Ojaank IAS Academy




22 July 2022 – Current Affairs

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The National Emblem

Paper 2 – Constitution

Why Should You Know?

Recently Prime Minister unveils the National Emblem on the roof of the new Parliament House.

In details –
  • On July 11, 2022 morning, Prime Minister Narendra Modi unveiled the National Emblem cast on the roof of the new Parliament building. Work is underway to meet the October-November 2022 deadline for completion of the work.
    Cast at the top of the Central Foyer of the new Parliament building, the 6.5-metre-high National Emblem is made of bronze, and weighs 9,500 kg. A supporting structure of steel weighing around 6,500 kg has been constructed to support the Emblem.
    The concept sketch and process of casting of the National Emblem on the roof of the building went through eight different stages of preparation from clay modelling/ computer graphics to bronze casting and polishing.
The building’s interiors
  • The new building will have six granite statues of important personalities, four galleries each for the two Houses of Parliament, three ceremonial foyers, three India galleries, and one Constitution gallery.
    Each wall in the building will have a dominant theme — dedicated, for instance, to the contribution of tribal leaders, or to showcasing the contribution of women. Displays including a mix of portraits, illustrative arts, installations, sculptures, and decorative art will frame storylines.
    Almost 70 per cent of the artwork that will adorn the walls of the building have been commissioned; the rest will be sourced over the next two months.
    Architectural style
    Bimal Patel of HCP Designs, Ahmedabad, is the architect in charge of the building, which is triangular in shape, and incorporates architectural styles from around India.
    The building is coming up adjacent to the existing Parliament complex, and is of almost the same size. the building is designed to be earthquake-resistant.
    The new complex has 888 seats in the Lok Sabha chamber and 384 seats in the Rajya Sabha chamber.
    Unlike the present Parliament building, there is no Central Hall, and the Lok Sabha chamber will be able to house 1,272 members in case of a joint session.
    The building will have an open-sky area of 2,000 sq metre for a banyan tree.
Background –
  • The existing building was designed by Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker who were responsible for the planning and construction of New Delhi.
  • It was inaugurated in January 18, 1927, by then Governor-General of India Lord Irwin.
  • The foundation stone for the new building was laid by the Prime Minister in December 2020, nearly a century after the foundation for the existing Parliament was laid by the Duke of Connaught on February 12, 1921.
  • The new Parliament building will “most likely be completed in time by October-November 2022”, in time to hold the winter session this year, to coincide with 75th year of India’s independence.
Cost of the project
  • The new Parliament building project was awarded to Tata Projects for Rs 971 crore.
  • The estimated project cost has shot up by nearly 24 per cent to about Rs 1,200 crore due to additional works, changes in construction plan, and pandemic-related delays.

Mission Kushal Karmi

Paper 2 – Government Policies
Why Should You Know?

Recently Delhi Deputy Chief Minister Manish Sisodia launched ‘Mission Kushal Karmi’ to upgrade the skills of construction workers.

In details –
  • The Delhi government launched this programme with the help of Delhi Skill and Entrepreneurship University (DSEU) and Delhi Building and Other Construction Workers Welfare Board.
  • This skill development programme by DSEU, along with Simplex, NAREDCO and India Vision Foundation to make construction workers skilled, is very special. Under this 15 days special training programme, workers will undergo upskilling which will boost their incomes in future.
  •  This will help in increasing the income of workers up to Rs 8,000. The government aims to train 2 lakh workers in a year under this programme. Construction companies will also benefit from these skilled workers
  • In compensate for the loss of wages during the training, all the construction workers will be provided with an amount of Rs 4,200 each.
  • Delhi Skill and Entrepreneurship University is running training centres at 3 places currently and more centres will be added in the coming days. Excellent training areas have also been made for the workers at all these centres.
  • The objective of the programme is to provide on-the-job skill development training to over 2 lakh registered construction workers in industry demand-driven job roles in the construction sector in a year. Under the programme, workers will be trained for 120 hours (15 days) at their workplaces.
Benefits –
  • Wage loss compensation of Rs. 4,200 (Rs 35 per hour of training) to each construction worker after completion of this training.
  • Improvement in income ranging upto 8,000 per month after completion of training to construction workers.
  • Increase in productivity of workers by 40 per cent, increase quality of product produced by 25 per cent and wastage of materials decreases by 50 per cent.
  • Improvement in domain skills and soft skills thereby making the worker more proficient and confident.
  • Improvement in the understanding of standard safety norms thereby increasing the longevity of work and social security.

