India Semiconductor Mission
Paper 3 – Economy
Why Should You Know?
Recently Cabinet approved modifications in “Programme for Development of Semiconductors and Display Manufacturing Ecosystem in India”.
In details –
- The Cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi, has approved the following modifications in the Programme for development of semiconductors and display manufacturing ecosystem in India:
- Fiscal support of 50% of Project Cost on pari-passu basis for all technology nodes under Scheme for Setting up of Semiconductor Fabs in India.
- Fiscal support of 50% of Project Cost on pari-passu basis under Scheme for Setting up of Display Fabs.
- Fiscal support of 50% of Capital Expenditure on pari-passu basis under Scheme for Setting up of Compound Semiconductors / Silicon Photonics / Sensors Fab and Semiconductor ATMP /OSAT facilities in India. Additionally, target technologies under the Scheme will include Discrete Semiconductor Fabs.
- Under modified programme, a uniform fiscal support of 50% of Project Cost shall be provided across all technology nodes for setting up of Semiconductor Fabs.
- Given the niche technology and nature of compound semiconductors and advanced packaging, the modified programme shall also provide fiscal support of 50% of Capital Expenditure in pari-passu mode for setting up of compound semiconductors / silicon photonics / sensors / Discrete semiconductors fabs and ATMP/OSAT.
- The programme has attracted many global semiconductor players for setting up fabs in India. The modified programme, will expedite investments in semiconductor and display manufacturing in India. On the basis of discussion with potential investors, it is expected that work on setting up of the first semiconductor facility will commence soon.
An Advisory Committee
- An Advisory Committee comprising global experts from industry and academia was constituted to advise India Semiconductor Mission – the nodal agency for the Programme for development of semiconductors and display manufacturing ecosystem in India.
- Advisory Committee has unanimously recommended uniform support for all technology nodes of silicon semiconductor fabs / Silicon Photonics / Sensors / Discrete Semiconductor Fabs and ATMP/OSAT, which has been accepted by the Government.
- The technology nodes of 45nm and above have high demand which is inter-alia driven by Automotive, Power and Telecom applications. Moreover, this segment constitutes around 50% of the total semiconductor market.
What is semiconductor?
- Semiconductors are materials which have a conductivity between conductors (generally metals) and nonconductors or insulators (such as most ceramics).
- Semiconductors can be pure elements, such as silicon or germanium, or compounds such as gallium arsenide or cadmium selenide.
- Semiconductors are an essential component of electronic devices, enabling advances in communications, computing, healthcare, military systems, transportation, clean energy, and countless other applications.
About India Semiconductor Mission
- India Semiconductor Mission (ISM) is a specialized and independent Business Division within the Digital India Corporation that aims to build a vibrant semiconductor and display ecosystem to enable India’s emergence as a global hub for electronics manufacturing and design.
- Led by global experts of the Semiconductor and display ecosystem the mission aims to serve as a focal point for the comprehensive, coherent, efficient, and smooth deployment of the Program for Development of Semiconductor and Display Ecosystem in consultation with the Government ministries/departments/agencies, industry, and academia.
- Formulate a comprehensive long-term strategy for developing sustainable semiconductors and display manufacturing facilities and semiconductor design eco-system in the country in consultation with the Government ministries/departments/agencies, industry, and academia.
- Facilitate the adoption of secure microelectronics and developing a trusted semiconductor supply chain, including raw materials, specialty chemicals, gases, and manufacturing equipment.
- Enable a multi-fold growth of the Indian semiconductor design industry by providing requisite support in the form of Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools, foundry services and other suitable mechanisms for early-stage startups.
- Promote and facilitate indigenous Intellectual Property (IP) generation.
- Encourage, enable and incentivize Transfer of Technologies (ToT).
- Establish suitable mechanisms to harness economies of scale in Indian semiconductor and display industry.
- Enable cutting-edge research in semiconductors and display industry including evolutionary and revolutionary technologies through grants, global collaborations and other mechanisms in academia/research institutions, industry, and through establishing Centres of Excellence (CoEs).
