Ojaank IAS Academy




20 August 2022 – Current Affairs

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Dragon Fruit export

Paper 3 – Economy
Why Should You Know?
Recently Buyer Seller Meet organised by APEDA, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, to promote Dragon Fruit export.
In details –
  • In a first of its kind initiative, a “Buyer Seller Meet on Dragon Fruit” was organized by Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), Bangalore Regional Office in collaboration with University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore and KAPPEC, at the GKVK Campus, Bangalore to promote export of Dragon Fruit.
  • Delivering the keynote address, Dr. M. Angamuthu, Chairman APEDA said that more stakeholders interaction will be done in future and a Reverse Buyer Seller Meet will be organized for promotion of Dragon Fruit and value added products in order to boost exports.
  • He pointed towards the collaboration with I.I.H.R. for standardization of fruit parameters and value added products to help the industry. The Meet was attended by Farmers/FPOs and Exporters. Officials from JDGFT, KAPPEC, UAS were present during the event. Dr. S. Rajendra Prasad, Vice-Chancellor, UAS(B) inaugurated the event.
  • APEDA, a Statutory Body under the Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India, is the nodal agency for promoting Indian agro and processed food exports and is responsible for facilitating and promoting export of horticulture, floriculture, processed food, poultry products, dairy and other agro products.
  • APEDA has taken number of export promotion activities and initiatives, by way of development of virtual portals for organizing Virtual Trade Fairs, Farmer Connect Portal, e-office, Hortinet Traceability system, Buyer Seller Meets, Reverse Buyer Seller Meets, product specific campaigns etc. APEDA has been closely working with the state government for creating infrastructure and promotion of export from the state.
About Dragon Fruit –
  • The scientific name of dragon fruit is Hyloceresundatus. Dragon foot is majorly bred in countries such as Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, the United States, and Vietnam.
  • Dragon fruit was produced in India in the early 1990s and began to be grown as a domestic garden. The popularity of dragon fruit has increased rapidly due to the increase in the use of dragon fruit for farming by farmers of different states.
  • At present,  dragon fruit is mostly grown in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Odisha, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • Its cultivation requires less water and can be grown in a variety of soils. There are three main varieties of dragon fruit:
  • white pulped, pinkish fruit,
  • red pulped, pink coloured fruit and
  • A yellow fruit with white pulp.
  • Dragon foot contains fiber, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. This specialty of this is helpful in repairing a person’s stress-damaged cells and reducing inflammation in the body and improving the digestive system. Since the fruit has lotus-like spikes and petals, it  is also called ‘Kamalam’.
  • APEDA emphasizes on infrastructure development, quality development and market development to promote export of agricultural and processed food products. Apart from this, the Department of Commerce also supports exports through various schemes such as trade infrastructure for export scheme, market access initiatives etc.