Newly-developed AI-enabled defence products

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?

Recently Union Defence Minister Rajnath Singh launched 75 newly-developed Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies during the first-ever ‘AI in Defence’ (AIDef) symposium and exhibition

In details –
  • On July 10, 2022 the Union Defence Minister Rajnath Singh launched 75 newly-developed Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies during the first-ever ‘AI in Defence’ (AIDef) symposium and exhibition, organised by the Ministry of Defence in New Delhi.
  • The products, launched as part of ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’ celebrations, fall under various domains. These include AI Platform Automation; Autonomous /Unmanned / Robotics systems; Block Chain-based Automation; Command, Control, Communication, Computer & Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance; Cyber Security; Human Behavioural Analysis; Intelligent Monitoring Systems; Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems; Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Operational Data Analytics; Manufacturing and Maintenance; Simulators/Test Equipment and speech/voice analysis using Natural Language Processing.
  • Three AI products developed by the DPSUs have dual-use applications and good market potential, namely AI-enabled Voice Transcription or Analysis software developed by Bharat Electronics Limited; Driver Fatigue Monitoring System developed by Bharat Earth Movers Limited and AI-enabled evaluation of Welding defects in X-rays of Non-destructive Testing developed by Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers were screened during the event. These products are expected to open up new business avenues for the Defence PSUs.
  • The Raksha Mantri released the physical as well as e-version of the book comprising the details of these 75 products, showcasing the collective efforts put on by the Services, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs), iDEX start-ups and the private industry in last four years in the field of AI.
What is Artificial intelligence (AI)?
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to the natural intelligence displayed by animals including humans.
  • AI research has been defined as the field of study of intelligent agents, which refers to any system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of achieving its goals.
  • Through artificial intelligence, efforts are being made to make computer systems or machines in such a way that they can easily do the work done by humans.
  • These machines are being made in such a way that they can easily do tasks like making decisions, understanding of right and wrong, visual perception, identifying humans and so on.
  • If said in more simple language, then these machines are being given brain like humans. So that he can also take decisions like humans.
  • John McCarthy was the founder of artificial intelligence. Together with his partners Marvin Minsky, Herbert Simon and Ellen Newell, he founded and researched artificial intelligence. The term artificial intelligence was invented by John McCarthy in the year 1955.

Pradhan Mantri National Apprenticeship Mela 2022

Paper 3 – Economy
Why Should You Know?

Prime Minister’s National Apprenticeship Mela organized at more than two hundred places across the country.

In details –
  • The Prime Minister’s National Apprenticeship Fair began on July 11, 2022 and organized by the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship as part of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Skill India mission to promote career opportunities and practical training among youth. Used to be.Notably, this one-day fair will cover 36 sectors and over 1000 companies and 500 different types of trades. The ministry will host the event at over 200 locations, giving applicants an opportunity to shape their careers apprenticeship training, As per the release shared by the ministry, so far 188410 applicants are participating in the apprenticeship fair and till date 67,035 apprenticeship offers have been given on the platform.
  • For candidates to be considered eligible to participate in the program, they must have a Class 5 – Class 12 pass certificate, a skills training certificate, an ITI diploma, or a bachelor’s degree, according to the release. Additionally, the young and interested workforce will be able to choose from over 500 trades such as welding, electrical work, housekeeping, beautician, mechanic work, etc.
  • Candidates will also earn a National Council for Vocational Education and Training (NCVET)-accredited certificate, which will have corrections. Their employability after training, the release notified. “The main objective of this program is to encourage companies to hire more apprentices, as well as to provide training and practical skills“said the ministry
What is National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme?
  • National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS) was launched on August 19, 2016, to promote apprenticeship training in the country and to provide financial support to establishments undertaking apprenticeship.
  • The program aims to motivate employers to hire apprentices and aid them in discovering the right job roles while maximising their potential through in-depth skill development. As of today, more than 12 lakh apprentices have been engaged with various industries.
  • The dream of India becoming the ‘Skill Capital of the World’ seems to be on the path to fruition with the introduction of various apprenticeship reforms aimed at building a skilled manpower. It is envisioned that these schemes will be further scaled up in the coming years and all contracts will be DBT contracts.

