Ojaank IAS Academy




24 May 2022 – Current Affairs

Share with

United States-India Government Investment Incentive Agreement

Paper 2 International Relations

Why You Should Know? 

Recently, the Investment Incentive Agreement between the Government of the United States and the Government of India was concluded, let’s know about it.

Key Points

• The Government of India and the Government of the United States signed an Investment Incentive Agreement (IIA) in Tokyo, Japan on 23 May 2021. On this Investment Incentive Agreement (IIA), The Foreign Secretary, Government of India, Mr. Vinay Kwatra and the U.S. Mr. Scott Nathan, Chief Executive Officer of the International Development Finance Corporation (DFC), signed.
• It may be mentioned that this Investment Incentive Agreement (IIA) will replace the Investment Incentive Agreement signed between the Government of India and the Government of the United States of America in the year 1997.
• In the past, significant progress has been made since the signing of the Investment Incentive Agreement (IIA) in 1997, including the formation of a new agency called DFC. DFC is a development finance agency of the Government of the United States of America.
• DFC primarily invests in the development projects of low and middle-income countries and has been formed as the successor agency of the erstwhile Foreign Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) following the enactment of the recent law of the United States, build Act 2018.
• This Investment Incentive Agreement has been signed to maintain synergy with additional investment assistance programmes proposed by DFC such as loans, equity investment, investment guarantees, investment insurance or reinsurance, feasibility studies for potential projects and grants.

Importance of the agreement

• This agreement is a legal requirement for DFC with a view to continue to provide investment support in India. The DFC or their erstwhile agencies have been active in India since 1974 and have provided investment assistance of $5.8 billion so far, of which $2.9 billion is still outstanding.
• DFC’s $4 billion worth of proposals to provide investment support in India are being considered. DFC has provided investment support in key areas for development such as production of COVID-19 vaccines, health financing, renewable energy, financing of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), financial inclusion, infrastructure etc.
• It is expected that the signing of this investment incentive agreement will increase the investment support provided by the DFC in India, which will further help in India’s development.

Source – The Hindu

Increasing Unemployment-ILO Report

Paper 2 – Important Organizations

Why You Should Know?

Recently, the International Labour Organisation in its report said that in the first quarter of this year, 11.2 crore people in India became unemployed and at the same time, the ILO also submitted some suggestions to India , let’s know about these.

Key Points

• The International Labour Organization recently released the “World of Work” report, which said that the way corona has hit the world, not only has millions of lives been lost, but millions of people have also become unemployed.
• Data released by the International Labour Organization claims that 112 million people lost their jobs worldwide in the last quarter of 2021.
• The ILO said that there has been a big drop in working hours worldwide, with the first quarter of 2022 witnessing a big drop, with working hours falling by 3.8 per cent in the first quarter of 2022 compared to pre-pandemic times . During this period, about 11.2 crore people lost their jobs.

Big drop in working hours

• The report also shared data on gender gap in India. It said that in the second quarter of 2020, there has been a big difference in working hours between men and women in India.
• Although the decline in women’s working hours is not as big as the impact, the reduction in men’s working hours has a huge impact.
• Regarding these figures, the ILO official said that if 100 women were working before the pandemic, then 12.3 of them have lost their employment.
• If we compare the 100 men working with women, their employment would have been reduced by 7.4 per cent. So the pandemic has clearly shown that there is no similarity in the work of women and men.
• Thus, there is no equal participation between man and woman in employment in the country. The way the lockdown was imposed again in China, the war between Russia and Ukraine began and global inflation has increased, food prices have increased, oil prices have increased, the impact of people’s employment has been seen.

ILO’s suggestion

• The ILO has appealed to its Member States to take into account the humanitarian aspect to deal with this situation. The financial crisis exacerbates debt, disrupts global exports, which could lead to a further reduction in working hours in 2022 in the near future.
• Not only this, it will also have a big impact on the workers in the coming time. The report said the gap between rich and poor economies is widening. Working hours are showing improvement in high-income countries while the economy of low-income or middle-income countries is getting more affected.
• It is worth mentioning that on the ILO report, the trade unions say that the central government should take this issue seriously. Women’s employment in India has come down, especially in the health sector.
• The ILO report shows that people’s ability to buy has decreased, so it needs to be increased. The ILO is advocating for better employment and salaries to the people. We don’t have jobs in the country. Most of the people are working on contract and they are not even being provided social security. If people are not given a respectable salary, their purchasing power will be less.

