‘Loss and Damages’ fund
Paper 3 – Environment
Why You Should Know?
COP27 establishes ‘Loss and Damages’ fund for climate reparations.
In detail –
- The UN climate summit agreed on November 20, 2022 to set up a “loss and damage” fund to support poorer countries being ravaged by climate impacts, overcoming decades of resistance from rich nations who contribute the bulk of the world’s emissions.
What is ‘loss and damage’?
- At the UN climate talks, “loss and damage” refers to costs being incurred from climate-fuelled weather extremes or impacts, like rising sea levels.
- Climate funding so far has focused mostly on cutting carbon dioxide emissions in an effort to curb global warming, while about a third of it has gone towards projects to help communities adapt to future impacts.
- “Loss and damage” funding is different, specifically covering the cost of damage that countries cannot avoid or adapt to.
- But there is no agreement yet over what should count as “loss and damage” caused by climate change, which could include damaged infrastructure and property, as well as harder-to-value natural ecosystems or cultural assets.
- A report by 55 vulnerable countries estimated their combined climate-linked losses over the last two decades totalled $525bn, or 20 percent of their collective gross domestic product (GDP). Some research suggests that by 2030, such losses could reach $580bn per year.
Who pays whom?
- Vulnerable countries and campaigners in the past argued that rich countries that caused the bulk of climate change with their historical greenhouse gas emissions should pay.
- The United States and European Union had resisted the argument, fearingspiralling liabilities, but changed their position during the COP27 summit. The EU has argued that China – the world’s second-largest economy, but classified by the UN as a developing country – should also pay into it.
- A few governments have made relatively small but symbolic funding commitments for loss and damage: Denmark, Belgium, Germany and Scotland, as well as the EU. China has not committed to any payment.
- Some existing UN and development bank funding does help states facing loss and damage, though it is not officially earmarked for that goal.
- Also remaining to be worked out are the details on which countries or disasters qualify for compensation.
About the agreement
- The fund agreed upon at the UN summit in Egypt will be aimed at helping developing countries that are “particularly vulnerable” to the effects of climate change, language selected by the wealthier nations to ensure the money goes to the most urgent cases while also limiting the pool of potential recipients.
- The deal lays out a roadmap for future decision-making, with recommendations to be made at next year’s UN climate summit for decisions including who would oversee the fund, how the money would be dispersed – and to whom.
- The agreement calls for the funds to come from a variety of existing sources, including financial institutions, rather than relying on rich nations to pay up.
- Some countries have suggested other existing funds could also be a source of cash, although some experts say issues like long delays make those funds unsuitable for addressing loss and damage.
- Other ideas include UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres’s call for a windfall profit tax on fossil fuel companies to raise funding.
History of the demand
- At its heart, the demand for compensation for loss and damage from climate disasters is an extension of the universally acknowledged “Polluter Pays” principle, that makes the polluter liable for paying not just for the cost of remedial action, but also for compensating the victims of environmental damage caused by their actions.
- In the climate change framework, the burden of responsibility falls on those rich countries that have contributed most of the greenhouse gas emissions since 1850, generally considered to be the beginning of the industrial age.
- The United States and the European Union, including the UK, account for over 50 per cent of all emissions during this time. If Russia, Canada, Japan, and Australia are included, the combined contribution goes past 65 per cent, or almost two-thirds of all emissions.
- Historical responsibility is important because carbon dioxide remains in the atmosphere for hundreds of years, and it is the cumulative accumulation of this carbon dioxide that causes global warming.
- A country like India, currently the third largest emitter, accounts for only 3 per cent of historical emissions. China, which is the world’s biggest emitter for over 15 years now, has contributed about 11 per cent to total emissions since 1850.
Sources – IE
Paper 1 – Art & Culture
Why You Should Know?
The Geographical Indications Registry at Guindy, Chennai, has received an application from the Tribal Development Council, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, seeking the Geographical Indication (GI) tag for the Nicobarihodi craft.
In detail –
- This is the first application from the Union Territory seeking a tag for one its products.