United Nations report about population

Paper 2 – International Issues

Why Should You Know?

Recently United Nations report said that India projected to surpass China as world’s most populous country during 2023.

In details –
  • India is projected to surpass China as the world’s most populous country in 2023, according to the 27th edition of the United Nations’ World Population Prospects, 2022.
  • In 2022, China remains the most populous country in the world with 1,426 million, but India has caught up with a marginally less population of 1,412 million.
  • The global population will reach 8 billion on November 15, 2022, more than three times the population of 2.5 billion in 1950.
  • The findings come in the backdrop of a decrease in fertility rates across the globe. The UN report finds that in 2020, for the first time since 1950, the rate of population growth fell below 1 per cent per year and it is projected to continue to slow in the next few decades and through the end of this century.
  • The population of China was 1,144 million in 1990 compared with India’s at 861 million then.
Key points of reports –
  • The UN projections say that by 2050, India’s population will reach 1,668 million, far exceeding China’s declining population at 1,317 million. The global population by 2050 would have touched 9.7 billion.
  • The world’s two most populous regions in 2022 were Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, with 2.3 billion people, representing 29 per cent of the global population, and Central and Southern Asia, with 2.1 billion (26 per cent).
  • China and India accounted for the largest populations in these regions, with more than 1.4 billion each in 2022, says the report. Central and Southern Asia is expected to become the most populous region in the world by 2037.
  • The latest UN projections suggest that the global population could grow to around 8.5 billion in 2030, 9.7 billion in 2050, and 10.4 billion in 2100.
  • In India, where National Family Health Survey 5 released last year found that India attained a Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 2.0 for the first time, less than the replacement level of 2.1, and falling from a TFR of 2.2 in NFHS 4. Increased use of contraceptive methods, spacing of pregnancies, access to health care and an impetus provided to family planning contributed to the decrease, including increasing wealth and education.
  • While fertility rates have been declining, so have mortality rates with increased access to healthcare and advances in medicine. Worldwide, persons aged 65 years or over, outnumbered children under 5 years for the first time in 2018. This reduction of premature mortality for successive generations, reflected in increased levels of life expectancy at birth, has been a driver of population growth, the UN has said.
  • Globally, life expectancy reached 72.8 years in 2019, an increase of almost 9 years since 1990. Further reductions in mortality are projected to result in an average longevity of around 77.2 years globally in 2050 and the share of the global population aged 65 years or above is projected to rise from 10 per cent in 2022 to 16 per cent in 2050. By 2050, the number of persons 65 years and above are expected to be more than double that of 5-year-olds and the same as 12-year-olds.
  • “Following a drop in mortality, population growth continues so long as fertility remains at high levels. When fertility begins to fall, the annual rate of growth starts to drop,” says the report.
Indian scenario –
  • “These numbers are not drastically different from the UN’s earlier projections. The 2019 World Population Prospects report had said that India would overtake China by 2027. So, we knew that India was going to overtake China in a matter of a few years.
  • If we look at it over the last 50 years, India’s growth rate stood at 2.3 per cent in 1972, which has dropped down to less than 1 per cent now. In this period, the number of children each Indian woman has during her lifetime has come down from about 5.4 to less than 2.1 now.
  • This means that we have attained the Replacement Fertility Rate, at which a population exactly replaces itself from one generation to the next. Usage of modern contraceptives is rising across the country and the desired fertility rate for all communities in India is less 2, according to the latest National Family Health Survey data,” says Poonam Muttreja, Executive Director, Population Foundation of India.
  • In 2021, the average fertility of the world’s population stood at 2.3 births per woman, having fallen from about 5 births per woman in 1950. Global fertility is projected to decline further to 2.1 births per woman by 2050.
  • The population growth in South Asia will begin to decline before 2100.
Increasing rates of migration –
  • Increasing rates of migration also contribute to changing population patterns across countries. South Asia clocks some of the highest emigration trends, according to the report with India seeing an estimated net outflow of 3.5 million between 2010 and 2021. Pakistan has the highest net flow of migrants of 16.5 million during the same period.
  • More than half of the projected increase in global population up to 2050 will be concentrated in just eight countries – the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, and the United Republic of Tanzania.
  • Countries of sub-Saharan Africa are expected to continue growing through 2100 and to contribute more than half of the global population increase anticipated through 2050.
Child berths –
  • Despite the continuing decline in the average number of births per woman, the total annual number of births has remained stable at around 140 million since the late 1980s “due to the youthful age distribution of the global population”. In 2021, 134 million babies were born worldwide.
  • In the future, the number of newborns is expected to slightly increase to reach 138 million annually between 2040 and 2045, despite the continuous decline in the average number of births per woman. In 2021, most births worldwide occurred in the two most populous regions — Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
  • “About 9.4 per cent of Indian women have an unmet need for contraception, which means that approximately 22 million women want to stop or delay childbearing but do not have access to a method of contraception. Our focus should be on providing women of all communities’ access to family planning services. We should also capitalize on our large young population — about 30 per cent is aged between 10 and 24. The government needs to play a pivotal role andinvest in education, health and creating economic opportunities for young people, which would help us harness what economists call demographic dividend,” says Muttreja.

