as wind speeds continue to increase. Waves as high as 10 metres are expected in the region.
  • According to Japanese news outlet NHK World, rainfall on Thursday is expected to reach up to 150 millimetres in Hokkaido, 120 millimetres in Tohoku, 100 millimetres in Tokai, and 80 millimetres in the Kansai region.
  • While the effects of the typhoon aren’t expected to be felt as intensely in China and Taiwan, heavy rains have been predicted across South Korea.
Weather warning –
  • Japan’s Meteorological Agency has warned of flooding, heavy downpour, landslides, and possible lightning strikes, particularly in low-lying areas.
  • The weather department has also warned of tornados, swollen rivers and violent winds.

Cervavac – a indigenous vaccine

Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?
Cervavac is a India’s first indigenously developed vaccine to prevent cervical cancer
In details –
  • Union Minister of Science and Technology Dr Jitendra Singh on September 1,2022 announced the scientific completion of Cervavac, India’s first indigenously developed quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine for the prevention of cervical cancer.
  • Despite being largely preventable, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women globally, according to the WHO. In 2018, an estimated 570,00 women were diagnosed with the disease and it accounted for 311,000 deaths across the world.
  • According to given information the vaccine would be launched later this year. “As per indications from Serum Institute of India the cost would approximate between Rs 200 to 400,” he said in an interview.
Cervical cancer in India –
  • India accounts for about a fifth of the global burden of cervical cancer, with 1.23 lakh cases and around 67,000 deaths per year.
  • Almost all cervical cancer cases are linked to certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), a common virus that is transmitted through sexual contact.
  • While the body’s immune system usually gets rid of the HPV infection naturally within two years, in a small percentage of people the virus can linger over time and turn some normal cells into abnormal cells and then cancer, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Prevention –
  • Notebly cervical cancer is preventable if detected early and managed effectively, it kills one woman every 8 minutes in the country.
  • Screening and vaccination are two powerful tools that are available for preventing cervical cancer.
  • Still, there is little awareness among women about the prevention of this cancer and less than 10% of Indian women get screened.
  • All women aged 30-49 must get screened for cervical cancer even if they have no symptoms and get their adolescent daughters vaccinated with the HPV vaccine,
Who developed the new qHPV vaccine?
  • Cervavac was developed by the Pune-based Serum Institute of India in coordination with the Government of India’s Department of Biotechnology (DBT).
  • The project to develop the vaccine was implemented by the then secretary of the DBT, Dr. M K Bhan in 2011. Since then, 30 meetings of scientific advisory groups and site visits conducted by DBT have helped review the scientific merit of the entire journey to develop the vaccine.
  • Cervavac received market authorisation approval from the Drug Controller General of India on July 12 this year.
How effective is the new vaccine?
  • HPV vaccines are given in two doses and data has shown that the antibodies that develop after both are administered can last up to six or seven years, according to Dr. Rajesh Gokhale. Unlike Covid vaccines, booster shots may not be required for the cervical cancer vaccine, he added.
  • Until now, the HPV vaccines available in India were produced by foreign manufacturers at an approximate cost of Rs 2,000 to Rs 3,500 per dose.
  • Cervavac is likely to be significantly cheaper, slated to cost approximately Rs 200 to 400. It has also demonstrated a robust antibody response that is nearly 1,000 times higher than the baseline against all targeted HPV types and in all dose and age groups.
What are the challenges?
  • The biggest task will be in allocating adequate resources and manpower for vaccinating the massive demographic of adolescent girls aged between 9 and 15, to ensure that they are protected from HPV early on.
  • According to Doctors there is a huge need for stepping up awareness about the disease and the vaccine in the community. “Unlike Covid and the vaccination programme, there is very little awareness about cervical cancer.
  • Overall awareness and screening is very low in the community and that is a concern. This is a preventable disease and hence a huge awareness programme is required.
What next?
  • Experts suggest that school-based vaccination programmes will work effectively.
  • Currently, none exist and therefore planning will have to be done along those lines, Dr. Joshi said. Those accessing public health programmes will get the vaccine free of cost at government-aided schools.
  • However concerted efforts will have to be made to ensure the involvement of private healthcare facilities and NGOs towards an effective rollout.