Over one lakh ODF Plus villages

Paper 3- Infrastructure
Why Should You Know?
Recently India has achieved another achievement that is more than one lakh ODF plus villages.
In details –
  • Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM-G), the flagship programme of the Government of India, today recorded another milestone – of 101462 villages declaring themselves as ODF (open defecation free) Plus.
  • These villages are sustaining their ODF status and have systems in place for managing solid and/or liquid waste and they would continue on their sanitation journey as they work towards making their villages cleaner, greener and healthier.
Swachh Bharat Mission –
  • Almost eight years ago, Hon’ble Prime Minister Modi launched the Swachh Bharat Mission from the ramparts of the Red Fort, with a vision to make the country open defecation free as a tribute to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th birth anniversary.
  • The Prime Minister of India had launched the Swachh Bharat Mission on 2nd October 2014. 
  • Under his visionary leadership, the country came together in the world’s largest behaviour change campaign and achieved its aim, and on 2nd October 2019, 11 years ahead of the SDG-6 target set by the United Nations, rural India became open defecation free.
  • However, this was not the end of the mission, it laid the foundation to take on a much more challenging, yet necessary task; the need to ensure sampoorn swachhata or complete cleanliness, to make the country’s villages ODF Plus.
A big achievement –
  • One lakh ODF Plus villages is no small achievement, given that the process of solid and liquid waste management is technical in nature, is relatively new to rural India and is a second-generation issue. 
  • Provision of toilets has led to the need to manage faecal waste.  Also, with potable water supply, more greywater is being generated that needs to be treated and reused; and with lifestyle changes and the use of packaged food products, the menace of plastic waste is rearing its ugly head in rural areas and that needs to be managed effectively.
  • And this is what the second Phase of the Swachh Bharat Mission-Grameen (SBM-G) is about – to appropriately manage all types of waste that will not only make our villages clean, but also creating avenues for generating incomes for rural households and creating new livelihood opportunities, while fulfilling the requirements of the Sustainable Development Goals.  The SBM-G reinforces the Government’s commitment to promote hygiene and safe sanitation and thereby improve the quality of life of its citizens.
Increasing ODF villages –
  • At the outset, DDWS had introduced intermediate stages in the process of declaring a village as ODF Plus, given that all villages may not fulfil all criteria under the verticals of biodegradable waste management (BWM), plastic waste management (PWM), greywater management (GWM) and faecal sludge management (FSM) before declaring a village as ODF Plus.  
  • In the ODF Plus – Aspiring category today are 54734 villages in which all households and institutions besides having access to sanitation through individual household latrines, have arrangements for either SWM or LWM; those in ODF Plus – Rising are 17121 villages which have arrangements for both LWM and SWM in addition to the criteria in Aspiring.  Those that are declared ODF Plus – Model are 29607 villages which have all the above and where IEC messages are prominently disseminated and displayed.
  • This also translates into 99640 villages across the country having arrangements for solid waste management; 78937 having liquid waste management facilities; and almost 57312 villages having both functional solid and liquid waste management plants.  The top five performing states are Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh where maximum number of villages have been declared as ODF Plus. 
Funding –
  • Given that the process of solid and liquid waste management is technical and relatively new to rural India, all possible assistance is being given to States in the form of funding, technical and capacity building support. 
  • As in Phase I of SBM (G), community participation is integral to the success of the campaign as it paves the way for self-development and contribution and that remains the hallmark of the campaign. 
  • The campaign reinforces the Government’s commitment to promote hygiene and safe sanitation and thereby improve the quality of life of its citizens and fulfil our dream of a Sampoorn, Swachh and Swasth Bharat by 2024-25.