- The Geographical Indications Registry, established in Chennai in September 2003, has received over 1,000 applications.
- An application seeking GI tag for the Banaras’ thandai (a beverage made with milk, dry fruits and spices) was the 1,000th application, which was filed two weeks ago.
- Data shows that, as on date, around 1,015 applications have been filed at the Chennai office and of them, GI tags have been given to 422 products.
- Over a hundred applications have been refused and abandoned for various reasons, including non-compliance, and withdrawal of papers by the applicants.
What is Nicobarihodi?
- The hodi is the Nicobari tribe’s traditional craft.
- It is an outrigger canoe, very commonly operated in the Nicobar group of islands.
- The technical skills for building a hodi are based on indigenous knowledge inherited by the Nicobarese from their forefathers.
- The hodi is built using either locally available trees or from nearby islands, and its design varies slightly from island to island.
- The trunk selected has to be free of branches along the required length, while it has to be sufficiently wide in girth to provide for the desired width.
- A 60 to 80 year old tree with a straight trunk or one having a slight incline to one side is preferred.
- Considerations to be taken into account include the length of the finished canoe, which has to be l2 times that of its width, while the length of the undressed tree trunk has to be l5 times this width.
- Hodis are used for transporting people and goods from one island to another, for sending coconuts, for fishing and racing purposes.”
- The tuhet, a group of families under a headman, consider the hodi an asset. Hodi races are held between islands and villages.
What is GI tag?
- A geographical indication (GI) is a sign used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin.
- In order to function as a GI, a sign must identify a product as originating in a given place.
- A GI is primarily an agricultural, natural or a manufactured product (handicrafts and industrial goods) originating from a definite geographical territory.
- Typically, such a name conveys an assurance of quality and distinctiveness, which is essentially attributable to the place of its origin.
- There is a proper process of registration of GI products which includes filing of application, preliminary scrutiny and examination, show cause notice, publication in the geographical indications journal, opposition to registration, and registration.
- Any association of persons, producers, organisation or authority established by or under the law can apply.
- The applicant must represent the interest of the producers. It is a legal right under which the GI holder can prohibit others from using the same name.
- The famous goods which carry this tag include Basmati rice, Darjeeling Tea, Chanderi Fabric, Mysore Silk, Kullu Shawl, Kangra Tea, Thanjavur Paintings, Allahabad Surkha, Farrukhabad Prints, Lucknow Zardozi and Kashmir Walnut Wood Carving.
Pollution Control Vessels (PCV)
Paper 3 –Environment
Why You Should Know?
Keel laid for construction of two Coast Guard Pollution Control Vessels (PCV) at Goa Shipyard.
In detail –
- In line with the country’s Make in India commitment for sourcing equipments and systems from indigenous firms including MSMEs, Indian Cost Guard laid the keel for two Coast Guard Pollution Control Vessels, GSL Yard 1267 & 1268, on 21st November 2022 at the Goa Shipyard.
- The two Pollution Control Vessels are indigenously designed and developed by the Goa Shipyard, to be delivered by February 2025 and August 2025 respectively.
- Keel Laying is a major milestone activity in the construction of ships, symbolising formal commencement of the erection process of ships on the building berth.
- the Pollution Control Vessels would be a new generation Special Role Vessel, equipped with the most advanced and sophisticated equipment, capable of performing multifarious roles of Indian Coast Guard, with prominent being combating marine pollution at extended ranges from the coastline.
- The PCVs will be equipped with state-of-art technology, advanced & highly sensitive pollution control equipment, navigation and communication equipment, sensor and machinery.
- Ships will be capable of carrying out dedicated oil spill response operations for containment, recovery, separation and dispersal of pollutants.
- The vessel will be fitted with latest pollution control equipment including two flush type side sweeping arms enabling it to contain oil spill whilst in motion.
- An advanced software would assist in predicting the spread of the complex oil spill pattern and Dynamic Positioning System will enable the vessel to be maneuvered in restricted areas with precision.