“CAPF eAwas” web-portal

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?
Union Home and Cooperation Minister Shri Amit Shah launched “CAPF eAwas” web-portal on 1 September 2022.
In details –
  • Union Home and Cooperation Minister, Shri Amit Shah launched the “CAPF e-AWAS” web portal in New Delhi. Several dignitaries including the Ministers of State for Home Affairs, Shri Nityanand Rai and Shri Ajay Kumar Mishra, Union Home Secretary, Secretary, Border Management and Director Generals of various Central Armed Police Forces and NSG were present on the occasion.
  • In his address, Shri Amit Shah said that the Central Armed Police Forces have always been a strong pillar of the country’s internal security and this day is a very important day for their personnel.  A new era of development has begun
  • Increasing the Housing Satisfaction Ratio (HSR) for Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) personnel is one of the priority areas of the Government.
  • In order to increase the HSR, apart from construction of new houses, the existing house allotment policy of CAPFs has been modified whereby vacant houses of one Force can be allotted to desirous personnel of other Forces.
  • In order to operationalize the revised policy of allotment and to also bring transparency in the allotment process, a common web-portal by the name ‘CAPF eAwas’ for online allotment of Departmental Pool Residential Accommodation and Separated Family Accommodation (SFA) held by CAPFs and Assam Rifles, has been developed.
  • The web-portal will enable online registration and allotment of residential quarters/SFAs to eligible personnel of all CAPFs& Assam Rifles.
About the Portal –
  • CAPF eAwas portal, which has been developed on the lines of the online allotment system of ‘General Pool Residential Accommodation (eSampada)’, will facilitate maintenance of an accurate inventory of ‘Residential Quarters/Separated Family Accommodation (SFA)’ held by CAPFs, as well as their allotment through online process to eligible Force personnel.
  • The portal also has the provision for intimation to the applicant thru SMS and e-mail at various stages of allotment process. The portal would also facilitate planning for construction of new quarters based on demand-gap analysis.
  • The portal has a provision that if a house of any particular Force is not allotted for any reason for a period of four months, then anyCentral Armed Police Force personnel can apply for the same vacant house online.
  • The houses which are available for inter-Force allotment would be visible to all CAPF personnel. This provision of inter-Force allotment will result in optimum utilization of available houses and thereby increasing the HSR.
  • This initiative of the Government is a step towards the welfare of Force personnel by way of enabling inter-Force allotment of residential accommodation which will go a long way in meeting the housing needs of Force personnel.
About CAPFs –
  • CAPFs is a uniform nomenclature for the six Forces of the Union of India under the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • These Forces are, the Assam Rifles (AR), the Border Security Force (BSF), the Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) and the Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB).

The Crime Multi Agency Centre (Cri-MAC) Paper 2 – International Relations

Why Should You Know?
According to Home ministry Seven States cold to Centre’s crime portal.
In details –
  • At least seven States and one Union Territory have given a cold shoulder to the Centre’s online platform meant to share information and coordinate action among law enforcement agencies on serious criminal incidents, including human trafficking, data show.
  • by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) to share information on crime and criminals 24×7 with various law enforcement agencies and ensure a seamless flow of information among them.
  • The application run by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) aims to help in early detection and prevention of crime incidents across the country.
  • West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland and Sikkim and Union Territory of Dadra, Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu have not uploaded a single alert on Cri-Mac since the portal was launched in March 2020.
  • which included information on release of a hardened criminal from jail or an incident of terror, murder, dacoity among others.
  • As on July 1, the number of alerts uploaded on the portal stood at 35,145 though there are 16,361 police stations in the country.
Inter-State coordination –
  • The Home Ministry said “Cri-MAC facilitates dissemination of information about significant crimes, including human trafficking across the country on real-time basis and enables inter-State coordination. This can, inter-alia, help in locating and identifying the trafficked victims as also in prevention, detection and investigation of crime.”
  • In a presentation to States, the MHA said the “Government of India recognises that human trafficking is a grave crime” and attaches high importance to the efforts directed at preventing and countering it.
  • It said human trafficking was a highly organised crime often involving inter-State gangs and by Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013, Section 370 of the Indian Penal Code was substituted with a modified Section 370 and a new Section 370 A was also inserted.
  • “These Sections provide comprehensive definition of human trafficking and also provide for strict punishment to be awarded to the offenders for exploitation of a trafficked person,” the Ministry said.
  • The MHA cautioned that human trafficking cases are not registered under Sections 370/370A of the IPC by some police authorities and States are requested to make optimal use of the penal Sections.
  • It urged States to sensitise and train police personnel posted at bus depots, railway stations, State borders etc. to keep a close watch on suspicious activities and persons.
  • “The Ministry of Labour and Employment is requested to sensitise officers of the Labour Department of all States and Union Territories for keeping a close watch on the activities of suspicious placement agencies,” the MHA said.