Jal Jeevan Mission New achievement

Paper 3- Infrastructure
Why Should You Know?
 Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) has achieved a new milestone that is 10 Crore rural households get drinking water through taps.
In details –
  • As the country celebrates Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav, to mark 75 years of India’s Independence, Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) achieves a new milestone by providing 10 Crore rural households with safe and clean drinking water through taps.
  • On 15th August 2019, when the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi launched Jal Jeevan Mission, from the ramparts of the Red Fort, only 3.23 Crore (16.90%) of the households in villages had access to piped water connection. The country achieved the landmark of 10 Crore Functional Household Tap Connection on 19th August 2022.
  • As on date, 3 States (Goa, Telangana and Haryana) and 3 UTs (Puducherry, D&D and D&NH and A&N Islands), have reported 100% coverage.
  • Punjab at 99.93%, followed by Gujarat at 97.03%, Bihar at 95.51% and Himachal Pradesh at 94.88% are also poised to achieve saturation shortly.
  • On 7th August, 2022 Goa and Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu (D&NH and D&D) became the first ‘Har Ghar Jal’ certified State and UT in the country respectively, where people in all villages confirmed availability of adequate, safe and regular supply of water for all households in their villages, through Gram Sabhas.
Objective –
  • The objective of the Mission is to provide every rural household with drinking water in adequate quantity of prescribed quality on regular and long-term basis.
  • Despite various disruptions and challenges like CoVID-19 pandemic, States/ UTs are working relentlessly overcoming the challenges like harsh weather conditions, remoteness, tough terrains, hills, forest, etc. to ensure tap water in every rural home.
  • On many occasions the pipes and other equipment are transported on helicopters, boats, camels, elephants and horses.
Result –
  • The relentless efforts of the Union and State governments have also resulted in ensuring provision of tap water supply in 8.67 lakh (84.35%) schools and 8.96 lakh (80.34%) anganwadi centres in the country. 
  • In the 117 aspirational districts of our country, at the time of launch of the Mission, only 24.32 lakh (7.57%) household had access to tap water which has now increased to 1.54 Crore (48.00%).
  • Three Aspirational districts from Telangana (Komaram Bheem Asifabad, Jayashankar Bhupalpalli and Bhadrabri Kothagudem) and 1 district each in Punjab (Moga), Haryana (Mewat) and Himachal Pradesh (Chamba) have reported 100% tap water coverage.
Socio-economic benefits –
  • JJM has brought huge socio-economic benefits to the rural population. Regular tap water supply relieves people, especially women and young girls, from carrying heavy bucket loads of water to meet their daily household needs thereby reducing age-old drudgery. The time so saved can be used for income generation activities, learning new skills and supporting children’s education.
  • In order to achieve long term sustainability of the schemes, community participation has from the very beginning been at the heart of planning, implementation, operations and maintenance of Rural Piped Water Supply schemes. A total of 5.08 lakh Village Water & Sanitation Committees (VWSC)/ Pani Samitis have been constituted in the country. Also, 4.78 lakh VAPs have been prepared which detail out the plans for drinking water source augmentation, greywater treatment and its reuse, and regular operation and maintenance of in-village water supply systems.
Quality management –
  • Water Quality under this mission is a very important aspect. A total of 2,070 water testing laboratories have been developed, strengthened and empaneled in the country during the Mission period. 
  • As on date, more than 64 lakh water quality tests have been conducted in 4.51 lakh villages through water testing laboratories.
  • Water quality testing labs of States/ UTs are now open for the public for testing water samples at nominal rates. 
  • Till now, 10.8 lakh rural women have also been trained to use Field Testing Kits (FTKs). Over, 58 lakh water quality tests have been conducted by trained women in 1.7 lakh villages using FTKs.

Hydrogen sensors

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?
Union Minister Dr Jitendra Singh announces financial aid of Rs 3.29 Crore to a Hydrogen Start Up from Maharashtra for indigenous development of Hydrogen Sensing & Analysis Technology.
In details –
  • Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Science & Technology; Minister of State (Independent Charge) Earth Sciences; MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances, Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr Jitendra Singh today announced financial aid of Rs 3.29 crore to a Hydrogen StartUp from Maharashtra for indigenous development of Hydrogen Sensing & Analysis Technology.
  • Dr Jitendra Singh said, the Hydrogen Startup funding is in tune with Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s vision of National Hydrogen Mission (NHM) launched on India’s 75th Independence Day, last year from ramparts of the Red Fort.
  • It is noteworthy that The National Hydrogen Mission was first announced in the budget for the financial year 2021-22 presented to the Parliament in February 2021.
  • He said, the NHM aims to aid the government in meeting its climate targets and making India a green hydrogen hub. This will help in meeting the target of production of 5 million tonnes of Green hydrogen by 2030 and the related development of renewable energy capacity, the Minister added.
  • Dr Jitendra Singh presided over the signing of an MoU between Technology Development Board under DST and M/s Multi Nano Sense Technologies Private Limited, Maharashtra to support the manufacturing of Hydrogen sensors indigenously.
About the Sensor –
  • company is developing an indigenous cutting edge hydrogen analysis sensor for new age applications. The development is also related to the universal miniaturised core sensor designs for leak detection and/ or analysis of hydrogen.
  • The patented hydrogen gas sensor and analyser is based on a core sensor; which has been conceptualised, developed, manufactured and serviced entirely in India.
  • At present, it is heavily dependent on importing sensors, as all core sensor elements are imported from China, USA, UK, Japan and Germany.
  • The major quality of these sensors is that they do not face any cross interference from other combustible or reducing gases; can function in air as well as inert/ vacuum background and can perform analysis from 1ppm to 100% pure Hydrogen.
  • With this technology, India can easily penetrate the global market to complement domestic demand through their Made in India products. The sensor has several unique and path breaking features such as Minimum detection: Parts Per Million (PPM) range; Maximum detection: 100% Pure Hydrogen; Instant response within 3 seconds; low power consumption for core sensor operation. Portable detectors can operate continuously upto 36 hours on single charge; non-corrosive; long life of 5 years etc.
Energy demand –
  • Dr Jitendra Singh said, the demand for energy is growing and with the limitation of existing resources, there is a need for an alternative fuel. He said, ‘Hydrogen’ envisages being the future fuel to replace fossil fuel and therefore production of Hydrogen fuel by using power from renewable energy, termed as green hydrogen is one of the major requirements towards environmentally sustainable energy security of the nation.
  • The Minister added that as per NITI Aayog’s report titled ‘Harnessing Green Hydrogen: Opportunities for Deep Decarbonisation in India’ Hydrogen will provide a pathway to accelerate the emergence of a green hydrogen economy, which is critical for India to achieve its net-zero ambitions by 2070.
  • It is noteworthy that Hydrogen is one such resource which requires indigenous ecosystem development including safety & security during its usage. As an initial step in this direction, TDB is supporting startup ‘M/s Multi Nano Sense’ for development and production of highly advanced leakage detection sensors to detect hydrogen leakage, and to enhance safety and security of the systems”.