- The vessel is being designed to recover the lightest to the most viscous oil at the rate of 300 tons per hour.
- The vessels are also equipped with fire-fighting and salvage systems.
Source – PIB
Framework for safeguarding and protecting consumer
Paper 3 – Economy
Why You Should Know?
Recently, Centre launched a framework for safeguarding and protecting consumer interest from fake and deceptive reviews in e-commerce.
In detail –
- The Department of Consumer Affairs launched the framework for safeguarding and protecting consumer interest from fake and deceptive reviews in e-commerce here today.
- Shri Rohit Kumar Singh, Secretary, Department of Consumer Affairs, along with senior officers of the department and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) launched the framework titled Indian Standard (IS) 19000:2022 ‘Online Consumer Reviews — Principles and Requirements for their Collection, Moderation and Publication.
- The standards will be applicable to every online platform which publishes consumer reviews.
About The standards
- The standard will initially be voluntary for compliance by all e-commerce platform.
- BIS will also develop a Conformity Assessment Scheme for the standard to assess compliance.
- The guiding principles of the standard are integrity, accuracy, privacy, security, transparency, accessibility and responsiveness.
- The standard prescribes specific responsibilities for the review author and the review administrator.
- For review author, these include confirming acceptance of terms and conditions, providing contact information and for review administrator, these include safeguarding personal information and training of staff.
- Once made mandatory, if required, the violation of the standards by any entity may be considered as an unfair trade practice or violation of consumer rights and a consumer may submit such grievances to the National Consumer Helpline, Consumer Commissions or the CCPA.
- The standard provides for responsibilities of organization including developing a code of practice, and necessary stipulations for terms and conditions like accessibility, criteria, and ensuring content does not contain financial information etc.
- The standard also provides for methods for verification of review author through email address, identification by telephone call or SMS, confirming registration by clicking on a link, using captcha system etc. to check traceability and genuineness of the review author.
- With respect to moderation, the standard provides for both automated and manual moderation and provides checks for analyzing the review content.
- As regards to publication, the standard includes considerations for the review administrator at the time of publication process and after the publication process.
- The accuracy of the review, default display and weightage of ratings are defined in the publication process.
- Over the last few years, there has been a steady rise in e-commerce transactions across the country.
- Reviews posted online play a significant role in making purchase decisions and consumers exceedingly rely on reviews posted on e-commerce platforms to see the opinion and experience of users who have already purchased the good or service.
- Given that e-commerce involves a virtual shopping experience without any opportunity to physically view or examine the product, it is essential that reviews are genuine, authentic and trustworthy.
- The standard is expected to benefit all stakeholders in the e-commerce ecosystem i.e., consumers, e-commerce platforms, sellers etc. It will help usher in confidence among consumers to purchase goods online and help them take better purchase decisions.
- Taking cognizance of the impact of fake and deceptive reviews and protection of consumer interest in e-commerce, the Department of Consumer Affairs constituted a committee to develop framework on checking fake and deceptive reviews in e-commerce on 10th June, 2022.
- The committee included various stakeholders including e-commerce companies, industry associations, consumer organizations and law chairs.
About Bureau of Indian Standards
- The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is the National Standards Body of India under Department of Consumer affairs, Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, Government of India.
- It is established by the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 2016 which came into effect on 12 October 2017. The Act establishes the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) as the National Standards Body of India.
- The organisation was formerly the Indian Standards Institution (ISI).
- BIS is responsible for the harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
- The Minister in charge of the Ministry or Department having administrative control of the BIS is the ex-officio President of the BIS.
- BIS has 500 plus scientific officers working as Certification Officers, Member secretaries of technical committees and lab OIC’s.
- As a National Standards Body, it has 25 members drawn from Central or State Governments, industry, scientific and research institutions, and consumer organisations.
- Its headquarters are in New Delhi, with regional offices in Eastern Region at Kolkata, southern Region at Chennai, Western Region at Mumbai, Northern Region at Chandigarh and Central Region at Delhi and 20 branch offices.
