8th International Day of Yoga
Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?
- International Day of Yoga is celebrated on June 21 every year. The 8th International Day of Yoga is being celebrated this year.
- This year’s theme is ‘Yoga for Humanity’.
- Apart from the main event in Mysore, another event Guardian Ring will also be the centre of attraction on June 21 this year. It is a relay yoga streaming event that will capture together the digital feed of International Yoga Day events organised by Indian missions abroad. The proposed plan is to start streaming from Japan, the land of the rising sun, at 6 am local time .
About The International Day of Yoga –
- The International Day of Yoga is celebrated every year on June 21 all over the world, the aim is to spread awareness about the benefits of Yoga and to make people aware of the layers of their health.
- It is worth mentioning that the international day of yoga was first celebrated in the year 2015. The purpose of celebrating this day is to raise global awareness about the benefits of practicing yoga.
- yoga is a practice that originated in India. The word yoga is a Sanskrit word which means to connect. Yoga symbolizes the integration of body and consciousness. There are 84 classical asanas in yoga such as tadasana, trikonasana, bhujangasana etc.
- Physical inactivity has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide in the last few decades due to busy lifestyle as it causes non-communicable diseases like diabetes, heart disease etc. Yoga is more than physical activity, it not only promotes good health but also helps in maintaining a balanced day-to-day life.
- As a means of improving health in this time of uncertainty, yoga has benefits that can help a person deal with stress by enhancing mental peace, flexibility and fitness. Due to this, due to India’s initiative all over the world, the practice of celebrating The International Day of Yoga started.
- India had moved a proposal for the idea of the International Day of Yoga during the opening of the 69th session of the UN General Assembly.
- The United Nations passed the resolution in December 2014 and declared June 21 as the International Day of Yoga.
- The first Yoga Day was celebrated in 2015 at Rajpath, New Delhi. It set a Guinness World Record for being the world’s largest yoga session with 35,985 people.
Why on June 21st?
- There is a special reason to celebrate June 21. According to Indian culture, after the summer solstice, the sun becomes dakshinayan. On this day, the northern hemisphere gets the most sunlight.
- Of the 365 days of the year, June 21 is the biggest day of the year. On june 21, the sun rises quickly and sets late. It is said that on this day, the heat of the sun is the most effective. For this reason, June 21 is celebrated as ‘International Yoga Day’.
PM Awards for Outstanding Contribution towards the Development and Promotion of Yoga-2021
Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?
- The one of the most coveted honours in the field of Yoga- The Prime Minister’s Award for Outstanding Contribution towards the Development and Promotion of Yoga, has been announced for the year 2021.
- Two individuals, namely Shri Bhikkhu Sanghasena Leh, Ladakh and Shri Marcus Vinicius Rojo Rodrigues, Sao Paulo, Brazil, and two organisations, namely, The Divine Life Society, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand and the British Wheel of Yoga, United Kingdom are the recipients of the same.
- The awards for the Outstanding Contribution towards the Development and Promotion of Yogawas announced by the Prime Minister of India on the occasion of the 2nd International Day of Yoga celebrations at Chandigarh on 21st June, 2016.
- The Ministry of Ayush, Government of India developed the guidelines for the said awards.
- A two-stage selection process through a Screening Committee (for preliminary evaluation) and Evaluation Committee (Jury for final evaluation), is followed in a transparent manner for finalizing the awards.
2021 Nominations –
- Nominations for the awards for 2021 were invited through an open advertisement on MyGov platform. Start date for the same was 29th March, 2021 and end date was 11th May, 2021.
- The Screening Committee chaired by Secretary (Ayush) drew up a shortlist from the 120 applications received as well as the Committee’s own inputs.
- The Jury chaired by the Cabinet Secretary, examined the recommendations of the Screening Committee, and also made its own analysis of the contributions made by the institutions and individuals shortlisted.
- The selection was done after considering nominations received under four different categories, namely International Individual, International Organisation, National Individual and National Organisation.
20th Folk Fair and 13th Krishi Fair
Paper 1 – Art and Culture
Paper 3 – Agriculture
Why Should You Know?
- On June 20, 2022, Minister of State for Tribal Affairs and Jal Shakti, Shri Bishweswar Tudu inaugurated the 20th Folk Fair (National tribal/folk song and dance festival) and 13th Krishi Fair 2022 at Saradhabali in Puri, Odisha.