17th Pravasi Bhartiya Divas 2023

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?
17th Pravasi Bhartiya Divas 2023 to be held at Indore in January next year
In details –
  • The 17th Pravasi Bhartiya Divas 2023 will be held at Indore in January next year. External Affairs Ministry spokesperson Arindam Bagchi in a tweet said that Secretary, Consular, Passport and Visa Division, Ausaf Sayeed  and Chief Secretary of Madhya Pradesh Iqbal Singh Bains signed a Memorandum of Understanding for hosting the Pravasi Bhartiya Divas. On the occasion, Madhya Pradesh Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan was also present.
  • Pravasi Bharatiya Divas is celebrated every year on 9th Januray to mark the contribution of the overseas Indian community in the development of India.
  • It also commemorates the return of Mahatma Gandhi from South Africa to India on 9th January 1915.
About Pravasi Bhartiya Divas –
  • Pravasi Bharatiya Divas is a celebratory day observed (starting in 2003) on 9 January by the Republic of India to mark the contribution of the overseas Indian community towards the development of India.
  • The day commemorates the return of Mahatma Gandhi from South Africa to Mumbai on 9 January 1915.
  • Established in 2000, it is sponsored by the Ministry of External Affairs of the Government of India and the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), the Confederation of Indian Industries and the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region.
  • This celebratory event is held from the 7th to the 9th of January every other year in a selected city in India: a forum for issues concerning the Indian Diaspora is organised, and the Pravasi Bharatiya Samman awards are given.
  • In 2006, the concept of Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) was launched during the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas convention at Hyderabad on 9 January.
  • The 16th Pravasi Bharatiya Divas was held during 21–23 January 2019 at Varanasi, India.

World Humanitarian Day

Paper 2 – Social Issues
Why Should You Know?
On August 19, 2022 World Humanitarian Day (WHD) is observed.
In details –
  • The day aims to spread awareness about the need for humanitarian assistance worldwide. WHD is a campaign by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and humanitarian partners.
  • On 19 August 2003, a bomb attack on the Canal Hotel in Baghdad, Iraq, killed 22 humanitarian aid workers, including the UN Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Iraq, Sergio Vieira de Mello.
  • Five years later, the General Assembly adopted a resolution designating 19th August as World Humanitarian Day.
  • Each year, WHD focuses on a theme, bringing together partners from across the humanitarian system to advocate for the survival, well-being and dignity of people affected by crises, and for the safety and security of aid workers.
  • This year, WHD Organisation is highlighting the immediate human cost of the climate crisis by pressuring world leaders to take meaningful climate action for the world’s most vulnerable people.
  • As per data projected by the United Nations, 274 million people will need humanitarian assistance and protection in 2022. The number has witnessed a significant rise from 2021 when the figures were 235 million, the highest figure in decades.
  • The United Nations and partner organizations aim to assist 183 million people most in need across 63 countries, which will require 41 billion dollars.