- Enable collaborations and partnership programs with national and international agencies, industries and institutions for catalyzing collaborative research, commercialization and skill development.
National programme on High Efficiency Solar PV Modules
Paper 3 –Energy Resources
Why Should You Know?
Recently Cabinet approved PLI Scheme for ‘National programme on High Efficiency Solar PV Modules’
- The Cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi approved the Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme on ‘National programme on High-Efficiency Solar PV Modules’ for achieving manufacturing capacity of Giga Watt (GW) scale in High-Efficiency Solar PV Modules.
- Addressing the press conference, Union Minister Anurag Singh Thakur announced that the national programme on High Efficiency Solar PV Modules aims to build an ecosystem for the manufacturing of high-efficiency Solar PV Modules, and thus reduce import dependence in the area of Renewable Energy.
- A provision of Rs 19, 500 crores has been made for achieving the manufacturing capacity of the Giga Watt scale under PLI Scheme (Tranche II).
- PLI will be disbursed for 5 years post commissioning of solar PV manufacturing plants. The manufacturers of Solar PV will be selected through a transparent selection process.
- It is estimated that about 65,000 MW per annum manufacturing capacity of fully and partially integrated, solar PV modules would be installed.
- The scheme will bring direct investment of around Rs.94,000 crore.
- Creation of manufacturing capacity for Balance of Materials like EVA, Solar glass, Backsheet, etc.
- Direct employment of about 1,95,000 and indirect employment of around 7,80,000 persons.
- Import substitution of approximately Rs.1.37 lakh crore.
- Impetus to Research and Development to achieve higher efficiencies in Solar PV Modules.
About Solar PV modules
- Solar PV modules are created by joining together solar cells with photovoltaic (PV) cells.
- They are produced using semiconductors like crystalline silicon. Solar modules transform solar energy into electric energy.
Zero Stubble Burning
Paper 3 – Agriculture, Environment
Why Should You Know?
Recently, The Centre Government asked State Governments of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and NCT of Delhi to strive for achieving Zero Stubble Burning in very near future
In details –
- On September 21, 2022 the Union Minister for Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Shri Narendra Singh Tomar today called upon the State Governments of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and NCT of Delhi to strive for achieving Zero Stubble Burning in very near future.
- He promised all Central help to achieve this noble mission and added that this is a kind of curse on these States, as they receive a lot of public ire due to negative media publicity.
- Shri Tomar said, Rs 600 crore was already provided to the States this financial year and they have the unspent amount of Rs 300 Crore, which should be utilized properly. Moreover, about two lakh machines have been made available to the States.
- The Minister said, the Centre and the concerned States should jointly evolve a long-term planning and must undertake multi-pronged activities to achieve the target of Zero Stubble Burning withing a specified time-frame.
A high-level review meeting
- Shri Tomar was taking a high-level review meeting with the officials of State Governments of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and NCT of Delhi, Officers of the Department of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare (DA & FW) and Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), on the actions taken/proposed to be taken by the State Governments for management of stubble burring during 2022 season.
- Shri Tomar told the officials of the States to strengthen and widen the IEC activities to make aware the farmers that stubble burning leads to loss of soil fertility in the long run, like the overuse of urea.
- He urged the officials to make arrangements to take the farmers to the sites, where the Pusa Decomposer developed by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is being used for practical demonstrations.
- It has been informed that, the Department of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare is continuing the implementation of the Central Sector Scheme on ‘Promotion of Agricultural Mechanization for In-Situ Management of Crop Residue in the States of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and NCT of Delhi’ during 2022-23 with an outlay of Rs. 700 Crores.
- So far, an amount of Rs. 240.00 crores, Rs. 191.53 crores, Rs. 154.29 crores and Rs. 14.18 crores have already been released to the State of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and ICAR, respectively as first installment.
- During the current year, provisions have also been incorporated to promote the use of bio-decomposer technology on large scale in these States.
About The scheme
- The scheme was introduced in 2018-19, with the aim of addressing air pollution in Delhi and National Capital Region due to stubble burning in the adjoining States of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh and to subsidize machinery required for in-situ management of crop residue.