India’s first elevated urban expressway

Paper 3- Infrastructure
Why Should You Know?

Recently Shri Nitin Gadkari has said that the Dwarka Expressway to be developed as the first elevated urban expressway in India will be operational in 2023.

In details –
  • The Dwarka Expressway, which is being developed as the first elevated urban expressway in India, will be operational in 2023, said Minister for Road Transport and Highways Nitin Gadkari.
  • Dwarka Expressway will reduce pressure on the Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway (part of the Delhi-Jaipur-Ahmedabad-Mumbai arm of Golden Quadrilateral) and arterial roads that experience severe traffic congestion, primarily from the commuters of West Delhi.
  • Nearly, 50%-60% traffic on NH-8 will be diverted onto the new expressway, thereby improving traffic movement towards Sohna Road, Golf Course Road. Once operational in 2023, it shall immensely help in reducing the air pollution in Delhi-NCR as well.
  • It will be a 16-lane access-controlled highway with provision of minimum three-lane service road on both sides.
  • The Expressway connecting Dwarka in Delhi to Gurugram in Haryana is being developed at a total cost of ₹9,000 crore. It has a total length of 29 km, out of which 19 km falls in Haryana and the remaining 10 km is in Delhi.
  • The expressway begins from Shiv-Murti on NH-8 (Delhi-Gurugram expressway) and ends near Kherki Daula Toll Plaza, through Dwarka Sector 21, Gurugram border and Basai.
  • It will have four multi-level interchanges, including India’s longest and widest road tunnel that will be 3.6 km in length and have eight lanes.
  • Once ready, it will provide direct access to upcoming India International Convention Centre (IICC) in Dwarka Sector 25 as well as alternate connectivity to IGI Airport through a shallow tunnel.
Expressways of India –
  • Expressways are the highest class of roads in India. As of January 2022, India has a total length of 2,074.5 km (1,289.0 mi) of expressways.
  • These are controlled-access highways where entrance and exits are controlled by the use of ramps that are incorporated into the design of the expressway, whereas National highways are at-grade roads.
  • Currently, the longest expressway in India is the Purvanchal Expressway at 340.8 km (211.8 mi) and the widest expressway is the Delhi–Meerut Expressway with 14 lanes.
  • The National Expressway Authority, which operates under the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, will be in charge of construction and maintenance of highways.
  • The density of highways in India is very low compared to the world.

New Chief Executive Officer of NITI Aayog

Paper 2 – Governance
Why Should You Know?

Recently Parameswaran Iyer takes over as new Chief Executive Officer of NITI Aayog.