- The two fairs which aimed at preserving tribal culture and promoting innovation in agriculture respectively will continue for five days and conclude on 24th June.
About 20th Folk Fair –
- The objective of the 20th Folk Fair 2022 is to emphasize the importance of tribal culture and establish its originality and uniqueness. Through the fair, attempts are being made to help the groups and individuals from the tribal communities to showcase their talents in the preserve their culture.
- Folk Fair try to demonstrate how these inhabitants of this primeval land, their traditions, and practices have interpenetrated almost all the aspects of Indian culture and civilization.
- Attempts would be made to help the groups and individuals to showcase their talents in the preservation of their songs and dances as spectacular forms of tribal art and culture.
- Performing arts and convention-based rituals best represent the cultural health of a country.
About 13th Krishi Fair –
- As one of the agriculturally rich country of the world, India considers agriculture as a powerful engine of livelihood, security and social transformation.
- Agriculture has, indeed, scratched out a new map for India with emphasis on increased food production. But still there are sectors, greater attention is needed for accelerating the growth and development.
- There are still needs of a higher level of confidence among the farmers, rural youth and masses for better coordination though which India can achieve self-sufficiency in food.
- The Krishi Fair 2022 is all set to provide a veritable platform to all working in different sectors as agriculture, animal husbandry, veterinary and poultry, floriculture and horticulture, etc.
- It will try to bring in more number of farmers, researchers, stake-holders and entrepreneurs on a common platform which will work towards major breakthroughs in all these areas of growth.
- Thus The 13th Krishi Fair in the meantime is a platform for all organisations and companies with innovations, products, solutions and services related to agriculture. The exhibition has representatives from the entire spectrum of agriculture and allied industry, manufacturers, dealers, traders, exporters and consultants in agriculture, floriculture, aquaculture, sericulture and more.
PAPER 1 – Art and Culture
Why Should You Know?
- As part of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav, to celebrate and commemorate 75 years of India’s independence and on the occasion of World Music Day, Sangeet Natak Akademi is presenting Jyotirgamaya- a festival to showcase the talent of rare musical instruments from across the country, including street performers, train entertainers, performers attached to temples, etc.
- Union Minister for Culture, Tourism and DoNER, Shri G.Kishan Reddy will inaugurate the festival.
- The festival is being envisaged with the noble aim of sensitising people about the need to safeguard the craft of making as well as the skill of playing rare musical instruments, and to give a voice to ‘unheard’ artistes who hardly ever see the limelight.
- This is a unique endeavour of Sangeet Natak Akademi to salvage the dying performing arts of India and the initiative will persist beyond the festivities of World Music Day.
- It is noteworthy that Music flows in every street and corner of India. It is not uncommon to find wayfarers playing their flute and clappers under the open sky, come rain or shine, who are seldom thanked for the momentary escape they provide from the humdrum of everyday life.
- We also have a plethora of rare musical instruments that are slowly fading away from the public domain owing to their shrinking popularity and diminishing tutelage.
- A hunt for ‘unheard’ talents was organised for the festival through a call to action. Entrants were requested to send a small clip of their performance along with their details.
- Prominent institutions of music, cultural centres, SNA awardees and eminent musicians were also requested to locate and identify such rare talent. After reviewing all the entries and considering the recommendations sent, a total of 75 performances were selected for the 5-day festival from 21-25 June 2022.
- A 5-day workshop on the making of rare musical instruments is being conducted which will prove to be both educational as well as interactive. Artistes from all corners of the country will participate in this festival.
- The Akademi has a gallery of musical instruments, masks and puppets in Rabindra Bhavan, New Delhi. A live exhibition displaying the making of musical instruments by craftsmen will be open for each day of the festival. Entry is free for all.
About Sangeet Natak Akademi –
- Sangeet Natak Akademi, the apex body in the field of performing arts in the country, was set up in 1953 for the preservation and promotion of the vast intangible heritage of India’s diverse culture expressed in forms of music, dance and drama.
- The management of the Akademi vests in its General Council. The Chairman of the Akademi is appointed by the President of India for a term of five years.