Source – AIR
Global Partnership on AI (GPAI)
Paper 3 –Science & Tech
Why You Should Know?
Close on the heels of assuming the presidency of G20, a league of world’s largest economies, India will take over the chair of the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI).
In detail –
- AI has been Catalyzing the Tech Landscape & pushing further the envelope of human possibilities.
- AI is expected to add USD $967 Bn to Indian economy by 2035 and USD 450–500 billion to India’s GDP by 2025, accounting for 10% of the country’s USD 5 trillion GDP target.
- Artificial Intelligence is a Kinetic enabler for growth of India’s Technology ecosystem & a force multiplier for achieving $1 Trillion Digital Economy goal by 2025.
- The Minister of State for Electronics & Information Technology and Skill Development & Entrepreneurship, Shri Rajeev Chandrasekhar will represent India at the GPAI meeting to be held in Tokyo on November 21, 2022 for the symbolic takeover from France, which is the outgoing Council Chair.
- In the election to the Council Chair, India had received more than a two-third majority of first-preference votes while Canada and the United States of America ranked in the two next best places in the tally – so they were elected to the two additional government seats on the Steering Committee.
- For the 2022-2023 Steering Committee, the five government seats will therefore be held by Japan (as Lead Council Chair and Co-Chair of the Steering Committee), France (Outgoing Council Chair), India (Incoming Council Chair), Canada and the United States.
- GPAI is a congregation of 25 member countries, including the US, the UK, EU, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Republic of Korea, and Singapore. India had in 2020 joined the group as a founding member.
- The Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI) is a multi-stakeholder initiative which aims to bridge the gap between theory and practice on AI by supporting cutting-edge research and applied activities on AI-related priorities.
- Launched in June 2020 with 15 members, GPAI is the fruition of an idea developed within the G7.
- GPAI is a first-of-its-type initiative for evolving better understanding of challenges and opportunities around AI using the experience and diversity of participating countries, the alliance will look to bridge the gap between theory and practice by supporting advanced research and applied activities on AI-related priorities.
- It works in collaboration with partners and international organisations, leading experts from industry, civil society, governments, and academia to collaborate to promote responsible evolution of AI and guide the responsible development and use of AI, grounded in human rights, inclusion, diversity, innovation, and economic growth.
Sources – HT
India-ASEAN Defense Ministers meeting
Paper 2 – International Relations
Why You Should Know?
Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh to attend ASEAN Defence Ministers Plus meeting & India-ASEAN Defence Ministers meeting during his visit to Cambodia on November 22-23
In detail –
- At the invitation of Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of National Defence of Cambodia SamdechPicheySena TEA Banh, Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh will pay an official visit to Cambodia from November 22-23, 2022.
- Cambodia, as the chair of ASEAN Defence Ministers Plus (ADMM Plus) meeting is hosting the 9th annual meeting at Siem Reap, Cambodia and the Raksha Mantri will address the forum on November 23, 2022.
- To commemorate 30 years of India-ASEAN relations, India and Cambodia will co-chair the maiden India-ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting on November 22, 2022, presided over by Shri Rajnath Singh.
- Various initiatives to boost India-ASEAN partnership are planned to be announced during the meeting.
- India became the dialogue partner of ASEAN in 1992 and the inaugural ADMM-Plus was convened in Hanoi, Vietnam on October 12, 2010.
- Since 2017, ADMM-Plus Ministers have been meeting annually to further the dialogue and cooperation amongst ASEAN and the Plus countries.
- India and ASEAN have elevated their relationship to ‘Comprehensive Strategic Partnership’ in November 2022.
- Apart from the ADMM-Plus meeting and India-ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meeting, the Raksha Mantri will hold bilateral discussions with Defence Ministers of the participating countries.
- During the talks, Shri Rajnath Singh will discuss defence cooperation matters and ways to further strengthen the mutually beneficial engagements.
- ASEAN stands for Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
- It is an organization of ten Southeast Asian countries is a regional organization established to promote political and social stability amid growing tensions between the colonizing nations of the Asia-Pacific,
- which also work to promote economic development and prosperity among themselves and to maintain peace and stability in the region.