About International Labour Organization

• The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency whose mandate is to advance social and economic justice through setting international labour standards.
• It was established in 1919 as the Treaty of Versailles, finalizing the First World War.
• It is the first and oldest specialised agency of the UN Founded in October 1919 under the League of Nations. Presently The ILO has 187 member states.
• It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
• India is a founding member of the ILO and has been a permanent member of the ILO Governing Body since 1922.
• The ILO’s labour standards are aimed at ensuring accessible, productive, and sustainable work worldwide in conditions of freedom, equity, security and dignity.
• They are set forth in 189 conventions and treaties, of which eight are classified as fundamental according to the 1998 Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work; together they protect freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining, the elimination of forced or compulsory labour, the abolition of child labour, and the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation. The ILO is a major contributor to international labour law.


• The International Labour Organization (ILO) is devoted to promoting social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights, pursuing its founding mission that social justice is essential to universal and lasting peace.
• Only tripartite U.N. agency, the ILO brings together governments, employers and workers representatives of 187 member States , to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men.
• Today, the ILO’s Decent Work agenda helps advance the economic and working conditions that give all workers, employers and governments a stake in lasting peace, prosperity and progress.

Four strategic objectives of ILO

1. Set and promote standards and fundamental principles and rights at work
2. Create greater opportunities for women and men to decent employment and income
3. Enhance the coverage and effectiveness of social protection for all
4. Strengthen tripartism and social dialogue.

Source – The Hindu 

WHO Global Health Leaders Award

Paper 2 Health, Education, Human Resources

Why You Should Know? 

Recently, the WHO chief has honoured 10 lakh women ASHA workers of India with the Global Health Leaders’ Award.

Key Points

• The World Health Organization recently honoured 10 lakh women ASHA workers from India with the Global Health Leader Award.
• It may be mentioned that this honour has been given to asha volunteers for their important role in providing health facilities in rural areas and in the campaign against the coronavirus pandemic in the country.
• The sixth Global Health Leaders Award has been announced by Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director General of WHO. The awards are given to demonstrate leadership and commitment to health issues advancing global health.

About Global Health Leaders Award

• The awards were instituted in 2019 and the award ceremony was part of the high-level inaugural session of the 75th World Health Assembly.
• The award is given to encourage those who have made outstanding contributions in protecting and promoting health around the world.
• The award winners of the Global Health Leaders Award are decided by the Director General of the WHO. This time too, WHO chief Ghebreyesus decided on the winners for the ‘Global Health Leaders Award’.
• WHO said that there is ASHA among the respected people which means “hope” in Hindi. More than 10 lakh women activists in India were honoured for playing an important role in connecting the community to the health system.
• Ghebreyesus said that at the moment the world is facing inequality, conflict, food insecurity, climate crisis and a pandemic together. At such a time, this award is for those who have had outstanding contribution in protecting and promoting health around the world.

Other persons who received the award

Dr. Paul Farmer –

• Dr . Farmer was honoured for his contribution in providing direct health services to the sick and those living in poverty.

Dr. Ahmed Hankiro –

• While in medical school in the UK, Dr. Ahmed Hankiro developed a debilitating episode of psychological distress, triggered by traumatic events during his stay in Lebanon.
• He is the author of The Waunted Healer, an anti-stigma program that blends the power of performing arts and storytelling with psychotherapy, which has been integrated into the medical school curriculum of four UK universities.
• He is also known for his work on Muslim mental health, Islamophobia and violent extremism.

Lydmila Sophia Olivera Varela –

• Oliviera Varela’s work provides a healthy alternative to risky behavior among young people to facilitate access to sport for all, and deal with the growing threat of non-communicable diseases. She conducts weekly training sessions for the youth.
• In 2021 she was one of the finalists of UNESCO’s global competition on ‘Power of Sport in Times of Crisis’ and has received awards in several sports competitions in the African region.