- The functions of the Akademi are set down in the Akademi’s Memorandum of Association, adopted at its registration as a society on 11 September 1961.
- The registered office of the Akademi is at Rabindra Bhavan, 35 Feroze Shah Road, New Delhi.
- Sangeet Natak Akademi is an autonomous body of the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.
- Sangeet Natak Akademi now has three constituent units, two of these being dance-teaching institutions: the Jawaharlal Nehru Manipur Dance Academy (JNMDA) at Imphal, and Kathak Kendra in Delhi.
Awards and Fellowships –
- The Sangeet Natak Akademi Awards are the highest national recognition conferred on practising artists.
- The Akademi also confers Fellowships on eminent artists and scholars of music, dance and drama; and has in 2006 instituted annual awards to young artists – the Ustad Bismillah Khan Yuva Puraskar.
- The Akademi’s archive, comprising audio and video tapes, photographs, and films is one of the largest in the country and is extensively drawn upon for research in the performing arts.
Astrophysical Study of Movement of Sun Around Qutub Minar
Paper 1- Geography
Why Should You Know?
- On the International Day of Yoga (June 21), National Monuments Authority will organize an Astro physical analysis of the movement of the sun around the Qutub Minar with the help of Ministry of Science and Technology.
- The study will determine if Qutub Minar is tilted at a certain angle, does it have any astronomical significance, and whether there is a zero shadow of the Minaret at local noon on 21st June.
- The study begins at 11.30 AM on 21st June and will go on till 1.30 PM. Some special devices are being used and an App has also been created to help the people to track the event.
- Scientists will try to measure the length of the shadow every 10 minutes or so, starting at 11.30 am, going on to about 1.30 pm. Not only will this tell us if there is zero shadow at local noon, it will also help us track the progression of the shadow length.
- Given the dimensions of the Qutub Minar, it will be possible to calculate the tilt angle from these measurements. For some angles of the tilt, it is expected that the shadow at local noon will fall on the ground and for some, will fall on the tower itself. For this purpose, a device to measure vertical angles, for the latter case, has been requisitioned.
- The astronomical event will be preceded by a Yoga event at Vishnu Garud Dhwaj ( Iron Pillar).
About National Monuments Authority –
- National Monuments Authority (NMA) under the Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India has been setup as per provisions of The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains AMASR (Amendment and Validation) Act, 2010 which was enacted in March, 2010.
- The National Monuments Authority (NMA) came into existence in 2011 as a statutory body.
- Several functions have been assigned to the NMA for the protection and preservation of monuments and sites through management of the prohibited and regulated area around the centrally protected monuments.
- One amongst these responsibilities of NMA is also to consider grant of permissions to applicants for construction related activity in the prohibited and regulated area.
“EX KHAAN QUEST – 2022”
Paper 2- International Relations
Why Should You Know?
- The Multinational Peacekeeping Exercise “Ex Khaan Quest -2022” culminated on June 20, 2022 at the Peace Support Operations Training Centre in Ulaanbaatar at Mongolia.
- The exercise conducted from 06 June to 20 June 2022 provided a platform for mutual learning and sharing best practices amongst the armies from 16 Nations.
- The Indian contingent consisting of personnel from the LADAKH SCOUTS participated in the field training as well as the Command Post exercise.
- A number of training activities were organised during the course of the exercise, which included mock tactical operations as per United Nations (UN) mandate, combat discussions, training of staff and command appointments; as part of a combined UN brigade, in order to enhance multinational interoperability.
- The bonhomie, espirit-de-corps and goodwill generated during the exercise will go a long way in future strengthening of bonds between the Armies of participating Nations.
National Initiative for Promotion of Upskilling of Nirman workers (NIPUN)
Paper 3- Economy
Why Should You Know?
- On 20 june, 2022 , Union Minister of Housing and Urban Affairs Hardeep Singh Puri launched an innovative project named National Initiative for Promoting Upskilling of Nirman workers (NIPUN) for skill training of 100,000 construction workers.
- The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) launched the NIPUN project under its flagship scheme of the Deendayal Antyodaya-Yojana National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM) to train construction workers through fresh skilling and upskilling programs which will provide them with work opportunities in foreign countries also.
- The National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), the nodal agency under the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE), Government of India will implement the NIPUN project.