In details –
  • Parameswaran Iyer, who had spearheaded the implementation of the flagship $20 billion Swachh Bharat Mission, on July 10,2022 took charge as the CEO of NITI Aayog.
  • According to an official statement, Iyer is a 1981-batch IAS officer from the Uttar Pradesh cadre who has worked in both the public and private sectors. During 2016-20, he served as secretary in the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.
  • Iyer had taken voluntary retirement from the Indian Administrative Service in 2009. He had also worked as a senior rural water sanitation specialist at the United Nations.
  • The Department of Personnel and Training announced his appointment. Previous CEO Amitabh Kant’s tenure ended on June 30, 2022.
About NITI Aayog –
  • The NITI Aayog (lit. ’Policy Commission’; abbreviation for National Institution for Transforming India) serves as the apex public policy think tank of the Government of India, and the nodal agency tasked with catalyzing economic development, and fostering cooperative federalism through the involvement of State Governments of India in the economic policy-making process using a bottom-up approach.
  • It was established in 2015, to replace the Planning Commission which followed a top-down model.
  • The NITI Aayog council comprises all the state Chief Ministers, along with the Chief Ministers of Delhi and Puducherry, Lieutenant Governors of all UTs, and a vice-chairman nominated by the Prime Minister. In addition, temporary members are selected from leading universities and research institutions. These members include a chief executive officer, four ex-official members, and two part-time members.
  • It is noteworthy that Prime Minister of India is the chairman of Niti Ayog.

Rupee Merchant Payment System

Paper 3 – Economy
Why Should You Know?

Recently Reserve Bank of India introduced the system of merchant payments in rupees.

In details –
  • The Reserve Bank of India has introduced the system of merchant payments in rupees. The Reserve Bank has made this additional arrangement for invoicing, payment and payment of exports and imports in Indian currency.
  • The objective of this initiative is to promote global trade with an emphasis on exports from India and support the growing interest of the global trading community in the Indian currency.
  • Before implementing this process, authorized dealer banks were required to obtain permission from the Foreign Exchange Department of the Reserve Bank.
  • Under this system, invoices can be generated by classifying all types of export and import payments in rupees. Authorized dealer banks in India have been permitted to open Vostro accounts of Rs. Further, for settlement of business transactions with any country, such banks in India may open special Vostro accounts with the respective banks of the partner trading country.
About The Reserve Bank of India –
  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is the central bank of India whose primary function is to manage and govern the financial system of the country. It is a statutory body established in the year 1935 under the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.
  • The central bank regulates the issue and supply of the Indian rupee. It also looks after the central government’s money.
  • The central bank plays the role of the bankers’ bank and regulates the banking sector. It also plays an important role in India’s development story by supporting the government in its developmental projects and policies.
  • The head office of the RBI, in Kolkata when the bank was established, was shifted to Mumbai in 1937. Originally, the bank was privately owned.
  • However, after Independence, it was nationalised in 1949 and is now fully owned by the Government of India.

World Masters Athletics Championships

Paper 2 – Education, games
Why Should You Know?

Recently Bhagwani Devi won gold in World Masters Athletics Championships.

In details –
  • In the championship held in Tampere, Finland, 94-year-old Bhagwani Devi of Haryana won the gold medal in the 100 meters sprint event with a time of just 24.74 seconds. Not only this, she also managed to win the bronze medal in shot put.
  • On her success, the Sports Ministry said that Bhagwan Devi has proved that age is not a hindrance in the way of success.
  • The World Masters Athletics Championships was started in 1975. Players above 35 years of age can participate in this championship.
  • Initially only 5 age group was included, but now sports events are organized in 12 age group.
  • The first age group is the age group above 35. Second above 40 years, third above 45 years, fourth above 50 years, fifth above 55 years, sixth above 60 years, seventh above 65 years, eighth above 70 years, ninth above 75 years, tenth above 80 years Above, the eleventh is above 85 years and the twelfth is above 90 years.

36th National Games

Paper 2 – Games
Why Should You Know?

36th National Games will be held in Gujarat from 27th September to 10th October 2022.

In details –
  • Gujarat Chief Minister Bhupendra Patel announced that the 36th National Games will be held for the first time in his state from September 27 to October 10.
  • The prestigious event is being hosted after a hiatus of seven years from 2020 due to several factors including the coronavirus pandemic; The previous one was held in Kerala in 2015.
  • Competitions will be held in six cities namely Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Surat, Vadodara, Rajkoj and Bhavnagar.
  • Around 7000 players from across the country will participate in 36 sports. Indoor and outdoor events like Athletics, Hockey, Football, Volleyball, Lawn Tennis, Table Tennis, Judo, Kushmi, Kabaddi and Kho-Kho etc. will be organized.

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