Yohei Sasakawa –

• Mr. Yohei Sasakawa is the WHO Goodwill Ambassador for the Eradication of Leprosy and Japan’s Ambassador for the Human Rights of Those Affected by Leprosy. For more than 40 years, he has continued his global fight against leprosy as well as its stigma and social discrimination.
• As president of Japan’s largest charitable foundation, the Nippon Foundation, Mr. Sasakawa has been a pioneer in guiding public-interest activities by the private sector in modern Japan.

Polio workers in Afghanistan –

• Eight volunteer polio workers who were shot dead by armed gunmen in Takhar and Kunduz provinces of Afghanistan on 24 February 2022 were also honoured. Four of these polio workers were women. Eight volunteers were reaching out to thousands of children through door-to-door campaigns in northeastern Afghanistan.
• His work was important in a country where wild poliovirus type 1 is still spreading. Their names were Mr. Mohammed Zubair Khaldzai, Mr. Najibullah Kosha, Mr. Shadab Yosufee, Mr. Sharifullah Hemati, Mrs. Hasiba Omari, Ms. Khadija Attai, Miss Munira Hakimi and Miss Robina Yossfi and her brother Shadab.

Who are the ASHA workers?

• An ASHA worker known as an accredited social health activist (ASHA) is a recognized social health worker who is also known as ASHA or ASHA Bahu for short.
• The ASHA worker is also called Asha Didi. Accredited social health workers or ASHA volunteers are health workers affiliated to the Government of India who work in the rural area. Asha workers came into the limelight especially for door-to-door screening to locate patients during the peak of the Corona epidemic in India. The ASHA worker played a very important role in the pandemic.
• ASHA is a village-level worker associated with the Janani Suraksha Yojana appointed by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in India whose main job is to provide better health services to poor women through a local health centre.
• The ASHA scheme under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was launched in 2005. The goal was to fully implement the scheme by 2012. Once the target is met, it will be necessary to appoint an ASHA in every village.
• Asha workers who provide healthcare at the village level are selected from the same community for which they have to work. One ASHA is appointed to a population of about one thousand. These workers work voluntarily and are also specially trained.
• The post of ASHA worker is at the village level under the National Health Mission programme at the District Health Office of the Health Department of the Central and State Governments. The post of ASHA worker is on a temporary basis at the village level in all the states.
• The ASHA worker is selected by interview and qualification through a rigorous process of selection involving various self-help groups, Anganwadi Institutions Block Nodal Officer, District Nodal Officer, Village Health Committee and Gram Sabha.

Work of the ASHA worker

• The task of ASHA to provide information about the government health service available to the rural public in its domain, to provide primary service, to help complex cases reach the health centre, to help in the preparation of a health plan, to help the rural people to build clean drinking water and toilets, etc. Which are mainly divided into eight categories.
1. take care of primary medical care
2. Participation in preparation of rural health plan
3. Discussions to improve health
4. Advising on health, hygiene and sanitation issues
5. To connect, collaborate and coordinate with health workers and anganwadi workers
6. Keeping records of birth deaths and registering
7. Synergy with ANM
8. The depot holder i.e. ASHA can keep general health material in the village and can also treat the common disease from them, for this ASHA is specially trained.

Source – All India Radio

Indian branch of the World Economic Forum’s Climate Action Alliance

Paper 3 : Environment, Pollution

Why You Should Know?

Recently, the World Economic Forum launched the Indian branch of the Climate Action Alliance.

Key Points

• The World Economic Forum has launched the Indian arm of the Climate Action Alliance to accelerate climate activities and carbon liberation efforts in India.
• As part of the World Economic Forum’s Climate Task Force, the alliance will strive to achieve the goals set out in the White Paper Mission 2070 released last year .
• It is noteworthy that india has also been targeted to be a low carbon emission country by 2070.
• The campaign will involve the government, business world and other stakeholders to complete prime minister Narendra Modi’s ambitious concept of Panchamrit.
• In collaboration with the management advisory body Kierne and the Indian think tank Observer Research Foundation, the alliance will help business leaders in formulating plans and programmes to achieve the climate goals.

What is Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s sankalp panchamrit ?

• At the COP-26 Summit held in Glasgow in November 2021, Prime Minister Narendra Modi put forward India’s agenda on climate change to the world and gave the Panchamrit mantra. Through the Panchamrit Mantra, Prime Minister Modi explained how India will improve the environment. He said India will achieve the net zero emission target by 2070.