- ASEAN was founded by its founding members – Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore – on August 8, 1967, in Bangkok, the capital of Thailand.
- Later Brunei (1984), Vietnam (1995), Laos and Myanmar (1997), and Cambodia (1999) joined the member states.
- Thus, it currently has 10 member countries – Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia.
- To accelerate economic development, social progress and cultural development for the prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian countries.
- Promote regional peace and stability through respect for justice and the rule of law and adherence to the principles of the UN Charter.
- Promote active cooperation and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields.
- To cooperate more effectively in greater use of agriculture and industries, expansion of trade, improvement of transport and communication facilities and improvement of living standards of the people.
- To promote Southeast Asian studies.
- To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organizations.
Sources – BS
National Panchayat Awards—2023
Paper 2 – Governance
Why You Should Know?
The National Panchayat Awards under different categories are conferred annually by the Ministry of Panchayati Raj to acknowledge and incentivize the best performing Panchayats across the country.
In detail –
- For the Award Year 2023, online nominations for the revamped National Panchayat Awards were invited upto 15th November, 2022.
- Buoyed by the enthusiastic participation of Gram Panchayats in online application process to the extent of 90.89% approx.
- as on 15th November, 2022, Ministry of Panchayati Raj decided to extend the last date for online questionnaire filling till 20th November, 2022 to maximize the participation of Gram Panchayats in the online application process.
- As a result of consistent and rigorous follow-up from Ministry of Panchayati Raj and handholding support provided to States/UTs, the participation under National Panchayat Awards–2023 has been unprecedented from Gram Panchayats to the extent of 91.33% approx. (2,45,426 Gram Panchayats) out of total 2,68,711 Gram Panchayats across the country as on 18th November, 2022.
- Revamped National Panchayat Awards plays a pivotal role for creating awareness regarding Sustainable Development Goals among Panchayats and setting a pace for localization and achievement of these goals.
- From the year 2023, these awards will be given under 9 Localization of Sustainable Development Goals (LSDGs) themes aggregating 17 SDGs.
- This year’s online application process was distinctive in many ways as it helped creating wider awareness about the localization of Sustainable Development Goals and motivated all the Gram Panchayats to make coordinated and combined efforts towards achieving a set thematic goal.
- A broad objective behind awarding and incentivizing Panchayats is that there should be healthy competition among all Panchayats and all Panchayati Raj Institutions should move forward towards all-round and sustainable development of villages by following the principle of “SabkaSaath, Sabka Vikas, Sabka Vishwas, SabkaPrayas”.
- It is the endeavour of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj to continuously encouraging other Panchayats to emulate the best practices of Panchayats doing exceptionally excellent work.
- India is a signatory of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030, and India’s commitment to the SDGs is reflected in Localisation of SDGs (LSDGs) in rural areas, which are subsumed under broad nine themes of LSDGs to achieve the targets at the grassroots level across the country.
- Every year, on the occasion of National Panchayati Raj Day i.e. on 24th April, Ministry of Panchayati Raj has been awarding the best performing Panchayats/ States/ UTs across the country under the Incentivization of Panchayats in recognition of their good work for improving delivery of services and public goods.
- This year, the format, procedures and categories of the National Panchayat Awards have comprehensively been revised to establish a multi-level competition aligning with the nine themes of LSDGs.
- This will help in accelerating the pace of achievement of goals pertaining to nine LSDGs in rural areas.
- The refurbished and user-friendly portal of National Panchayat Awards was made live on 10th September, 2022 for all Panchayats to make online entries for awards/ rankings under different categories of National Panchayat Awards.
Sources – PIB
Kameng Hydro power Station
Paper 3 –Energy Resources
Why Should You Know?
Recently Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi dedicated the 600 MW Kameng Hydro Power Station to the nation, the biggest Hydro Power Project implemented by NEEPCO Ltd., a Mini Ratna Power PSU under Ministry of Power.