The NIPUN project implementation is divided into three parts,
- training through Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) at construction sites,
- training through Fresh skilling by Plumbing and Infrastructure SSC,
- and International Placement through industries, builders, and contractors.
- According to the statement by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA), “Onsite skill training will be provided to approximately 80,000 construction workers through industry associations under the RPL certification, co-branded with MoHUA, while about 14,000 candidates will receive fresh skilling through plumbing and infrastructure Sector Skill Council (SSC) in trades having promising placement potentials.”
- Project NIPUN will facilitate and support convergence with related ministries. Meanwhile, NSDC will be responsible for the overall execution of training, monitoring and candidate tracking.
- It will provide trainees with ‘Kaushal Bhima’, three-year accidental insurance with coverage of Rs 2 lakhs, digital skills such as cashless transactions and the BHIM app, orientation about entrepreneurship, and EPF and BOCW facilities.
‘Svadha’- Wellness Wear Collection in Khadi
Paper 3- Economy
Why Should You Know?
- This year India will be celebrating the eighth edition of the International Day of Yoga on 21st June 2022.
- Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has announced ‘Yoga for Humanity’ as this year’s theme, to reaffirm how yoga served humanity in alleviating sufferings during Covid-19.
- Center of Excellence for Khadi (CoEK) has been set up by KVIC, Ministry of MSME at NIFT, with the objective to help Khadi Institutions (KIs) to effectively design, produce and market high quality differentiated khadi products in the Indian and global market.
- Centre of Excellence for Khadi (COEK) carries forward the sentiment articulated in the theme by drawing a strong parallel with the ‘khadi spirit’- that simply means “fellow-feeling with every human being on earth”. The essence of yoga is balance – not just balance within the body or that between the mind and the body, but also balance in the human relationship with the world.
- Keeping in view the core ideology of Yoga, the design team at CoEK has designed a range of ‘Wellness wear’ ‘Svadha’ to showcase the versatility of khadi on International Yoga Day. In Atharva veda, ‘Svadha’ means ease, comfort or pleasure, which are truly the attributes of this collection.
- The ensembles from the collection were shown to yoga practitioners and yoga enthusiast to try on and give their feedback. Inclusion of features of bias yoke on the shoulder, a box pleat in center back of top wear and low crotch, wrap around bottom wear for ease in stretching and for extra comfort, are the highpoints of the wellness collection.
- The wellness clothing ‘Svadha’ range emphasizes the values of mindfulness and perseverance and is aimed to attract all age groups from Gen Z to young at heart. The wellness wear has used hand-spun khadi in natural hues. The thread of khadi binds the people globally in true sense towards ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’- the world is one family.
About KVIC –
- The Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) is a statutory body formed in April 1957 by the Government of India, under the Act of Parliament, ‘Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act of 1956’.
- It is an apex organisation under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, with regard to khadi and village industries within India, which seeks to – “plan, promote, facilitate, organise and assist in the establishment and development of khadi and village industries in the rural areas in coordination with other agencies engaged in rural development wherever necessary.”
- In April 1957, it took over the work of former All India Khadi and Village Industries Board.
- Its head office is in Mumbai, whereas its six zonal offices in Delhi, Bhopal, Bengaluru, Kolkata, Mumbai and Guwahati. It has zonal offices also.
Advanced Light Helicopter Squadron 840
Paper 3 – Security
Why Should You Know?
- In the Indian Coast Guard, a new air squadron was created in Chennai by the name 840 Squadron, initially with an Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Mark-III aircraft.
- The aircraft was received with the traditional water cannon salute, in presence of Inspector General AP Badola, Commander of the eastern Coast Guard Region.
- This is the first such aircraft to be positioned by the defence force in the eastern region.
- Three more ALH aircraft will be added in the inventory of the new Squadron shortly, says the Coast Guard.
- The aircraft are having Beyond the Visual Range detection, using modern radars. It is equipped for target neutralisation operations, using its mounted Heavy Machine Gun.
- The ALH is an indigenous aircraft designed and developed by the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, in line with the government’s push towards ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’.
Single-use plastic being banned in India from July 1
Paper 3 – Environment
Why Should You Know?