The Panchamrit Resolution was defined in the following five points:

• First, India will increase its non-fossil energy capacity to 500 GW by 2030.
• Second, India will meet 50 per cent of its energy requirements by 2030 with renewable energy.
• Third, India will reduce the total projected carbon emissions by one billion tonnes from now to 2030.
• Fourth, by 2030, India will reduce the carbon integrity of its economy by less than 45 per cent.
• Fifthly, by the year 2070, India will achieve the target of Net Zero.
These panchamrits will be an unprecedented contribution of India to climate action.

About World Economic Forum

• The World Economic Forum is a non-profit organization based in Switzerland, headquartered in Geneva.
• It was founded in the year 1971 by Professor Claus M. Schwab of the University of Geneva under the name of European Management. In 1987, its name was changed from European Management to the World Economic Forum.
• The World Economic Forum meets in the month of January every year. Initially, these meetings used to discuss the methods of management. But in 1973, when many countries of the world began to shore up at a fixed exchange rate and the war broke out between Arabs and Israel, the focus of this meeting turned to economic and social issues and for the first time, politicians were invited to this meeting.
• After this, it also became an important political forum and it has been used many times as a neutral forum, whether it was the 1988 declaration of the avoidance of a mutual war between Greece and Turkey or the 1994 issue of mutual understanding between Israel and Palestine.

The goal

• Its mission is to decide the global, regional and industrial direction by bringing together the world’s leading people in business, politics, academia and other fields.
• Thus, WEF is committed to improving the world situation by involving business, political, education sector and other representatives of society to shape global, regional and industry projects.
• The most famous event of this forum takes place at the Annual Winter Meeting which is held at davos. Participation in this event is done only by invitation and the special thing is that many problems are solved in the informal interaction that participates in this small town.
• The meeting is attended by many people, including international politicians from the world, a select number of intellectuals and journalists. It discusses the topics on which the consideration of the world community is considered urgent.

Major report published by WEF 

The institution also plays the role of think tank and also submits reports based on the researches carried out by it. All these reports are mostly related to competition, global risk and landscape thinking. The following are the major reports published by it :
• The Global Risk Report
• The Global Gender Gap Report
• The Energy Transition Index
• The Global Travel and Tourism Report
• The Global Competitiveness Report
• Global IT Report- by WEF jointly with INSEAD and Cornell University

Source – PIB

QUAD Fellowship Scheme

Paper 2 Health, Education, Human Resources

Why You Should Know? 

Recently, the QUAD Summit 2022 started in which Hon’ble Prime Minister Narendra Modi along with other Heads of States launched the QUAD Fellowship, let’s know what is this QUAD Fellowship ?

Key Points

• On 24 May 2022, the QUAD Summit 2022 was held in Tokyo under the leadership of Prime Minister of Japan Fumio Kishida. India, US, Japan and Australia participated in the summit.
• US President Joe Biden, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida and Australian Prime Minister Anthony Albanese launched the ‘QUAD Fellowship’ at the QUAD Summit.
• During this, Prime Minister Narendra Modi appealed to Indian students to apply for QUAD fellowships. “I encourage my students to apply for the ‘QUAD’ fellowship programme and join the next generation of STEM leaders and innovators building a better future of humanity. ’
• It is worth mentioning that for the first time in the QUAD, the subject of education has come up. The QUAD will enable 100 students from poorer countries to study in each other’s countries through scholarships under the fellowship programme.

About the Fellowship

• 25 students from each QUAD country and a total of 100 students will be given these fellowships. Under this, 100 students will be sponsored every year to pursue masters and doctoral degrees at leading STEM graduates’ universities in the US.
• Thus the QUAD Fellowship program will sponsor 100 exceptional American, Japanese, Australian and Indian Master’s and Doctoral students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) to study in the US.
• The fellowship will develop a network of science and technology experts who are committed to advancing innovation and cooperation in the private, public and academic sectors, in their own countries and between the QUAD countries.

Benefits of Fellowship

• Each QUAD Fellow will receive a lump sum award of US $50,000. which can be used for tuition, research, fees, books, rooms and related academic expenses (e.g., registration fees, research-related travel).
• All QUAD Fellows are eligible to apply for financing based on varying displayed needs of up to US $25,000 to cover the costs related to completing graduation studies.