Major environment orders

Paper 3- Environment
Why Should You Know?
Recently top environmental cases heard in Supreme Court, high courts and National Green Tribunal, and they give ordered to solve them, lets know about it
In details –
Endosulfan victims –
  • The Supreme Court August 18, 2022 directed the secretary of the District Legal Services Authority (DLSA), Kasargod, to submit a report on the medical and healthcare facilities available in the endosulfan-affected areas of Kasaragod at various levels.
  • This would include district hospitals, general hospitals, community healthcare centres and primary healthcare centres.
  • The secretary of the DLSA should visit the healthcare facilities and submit a report on two aspects:
  • The existing healthcare facilities
  • The facilities in regard to palliative care and physiotherapy
  • The report is to be submitted within a period of six weeks and the court would hear the matter October 21, 2022.
What is endosulfan?
  • Endosulfan is an organochlorine insecticide and acaricide that is being phased out globally due to its acute toxicity.
  • In 2011, the Stockholm Convention initiated a global ban on the manufacture and use of this chemical because of its threats to the environment and human health.
Groundwater extraction –
  • The National Green Tribunal (NGT) August 18, 2022 directed the Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) to submit its response on waiving off compensation for illegal extraction of groundwater merely on the ground that the application for such permission has been later filed.
  • CGWA must also explain the grant of permission to extract groundwater in over-exploited areas without requisite safeguards.
  • The Tribunal also directed the Union Ministry of Jal Shakti to file a report on a “comprehensive water management strategy” which would help in preventing pollution and the use of potable water for industrial purposes.
  • The NGT order was in response to the application.
  • It had noted that industrial units functioning at the Barhi Industrial Area in Sonipat district, Haryana, were violating environmental norms by illegally extracting groundwater, despite an NGT order of March 5, 2021.
  • Despite this, remedial action had not been taken. Compensation was assessed. But instead of being recovered and spent for restoration, the same had been waived arbitrarily for “extraneous reasons”, the applicant said.
Ashtamudi lake pollution –
  • A sanitation survey of Ashtamudi lake conducted by the Kerala State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) found that the main reason for the pollution of the lake water was the indiscriminate discharge of sewage and dumping of solid waste from households and establishments.
  • A common sewage treatment plant (STP) of capacity 12 million litres per day is being constructed in Kureepuzha by the Kollam Corporation and is expected to be completed within one year.
  • The SPCB had granted consent to establish the STP. This STP will help in reducing sewage pollution to the lake.
  • Apart from the above major causes of pollution, coconut husk retting and related operations, though of small scale, were found to be carried out in the lake and contributed to pollution, the Kerala SPCB report said.
Drug industry freebies –
  • The Supreme Court directed the Government of India to file a counter affidavit on the matter of pharma companies giving incentives to doctors for prescribing their drugs.
  • The petition was filed by the Federation of Medical & Sales Representatives Association of India.

Snail fish

Paper 3- Biodiversity
Why Should You Know?
Recently Researchers found that Snailfish can survive sub-zero temperatures, but it is in trouble dur to climate change
In details –
  • Snailfish found on an iceberg habitat in Greenland can survive in icy Arctic waters due to the presence of ‘antifreeze’ proteins in its bloodstream. But it could be in trouble as the Arctic and its water warms due to climate change, according to researchers from the American Museum of Natural History.
  • The increased biodiversity that warmer waters bring to higher latitudes can increase competition, thereby jeopardising its position in the food chain, they pointed out.
  • “Since the mid-20th century, temperatures have increased twice as fast in the Arctic as in mid-latitudes and some studies predict that if Arctic sea ice decline continues at this current rate, in the summer the Arctic Ocean will be mostly ice-free within the next three decades,” said co-author, John Sparks.
  • Museum researchers diving in the icy waters surrounding Greenland in 2019 discovered the small fish glowing in green and red.
  • They were initially attracted to its biofluorescence, which allows it to glow green and red in the dark Arctic waters.
  • Biofluorescence is the ability of an organism to convert blue light into green, red, or yellow light. It is rarely found in Arctic fish due to prolonged periods of darkness in the region.
  • Snailfish is the only polar fish reported to have biofluorescence.
  • Upon further investigation of the biofluorescent properties of snailfish, the researchers discovered the presence of antifreeze proteins.
  • “When we discovered that the snailfish was biofluorescent, we sequenced its entire transcriptome to look for the gene responsible for its fluorescent protein. While we did not locate this gene, we noticed that some of the most highly expressed genes were related to antifreeze proteins,” Gruber told Gizmodo.
  • This extraordinary feature, which is rare among sea organisms, allows snailfish to prevent ice crystals from accumulating in their cells and body fluid, said the findings of the study published in Evolutionary Bioinformatics August 16,2022.
  • Fish cannot survive being partially frozen, unlike certain other reptile and insect species.
  • The findings demonstrate how marine life can sustain in sub-zero temperatures using their unique adaptation mechanisms.
  • “Similar to how antifreeze in your car keeps the water in your radiator from freezing in cold temperatures, some animals have evolved amazing machinery that prevent them from freezing, such as antifreeze proteins, which prevent ice crystals from forming,” said David Gruber, a research associate at the Museum.