- government is going to ban the use of ‘single-use plastic’. The Ministry for Environment, Forest and Climate Change had issued a gazette notification last year announcing the ban, and has now defined a list of items that will be banned from next month.
- The Ministry notification says that the manufacture, import, stocking, distribution, sale and use of following single-use plastic, including polystyrene and expanded polystyrene, commodities shall be prohibited with effect from the 1st July, 2022.
What is single-use plastic?
- As the name suggests, it refers to plastic items that are used once and discarded. Single-use plastic has among the highest shares of plastic manufactured and used — from packaging of items, to bottles (shampoo, detergents, cosmetics), polythene bags, face masks, coffee cups, cling film, trash bags, food packaging etc.
Production of single-use plastic –
- A Australian philanthropic organisations the Minderoo Foundation’s 2021 report said that single-use plastics account for a third of all plastic produced globally, with 98% manufactured from fossil fuels.
- Single-use plastic also accounts for the majority of plastic discarded – 130 million metric tonnes globally in 2019 — “all of which is burned, buried in landfills or discarded directly into the environment”, the report said.
- On the current trajectory of production, it has been projected that single-use plastic could account for 5-10% of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.
- The report found that India features in the top 100 countries of single-use plastic waste generation – at rank 94 (the top three being Singapore, Australia and Oman. With domestic production of 11.8 million metric tonnes annually, and import of 2.9 MMT, India’s net generation of single-use plastic waste is 5.6 MMT, and per capita generation is 4 kg.
What are the items being banned?
- Plastic Sticks: ear buds with plastic sticks, plastic sticks for balloons, plastic flags, candy sticks, ice- cream sticks, polystyrene (Thermocol) for decoration.
- Cutlery items: plates, cups, glasses, cutlery such as forks, spoons, knives, straw, trays
- Packing/wrapping films: Wrapping or packing films around sweet boxes, invitation cards, and cigarette packets.
- Other items: Plastic or PVC banners less than 100 microns, stirrers.
Why these items?
- When plastic remains in the environment for long periods of time and does not decay, it turns into microplastics – first entering our food sources and then the human body, and this is extremely harmful.
- Ministry have chosen these items as they are difficult to collect, especially since most are either small, or discarded directly into the environment – like ice-cream sticks. It then becomes difficult to collect for recycling, unlike the much larger items.
How will the ban be enforced?
- The ban will be monitored by the CPCB from the Centre, and by the State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) that will report to the Centre regularly. Directions have been issued at national, state and local levels — for example, to all petrochemical industries — to not supply raw materials to industries engaged in the banned items.
- Directions have also been issued to SPCBs and Pollution Control Committees to modify or revoke consent to operate issued under the Air/Water Act to industries engaged in single-use plastic items. Local authorities have been directed to issue fresh commercial licenses with the condition that SUP items will not be sold on their premises, and existing commercial licences will be cancelled if they are found to be selling these items.
- Last week, the CPCB issued one-time certificates to 200 manufacturers of compostable plastic and the BIS passed standards for biodegradable plastic.
- Those found violating the ban can be penalised under the Environment Protection Act 1986 – which allows for imprisonment up to 5 years, or a penalty up to Rs 1 lakh, or both.
- Violators can also be asked to pay Environmental Damage Compensation by the SPCB. In addition, there are municipal laws on plastic waste, with their own penal codes.
Other countries dealing with single-use plastic –
- Earlier this year, 124 countries, parties to the United Nations Environment Assembly, including India, signed a resolution to draw up an agreement which will in the future make it legally binding for the signatories to address the full life of plastics from production to disposal, to end plastic pollution.
- New Zealand became the latest country to ban plastic bags in July 2019. China issued a ban on plastic bags in 2020 with phased implementation.
- As of July 2019, 68 countries have plastic bag bans with varying degrees of enforcement.
- Eight states in the US have banned single-use plastic bags, beginning with California in 2014. Seattle became the first major US city to ban plastic straws in 2018.
- On July 2, 2021, the Directive on Single-Use Plastics took effect in the European Union (EU). The directive bans certain single-use plastics for which alternatives are available; single-use plastic plates, cutlery, straws, balloon sticks and cotton buds cannot be placed on the markets of the EU member states. The same measure applies to cups, food and beverage containers made of expanded polystyrene, and all products made of oxo-degradable plastic.