In details –
- Commissioning of the sixth hydro power plant in the North East i.e. 600 MW Kameng Hydro Power Station in Arunachal Pradesh will be a major step towards fulfilling Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) of the Governement of India pledged under Paris Agreement 2015.
- The project will form part of projected hydro capacity addition of 30000 MW by 2030.
- The project stretches over more than 80 kilometers in West Kameng District of Arunachal Pradesh at a cost of approximately Rs 8200 Crore.
- The Project has two dams and a powerhouse having 4 units of 150 MW to generate 3353 million units of electricity.
- Generation of 3353 Million Units annually from the project will make Arunachal Pradesh a power surplus state with huge benefits to the National Grid in terms of grid stability and integration and balancing of solar and wind energy sources in the grid.
- While most of the infrastructure projects world over got severely impacted by Covid-19 pandemic, this mega project was successfully commissioned by NEEPCO Ltd (A Govt. of India enterprise and a wholly owned subsidiary of the Maharatna, NTPC Ltd) progressively during June, 2020 to February, 2021 despite all odds.
About NEEPCO Ltd
- NEEPCO Ltd, a Govt. of India Mini Ratna Schedule-A PSU under Ministry of Power is one of the leading power generating enterprise having an aggregate operational capacity of 2057 MW,
- comprising of hydro, natural gas based/ thermal power stations as well as Solar and has significantly contributed towards improvement of power scenario in the North Eastern Region.
- The company is now foraying into J&K for solar as well as multipurpose projects.
- Hydroelectric power
- At hydropower plants water flows through a pipe, or penstock, then pushes against and turns blades in a turbine to spin a generator to produce electricity.
- Because the source of hydroelectric power is water, hydroelectric power plants are usually located on or near a water source.
- The volume of the water flow and the change in elevation—or fall, and often referred to as head—from one point to another determine the amount of available energy in moving water. In general, the greater the water flow and the higher the head, the more electricity a hydropower plant can produce.
Conventional hydroelectric facilities include:
- Run-of-the-river systems, where the force of the river’s current applies pressure on a turbine.
- The facilities may have a weir in the water course to divert water flow to hydro turbines.
- Storage systems, where water accumulates in reservoirs created by dams on streams and rivers and is released through hydro turbines as needed to generate electricity.
Sources – LM
Paper 3 – Infrastructure
Why You Should Know?
Union Minister of Ports, Shipping & Waterways and Ayush, Shri SarbanandaSonowal reviews developmental works on Barak River (NW16).
In detail –
- Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) is carrying out the work for Renovation of IWAI terminals at Badarpur along NW- 16 (river Barak) and Karimganj along IBP route (river Kushiyara) in Karimganj District of Assam through CPWD on deposit work basis.
- To maintain the Fairway on river Barak, dredging work to be undertaken by Dredging Corporation of India (DCI) between Bhanga to Badarpur (10.50 kms) of NW16 for an estimated cost of ₹45 crores for a 3 year period.
- The hydrographic survey in No man’s land of river Kushiyara between India and Bangladesh has been conducted by joint team of IWAI and BIWTA, Govt. of Bangladesh in the last week of October 2022.
About the project
- The Barak River is the lifeline of this region. Keeping in mind the huge potential of economic growth in this region, Shri Sonowal took stock of the progress of various developmental projects going on this region, especially in the Barak valley.
- This is in line with the ‘Act East’ Policy. The river from Bhanga to Lakhipur (121 km) has been declared as National Waterway16 (NW16).
- It connects Barak Valley with NW1 and rest of India through IBP route 3 & 4 and with NW2 (river Brahmaputra) through IBP route 7 & 8.
- IWAI terminals play a major role for trade in the Barak Valley and adjoining areas.
- Karimganj terminal is a notified Port of Call and Badarpur is an Extended Port of Call in NW16.
- The export through IWT has grown manifolds in the recent years and export in FY 2022-23 is already more than 3 times (total 53 vessels carrying 9987 MT) of that in FY 2021-22 (total 18 vessels carrying 2490 MT).