- Under this scheme financial assistance for purchase of crop residue management machines is provided @ 50% of the cost to individual farmers and @ 80% of the project cost to Cooperative Societies of farmers, PFOs and Panchayats for establishment of Custom Hiring Centres of Crop Residue Management Machines.
- Funds are also provided to the States and ICAR for undertaking Information, Education & Communication (IEC) activities for mass awareness of farmers and other stakeholders.
- The Scheme promote the usage of machines such as Super Straw Management Systems, Happy Seeder, Super Seeder, zero till seed cum fertilizer drill, Mulcher, Paddy Straw Chopper, hydraulically reversible mould board plough, Crop reapers and Reaper binders for in-situ management of crop residue and Balers & Rakes which are used for straw collection in the form of bales for other ex-situ uses of straw. ‘Smart Seeder’ machine has been newly added for promotion under the scheme.
- During the period from 2018-19 to 2021-22, the funds amounting to 2440.07 crores have been released (Haryana – Rs. 693.25 crores, Uttar Pradesh – Rs. 533.67 crores, NCT of Delhi – Rs. 4.52 Crores, ICAR and other Central Agencies – Rs. 61.01 crores, and the major share has gone to the State of Punjab i.e. Rs. 1147.62 Crores).
- Out of these funds, during the last 4 years, the State Government of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and NCT of Delhi have established more than 38422 Custom Hiring Centres of crop residue management machinery to provide machines & equipment to the small and marginal farmers on rental basis (Punjab- 24201 Nos., Haryana- 6775 Nos and Uttar Pradesh – 7446 Nos).
- A total of more than 2.07 lakh crop residue management machines have been supplied to these established CHCs and to the individual farmers in these 4 States (Punjab- 89151 Nos., Haryana- 59107 Nos., Uttar Pradesh – 58708 Nos. and NCT of Delhi – 247 Nos) which also include more than 3243 Balers & Rakes.
- Pusa Decomposer, a microbial consortium of fungal species (both in liquid and capsule forms) developed by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has been found effective for rapid in-situ decomposition of paddy straw.
- During the year 2021, decomposer has been used in the States of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and NCT of Delhi in an around 5.7 lakh hectare area which is equivalent to about 3.5 million tonnes of straw managed.
- Through satellite imaging and monitoring, it was observed that the 92% area of the decomposer sprayed plots has been managed through decomposition and only 8% area in these plots was burned.
A comprehensive action plan
- For effective control of paddy stubble burning during the ensuing season, the Hon’ble Minister directed that the States should chalk out a comprehensive action plan at micro level,
- Establish a mechanism to ensure effective utilization of machines, promote use of bio-decomposer in a complimentary mode with the CRM machines, promote ex-situ utilization of straw by way of mapping demand from adjoining industries like biomass based power plants, bioethanol plants etc. and take up IEC activities for mass awareness among farmers through intensive campaigns in the electronic/print medias, social media as well as through Kisan Melas, publications, seminars, advisories with the involvement of all stakeholders in this sector.
- If all the actions are taken at the State level in a holistic manner, the stubble burning can be effectively controlled during the coming season.
Paper 3 – Security
Why Should You Know?
Two Diving Support VesselsNistar&Nipun being built by Hindustan Shipyard Ltd, Vishakapatnam for the Indian Navy, are scheduled to be launched on 22 Sep 2022.
- Two Diving Support Vessels (Nistar&Nipun) being built by Hindustan Shipyard Ltd, Vishakapatnam for the Indian Navy, are scheduled to be launched on 22 Sep 22.
- Admiral R Hari Kumar, Chief of the Naval Staff, will be the Chief Guest at the launching ceremony.
- The vessels will be launched by Mrs Kala Hari Kumar, President Navy Wellness and Welfare Association (NWWA), who would also be performing the traditional honour and naming them.
- The Diving Support Vessels (DSVs) are first of the kind, ships indigenously designed and built at HSL for the Indian Navy. The vessels are 118.4 metres long, 22.8 metres at the broadest point and will have a displacement of 9,350 tons.