A new ocean sailing expedition

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?
Recently started ocean sailing expedition to Mauritius from INSV Tarini.
In details –
  • Cmde Sanjay Panda Commanding Officer, INS Mandovi flagged off a sailing expedition from Goa to Port Louis, Mauritius at early hours of 20 Aug 22. The expedition is being undertaken by a crew of six (incl three women officers), onboard INSV Tarini.
  • Covering a distance  of almost 2500nm (approx 4500 km) one way, the crew, over a period of 20 – 21 days is expected to face extreme weather and rough sea conditions of monsoons.
  • In addition to sailing in these conditions the crew will also be undertaking boat upkeep, machinery routines and preparing their meals. The passage would be nonstop once they leave the Indian shores.
  • The Indian Navy has six ocean going Indian Naval Sailing Vessels  (INSVs) viz Mhadei, Tarini, Bulbul, Hariyal, Kadalpura and Neelkanth in her inventory.
  • These yachts regularly undertake expeditionary sailing with a small crew of naval personnel. The crew for the sea sorties are selected from volunteers with adequate sea sailing experience.
  • Ocean sailing is an extremely tough adventure sport. These Ocean Sailing expeditions help in inculcating spirit of adventure, enhancing risk taking abilities whilst honing essential seamanship skills including navigation, communication, technical operation of engines and onboard machinery, operation of Inmarsat equipment, logistics planning etc.
  • It also enhances Indian Navy’s ability to project its benign presence across the globe by participating in sailing expeditions like Sagar Parikrama and Cape Town to Rio de Janeiro races, IONS and Bay of Bengal sailing expeditions.
  • Tarini is also known for undertaking circumnavigation of the globe ‘Navika Sagar Parikrama’ in 2017 with all women officers crew.
  • In the present expedition, the selected crew is a gender neutral consisting of three men and three women officers each. The vessel is being skippered by one of the most experienced Indian Navy yachtsman Capt VD Meherishi. The crew members include Cdr Vikas Sheoran, Lt Cdr Payal Gupta, Lt Cdr Kaushal Pednekar, Lt Cdr Dilna K and Lt Cdr Roopa A.

Pitch Black 2022 Exercise

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?
Indian Air Force is going to participation in exercise pitch black 2022 at darwin, Australia.
In details –
  • An Indian Air Force contingent has reached Australia for participating in Exercise Pitch Black 2022 scheduled to be held from 19 Aug 22 to 08 Sep 22 in Darwin.
  • This is a biennial, multi-national exercise hosted by the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). It will focus on Large Force Employment warfare.
  • The last edition was conducted in 2018. The 2020 edition of the exercise was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • This year’s exercise will see the participation of over 100 aircraft and 2500 military personnel from various air forces.
  • The IAF contingent, led by Group Captain YPS Negi, comprises over 100 air warriors, deployed with four Su-30 MKI fighter and two C-17 aircraft.
  • They will undertake multi-domain air combat missions in a complex environment and will exchange best practices with the participating air forces.

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