- With the renovation of the terminals will further easy and increase the export activities & commodities.
- The projects have major influence in districts of Cachar, Karimganj&Hailakandi in Assam and adjoining states of Mizoram, Tripura, Manipur and Meghalaya, given the presence of cement industry, stone crushers, coal deposits, food processing units, tea estates, etc.
- About Brak River
- The Brak River is a river located in northern Limpopo Province, South Africa. It is a tributary of the Polokwane River.
- The Barak River originates in the village of LiaiKulen in the state of Manipur where most of the people belong to the Poumai Naga tribe, the river is known as Vorei.
- Near its source, the river receives streams such as the Vehrei originating from Phuba Village, the Gumti, Howrah, Kagni, Senai Buri, Hari Mangal, Kakrai, Kurulia, Balujhuri, Shonaichhari and Durduria.
- It flows west in Manipur, and borders Nagaland, then southwest to Assam where it leaves India and enters Bangladesh at Bhanga Bazar.
- The Barak River flows 900 kilometres (560 mi) through the states of Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram and Assam in India.
- Further it enters Bangladesh where it is known by the name of the Surma and the Kushiyara and later called the Meghna before receiving the combined flow of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
- It flows into the Bay of Bengal via Bangladesh.
- The principal tributaries are all in India: the Sonai (or Tuirial), the Jiri, the Tlawng (or Dhaleswari, or Katakal), the Jatinga, the Longai and the Madhura.
Waterways in India
- Out of the 111 National Waterways (NWs) declared under the National Waterways Act, 2016, 13 NWs are operational for shipping and navigation and cargo/passenger vessels are moving on them.
|Sl. No.||National Waterway (NW) No.||Length (km)||Location (S)|
|1.||NW-1: Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly River System (Haldia – Allahabad)||1620||Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal|
|2.||NW-2: Brahmaputra River (Dhubri – Sadiya)||891||Assam|
|3.||NW-3: West Coast Canal (Kottapuram – Kollam), Champakara and Udyogmandal Canals||205||Kerala|
|4.||NW-4: Phase-1development of the stretch Muktiyala to Vijyawada of river Krishna||82||Andhra Pradesh|
|5. 6. 7. 8.||Waterways in Maharashtra i) NW-10 (Amba River) ii) NW-83 (Rajpuri Creek) iii) NW–85 (Revadanda Creek – Kundalika River System) iv) NW-91 (Shastri river–Jaigad creek system)||45 31 31 52||Maharashtra|
|9. 10.||National Waterways in Goa NW-68 – Mandovi – Usgaon Bridge to Arabian Sea (41 km) NW-111 – Zuari– Sanvordem Bridge to Marmugao Port (50 km).||41 50||Goa|
|11. 12.||National Waterways in Gujarat NW-73- Narmada river- NW-100- Tapi river||226 436||Gujarat &Maharastra|
|13.||Sunderbans Waterways (NW-97): Namkhana to AtharaBankiKhal in West Bengal.||172||West Bengal (through Indo-Bangladesh Protocol Route)|
Source – PIB
India’s first Centre of Excellence for Green Port & Shipping
Paper 3 – Environment
Why Should You Know?
Recently Shri SarbanandaSonowal launched India’s first Centre of Excellence for Green Port & Shipping.
In detail –
- The announcement was made by the Union Minister at the recently concluded “INMARCO 2022” in Mumbai.
- The centre aims to develop a regulatory framework and alternate technology adoption road map for Green Shipping to foster carbon neutrality and circular economy (CE) in shipping sector in India.
- India intends to increase the share of renewable energy to 60% of the total power demand of each of its major ports from a present share of less than 10%. This will be through solar and wind-generated power.
- The Deendayal Port Authority Kandla, Paradip Port Authority, Paradip, V.O Chidambaranar Port Authority, Thoothukudi and Cochin Shipyard Limited, Kochi have all extended their support to the ministry to set up this centre.
- The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) is the knowledge and implementation partner for this project.
Reduction in carbon emissions
- The ports have also aimed to reduce Carbon emissions per ton of cargo handled by 30% by 2030.