- These ships would be deployed for deep sea diving operations. Additionally, with Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle (DSRV) embarked, the DSVs are designed to undertake submarine rescue operations, in case requirement exists.
- Furthermore, these ships will be capable of sustained patrolling, conducting Search & Rescue operations and carrying out Helicopter Operations at high seas.
- With approximately 80 % indigenous content, the DSV project has generated considerable local employment opportunities and has also promoted indigenisation which in turn will aid in boosting India’s economy.
- The contract for the construction of the two vessels was signed with the Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) in 2018 to the tune of Rs 2,392.94 crore.
Paper 2- Social Justice
Why Should You Know?
Recently Ministry of Defence signs MoU with Bank of Baroda and HDFC Bank to expand the reach of SPARSH initiative.
- The Defence Accounts Department signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on 21 sep 22 with Bank of Baroda and HDFC Bank, to onboard them as Service Centres under the System for Pension Administration (Raksha) (SPARSH) initiative, across more than 14,000 branches throughout India.
- Defence Secretary Dr Ajay Kumar said that the objective is to bring 17 Lakh pensioners out of the total 32 lakh defence pensioners on SPARSH by the end of September, 2022 and the remaining pensioners will be brought to SPARSH at the earliest. He said that the average time in pension settlement has come down significantly to about 16 days.
Significance of MoU
- The MoU will onboard more than 7900 branches of Bank of Baroda and 6300 branches of HDFC Bank as Service Centres to provide last mile connectivity to pensioners, especially those who live in remote areas of the country and those who do not have the means or technical wherewithal to logon to SPARSH.
- For these pensioners, the Service Centers will become an interface for SPARSH and provide an effective medium for pensioners to perform profile update requests, register grievances and seek redressal, digital annual identification, pensioner data verification or also simply fetch detailed information regarding their monthly pension.
- These centres would further augment the existing network of more than 161 DAD offices and nearly 800 Service Centres provided by State Bank of India and Punjab National Bank branches, and 14 branches of the Kotak Mahindra Bank.
- More than 4.5 lakh Village Level Entrepreneurs (VLEs) will also assist Defence Pensioners, as part of the Common Service Centres (CSC) network. The access to these service centers would be provided free of cost to the pensioners, with nominal service charges being borne by the Department.
- Providing impetus to Digital India initiative, SPARSH has grown exponentially with more than Rs 11,600 Crores disbursed in the Financial Year 2021-22, from just about Rs 57 crores in FY 2020-21. The total number of pensioners onboard SPARSH has crossed over one million mark with 11 lakh beneficiaries, which is about 33% of the total defence pensioners in India.
- SPARSH(System for Pension Administration Raksha) is a web-based system for processing the pension claims and crediting the pension directly into the bank accounts of defence pensioners without any external intermediary.
- It has been designed to give Defence Pensioners a transparent view of their pension account, through an online portal which captures and maintains a complete history of events and entitlements of the pensioner – right from the date of commencement of pension to the date of cessation of pension due to the last eligible beneficiary.
- This system is administered by the Defence Accounts Department through the Principal Controller of Defence Accounts (Pensions), Prayagraj and caters to all the three Services and allied organization.
- The system on roll-out is initially catering to the new retirees and subsequently is being extended to cover the existing defence pensioners.
- It is established with the objective of empowering a Defence Pensioner with regard to his pension account.
Gender Responsive Governance for Women MLAs
Paper 2- Social Justice
Why Should You Know?
Recently The National Commission for Women organized a Workshop on Gender Responsive Governance for elected women representatives (MLAs) from six States.
- The National Commission for Women organized a Workshop on Gender Responsive Governance for elected women representatives (MLAs) from six States under ‘She Is A Changemaker’ project, a pan-India capacity building programme of the Commission for improving leadership skills of women representatives at all levels.
- Dr. TamilisaiSoundararajan, Governor of Telangana and Lt. Governor of Puducherry participated as Chief Guest in the inaugural ceremony. Chairperson, National Commission for Women Ms Rekha Sharma and Disha Pannu, Deputy Director Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA) also graced the occasion.