Increasing Greenhouse gases and sea levels

Paper 3- Environment
Why Should You Know?
Greenhouse gas and sea levels touched new highs in 2021, according to a report by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
In details –
  • The amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere was 414.7 parts per million in 2021, which is 2.3 parts higher than in 2020, according to the NOAA report.
  • The rise in greenhouse gas levels has been due to easing fossil fuel emissions last year, as much of the global economy has slowed sharply due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Sea levels rose for the tenth year in a row. They reached a new record of 3.8 inches or 97 millimetres above the average for 1993, when satellite measurements began.
  • The year 2021 was among the seven-warmest years since global records began in the mid-to-late 1800s. It was also one of the six-warmest years on record as measured by global mean surface temperature.
  • The low average temperature was due to La Nina, an occasional phenomenon in the Pacific that cools waters. La Nina prevailed for all but two months of the year — June and July.
  • The month of February had the smallest temperature anomaly of the year for the globe and was the coldest since February 2014.
  • But water temperatures were also exceptionally high. Lakes in Tibet, an important region since it is a water source for many of Asia’s major rivers, recorded high temperatures
Growing disasters and fears
  • Tropical storms, which increase as the Earth warms, spiked in 2021, the report said. These included Super Typhoon Rai, which killed nearly 400 people in the Philippines in December. Hurricane Ida wrought havoc in the Caribbean before becoming the second most dangerous storm to kill people in Louisiana after Katrina.
  • Among other extraordinary events mentioned in the report was the premature blooming of cherry trees in Kyoto, Japan, for the first time after 1409.
  • The incidence of wildfires, which are also expected to increase due to climate change, was comparatively low after recent years, although devastating fires were seen in both the American West and Siberia.
  • The 2021 report comes days after a study said Greenland’s ice sheet is already beginning to melt to dangerous levels, even as it will raise sea levels without any heat in the future. This is expected to submerge the homes of hundreds of millions of people living in low-lying areas around the world.
  • The goal to limit temperatures above pre-industrial levels to 1.5 degrees Celsius to avoid the worst effects of climate change was set by the Paris Climate Agreement in 2015.
  • Rick Spinrad, NOAA administrator, said it was clear from the data presented in the report that climate change was having an impact worldwide and there was no sign of its slowing down.
  • He said: “Many people had to face the worst floods in a millennium this year. There was a terrible drought this year and the most number of people in history were affected by heat. All this shows that the climate crisis is not just a future threat. We must find solutions from today itself.”

Puli Thevar

Paper 1 – History
Why Should You Know?
The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has paid tributes to brave Puli Thevar on his birth anniversary.
In details –
  • Puli Thevar was a Tamil Palaiyakkarar who ruled Nerkattumseval, situated in the Sankarankoil taluk, Tenkasi,formerly Tirunelveli Tamil Nadu.
  • He is known to have fought a remarkable battle against the East India Company in India in 1759 – 1761.
  • Ondiveeran and Venni Kaladi were the generals of Thevar’s army, to fight against the East India company.
  • Bhulideva ‘s parents were Chitraputra Deva and Shivanana Nachiyar . Bhulidevar was born on 1-9-1715 as their son.
  • Original name was ‘Kathapp Pulithevar’ . he was called ‘Bhulythevar’ and ‘Pulithevar’.
  • At an early age, he became very heroic and pious. He was given formal education when he was a boy of six.
  • Pulithevar learned the virtues from Subramanya Pillai of Ilanji . He studied other Tamil grammar and literary texts and became proficient enough to write poetry himself.
  • He is known for the Polygars revolt against the British. He maintained a good relationship with the Kingdom of Travancore but later the allegiance was broken by one Yusuf Khan.

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