- The Maritime Vision Document 2030, released by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi is a 10 Year blueprint on India’s vision of a sustainable Maritime sector and vibrant blue economy.
- India has been selected as the first country under the IMO Green Voyage 2050 project to conduct a pilot project related to Green Shipping.
- India will also be implementing IMO energy efficiency requirements for existing ships and carbon intensity requirements on all its vessels whether coastal or international in order to help achieve IMO GHG reduction targets.
- India is already supplying shore power to ships with power demand less than 150 KW at present and targeting to supply shore power to all visiting ships.
- India is working actively at Marine Environmental Protection Committee of IMO to help devise acceptable regulatory requirements for GHG emission reduction in line with IMO GHG initial strategy.
- India’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) under the Paris Agreement for the Period 2021-2030 include: to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 per cent by 2030 from 2005 level,
- and to achieve about 40 percent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030 with the help of transfer of technology and low-cost international finance.
- India is well on its way to achieve these targets and has already achieved more than 24.5% share of Renewable Energy (RE) in total Installed Capacity.
- Globally, today India stands 4th in RE power capacity, 4th in Wind power, and 5th in Solar Power capacity.
- As all the industry sectors are moving towards achieving carbon neutrality and implementing CE measures ahead of Government of India commitment for the year 2070.
- The shipping sector which is both energy and resource intensive also needs an implementation road map to achieve energy and resource neutrality.
- Therefore, the work undertaken by the NCoEGPS will provide the decision makers at a national and sub-national level with methodology and framework to implement carbon neutrality measures, to meet (and exceed) obligations under the Paris Accord through electrification of process, through renewable energy, carbon capture and storage, and other emerging alternate fuel technologies including green fuels.
- The scope of work carried out by NCoEGPS will also include training and capacity of different stakeholders for fast-tracking adoption green measures identified through research.
- The NCoEGPS will be working under the framework of the Sagarmalaprogramme of the MoPSW.
- The main objective of the proposed NCoEGPS is to provide support to MoPSW in developing and maintaining a policy and regulatory framework for a green alternative technologies road map for the shipping sector in India for its transition to carbon neutrality and CE principles.
- To empower ‘Make in India’ in Port, Coastal and Inland water transport, and Engineering by developing state of art technologies and application products.
- To enable fast-track innovations in order to provide most appropriate solutions to various challenges in these sectors.
- To create a pool of competent manpower to the industry equipped with state of the art theoretical and practical knowhow.
- Self-sufficiency in providing short term solutions through scientific studies technology development technical arm in identifying and analysing complex problems and solving issues
- The NCoEGPS faculty / scientists/ engineers will work towards an in-depth understanding of the problems being faced by the MoPSW and their associates in order to offer effective recommendations and position their R&D activities towards sustainable goals as and when required being dictated by day to day problems.
- The Center will interact with all the ports, shipping, maritime states in understanding their problems and offering solutions through well proven and upstream scientific approaches. This would also necessitate research in frontier areas, which will be identified.
- To achieve this objective, the NCoEGPS will focus on five broad areas:
- Policy, Regulatory and Research
- Human Resource development
- Network- Key Partners and Strategic collaborators
- Explore- Area of work, outcomes, projects and resources
- Engage- Past events, upcoming events, dissemination
- NCoEGPS will act as a technological arm of MoPSW for providing the needed support on Policy, Research and Cooperation on Green Shipping areas for Ports, DG Shipping, CSL and other institutions under the umbrella of MoPSW.
- The Center will be a host of several technological arms to support the port and shipping sector and will provide solutions to a variety of problems being faced in the industry through scientific research.
- It will also carry out valuable education, applied research and technology transfer in maritime transportation at the local, regional, national and International levels.
- It will focus on the following areas.
- Energy Management – Energy management tools, waste energy recovery systems
- Emission Management- Alternate, clean Energy/Fuel, emission control & monitoring.
- Sustainable Maritime Operations – novel technologies and approaches
Sources – Livemint