About the Workshop
- The three-day workshop has been organised in Udaipur, Rajasthan in collaboration with National Gender and Child centre, Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA).
- During the workshop, the women MLAs will be trained on gender-responsive governance in different sessions such as ‘Effective Leadership’, ‘Inclusive Governance’, ‘Understanding Gender-Based Violence, ‘Gender Sensitive and Inclusive Communication’, ‘Strengthening Legislative Traditions’ and ‘Digital Literacy & Social Media Training, etc.
- The workshop is being attended by 25 participants from the states of Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Odisha.
- The primary objective of the workshop is to sensitize and assist the Elected Women Representatives to build on their identified strengths and increase the levels of self- awareness in a manner that would help them in managing different and challenging paths ahead, in line with the overall ‘She is a Change maker’ programme.
- Under ‘She Is A Changemaker’ project, the Commission has organised capacity building programme for women representatives in association with region-wise training institutes with an aim to improve their decision making, communication skills, effective management, etc.
UN award for Initiative against Hypertension
Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?
Recently India won UN awards for Large-scale Initiative against Hypertension under NHM.
- In a significant achievement and recognition to country’s efforts against hypertension, India has won an UN award for its “India Hypertension Control Initiative (IHCI)”, a large-scale hypertension intervention under National Health Mission. IHCI has been recognized for its exceptional work within India’s existing primary healthcare system.
- A collaborative initiative of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), State Governments and World Health Organization-India, IHCI has won the ‘2022 UN Interagency Task Force, and WHO Special Programme on Primary Health Care Award’ at the UN General Assembly side event held on 21st September 2022 at New York, USA.
- The award recognizes outstanding commitment and action of India to: (i) prevent and control Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) and (ii) deliver integrated people-centric primary care.
- The UN Task Force has identified organisation which has multisectoral approach in prevention and control of NCDs and multisectoral action with demonstrated results at primary care for prevention and control of NCDs and related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
- Significance of the initiative can be adjudged from the fact that one in four adults in India has high blood pressure. The control of hypertension at primary care system level will contribute to reducing deaths due to heart attacks, stroke and kidney failures.
About India Hypertension Control Initiative (IHCI)
- IHCI has been able to leverage and strengthen the existing healthcare delivery system, hypertension control interventions under National Health Mission and improve the linkages between populations-based screening initiative with health care.
- The initiative was launched in 2017 and expanded in a phased manner to cover more than 130 districts across 23 states.
- Under the initiative, more than 34 lakh people with hypertension are taking treatment in government health facilities, including Ayushman Bharat Health Wellness Centres (HWCs).
- The project strategies are easily scalable within the health system. The strategies include a simple drug-dose-specific standard treatment protocol, ensuring adequate quantity of protocol medications, decentralization of care with follow-up and refills of medicines at Health Wellness Centres, task sharing involving all health staff and a powerful real-time information system which can track every patient for follow-up and blood pressure control. Under IHCI, nearly half of those who were treated had blood pressure under control.
- The IHCI complements the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke (NPCDCS) of the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. IHCI accelerates the achievement of targets of the Government of India by ensuring a continuum of care and giving a boost to the ongoing “Ayushman Bharat” programme.
National Means cum Merit Scholarship scheme
Paper 2- Health
Why Should You Know?
Recently, A National level Workshop held with States/UTs on National Scholarship Portal for National Means cum Merit Scholarship scheme.
- A National Workshop with the State Nodal Officers of National Means-cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme (NMMSS) was held on 20th September, 2022.
- State Education Officers of States and UTs attended the Workshop which was presided over by Ms. L.S. Changsan, Additional Secretary Department of School Education & Literacy. For the current year 2022-23, to expedite registration of fresh applications as well as renewals the workshop was organised.
- On the occasion, MsChangsan spoke about the importance of timely scholarship payments to children from economically weaker sections and the need for prompt verification of applications by State Level Officers.
- Nodal Officer from NSP made a presentation regarding the registration and verification process on the NSP Portal which was followed by detailed interaction between State Govt officials and officers from the Ministry of Education, DBT and NSP on the implementation modalities involved in the registration, verification and payment process of NMMSS scholarships online through the National Scholarship portal.
About National Means-cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme
- Under the ‘National Means-cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme’ scholarships are awarded to meritorious students of economically weaker sections to arrest their drop out at class VIII and encourage them to continue their education at secondary stage.
- One lakh fresh scholarships are awarded to selected students from class IX every year and their continuation / renewal in classes X to XII for students studying in State Government, Government-aided and local body schools.
- The amount of scholarship is Rs. 12000/- per annum.
- The National Means cum Merit Scholarship Scheme (NMMSS) is boarded on the National Scholarship Portal (NSP) – a one stop platform for scholarship schemes given to students.
- NMMSS scholarships are disbursed directly into the bank accounts of selected students by electronic transfer through Public Financial Management System (PFMS) following DBT mode. This is a 100% centrally sponsored scheme.
- Students whose parental income from all sources is not more than Rs. 3,50,000/- per annum are eligible to avail the scholarships.
- The students must have minimum of 55% marks or equivalent grade in Class VII examination for appearing in the selection test for award of scholarship (relaxable by 5% for SC/ST students).
National Conference of Environment Ministers
Paper 3 –Environment
Why Should You Know?
Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi is going to inaugurate National Conference of Environment Ministers of all States on 23rd September
In details –
- Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi will inaugurate the National Conference of Environment Ministers in Ekta Nagar, Gujarat on 23rd September, 2022 via video conferencing. He will also address the gathering on the occasion.
- Taking forward the spirit of cooperative federalism, Conference is being convened to create further synergy amongst the Central and State Governments in formulating better policies on issues such as Elimination of Plastic Pollution through multi-pronged approach, State Action Plans to effectively combat Climate Change with focus on LiFE- Lifestyle for Environment.
- It will also focus on increasing the forest cover with special emphasis on restoration of degraded land and wildlife conservation.
- The two day Conference being organised on 23rd and 24th September will have six thematic sessions with topics
- focusing on LiFE, Combating Climate Change (Updating State Action Plans on Climate Change for Mitigation of Emissions and Adaptation to Climate Impacts)
- PARIVESH (Single Window System for Integrated Green Clearances)
- Forestry Management
- Prevention and Control of Pollution
- Wildlife Management
- Plastics and Waste Management.
Paper 1 – Art & Culture
Why Should You Know?
The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has received a copy of the Braille version of Assamese Dictionary ‘Hemkosh’
- The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has received a copy of the Braille version of Assamese Dictionary ‘Hemkosh’ from Shri Jayanta Baruah.
- Hemkosh was among the earliest Assamese dictionaries dating back to the 19th century.
- Shri Modi complimented Shri Jayanta Baruah and his team for his efforts leading to the publication of the Braille version.
- Hemkosh is the first etymological dictionary of the Assamese language based on Sanskrit spellings, compiled by Hemchandra Barua.
- It was first published in the early 20th century under the supervision of Capt. P. R. Gordon, ISC and Hemchandra Goswami, 33 years after the publication of Bronson’s dictionary.
- It contained about 22,346 words. This dictionary still published by Hemkosh Printers is considered to be the “standard” reference of the Assamese orthography.
- Hemkosh is the second dictionary of Assamese language. The first Assamese dictionary was compiled by Dr. Miles Bronson, an American Baptist Missionary.
- His dictionary, published in 1867 at the American Baptist Mission Press, Sibsagar, is out of print.
- Bronson’s work did not pretend to be an etymological dictionary but contained a very considerable collection of words from the people themselves without recording derivations.
What is Braille system/language?
- Braille is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired, including people who are blind, deafblind or who have low vision.
- Braille is named after its creator, Louis Braille, a Frenchman who lost his sight as a result of a childhood accident.
- Braille characters are formed using a combination of six raised dots arranged in a 3 × 2 matrix, called the braille cell. The number and arrangement of these dots distinguishes one character from another.
- It can be read either on embossed paper or by using refreshable braille displays that connect to computers and smartphone devices.
- Braille can be written using a slate and stylus, a braille writer, an electronic braille notetaker or with the use of a computer connected to a braille embosser.