What is QUAD?

• QUAD stands for Quadlateral Security Dialogue, an informal strategic forum for four countries of the world, including the US, Japan, India and Australia.
• In fact, after the tsunami in December 2004, Japan, Australia, India and the US formed a core group that aimed to lead the support of international community.
• Then in 2007, Japan mooted the idea of formalising this informal grouping and thus Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe established the QUAD Forum in collaboration with US Vice President Dick Cheney, Australian Prime Minister John Howard and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.
• Then China and Russia opposed it and its formation was postponed after the departure of Australia in 2008 under pressure from China. This idea was stalled for many years.
• After this, in the year 2012, at the initiative of Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, the idea was presented to establish a ‘Democratic Security Diamond’ with Australia, India and the US to ensure maritime security from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.
• Then in November 2017 the Quad group was established to eliminate the influence of any external power in the Indo-Pacific region and its meeting was held a day before the ASEAN summit. Thus the Quad actually came into existence.
• In fact, the first meeting of the QUAD officials was held in May 2005, but from November 2017, such meetings started taking place regularly.
• The first meeting of foreign ministers was held in New York on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly in September 2019. The second meeting of the Foreign Ministers was held in Tokyo in October 2020. In February 2021, foreign ministers spoke by telephone. For the first time in March 2021, the leaders of the QUAD countries joined through video conferences. For the first time in September 2021, leaders of the four countries met face-to-face. In February 2022, the fourth meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the QUAD countries was held. In March 2022, the QUAD leaders met via video conference and finally now in May 2022, the QUAD Leaders’ Summit was held in Tokyo.
• The aim was to develop a new strategy to keep major sea routes free from any influence amid China’s growing military presence in the strategically important Indo-Pacific region.


• QUAD aims to keep important sea routes in the Indo-Pacific region free from any military or political influence. It is seen as a strategic group created primarily to reduce Chinese dominance.
• QUAD aims to work towards making the Indo-Pacific region free, open and prosperous.
• QUAD focuses not only on security but also on other global issues ranging from economic to cyber security, maritime security, humanitarian assistance, disaster relief, climate change, epidemics and education.

Importance of QUAD for India

• The QUAD is believed to be strategically countering China’s economic and military rise. So this alliance becomes very important for India.
• India’s aim is to establish a system with the QUAD countries in the Indian Ocean in view of the border disputes with China and Pakistan, during which China could not extend its foothold in the Indian Ocean at any cost.
• In fact, the indian ocean’s sea route is very important for China in terms of global trade and india is still very strong in the indian ocean. But, after the capture of Sri Lanka’s Hambantota Bandargar, China’s ambition has increased significantly in the Indian Ocean, so with the help of the QUAD, India can easily keep China away from the Indian Ocean.
• At the same time, in the last few years, many countries of the world have increased their activity in the Indo-Pacific region, including India. At the same time, France and Germany are also moving strategically in the Indo-Pacific region. So all the countries together can easily stop China.

Source – PIB

Several tons of microplastics are produced every year from face masks

Paper 3 : Environment, Pollution

Why You Should Know?

Recently, researchers in one of their researches said that face masks are becoming an increasing threat in India, which is generating 15.4 lakh tonnes of microplastics every year.

Key Points

• The increasing use of face masks in India is generating 15.4 lakh tonnes of microplastics every year, which can pose a major threat to the environment and health. This information has come to light in a recent study conducted by the Department of Civil Engineering, Shri Ram Swaroop Memorial University, India, which has been published in the journal Chemosphere.
• As the world recovers from COVID-19 and moves towards a normal life, the results of the precautionary measures taken during the COVID-19 phases have also started coming out.
• Today we are living in a situation we have never seen before. Today, face masks, sanitizer bottles, gloves and PPE kits have become a necessity of human routine. But fighting the battle of this epidemic, man has invited a new threat. The growing threat of plastics, especially microplastic waste, today cannot be ignored any more.
• According to scientists, around 23,888.1 crore masks are used every year in India. Their total weight is about 24.4 million tons. At the same time, about 15.4 lakh tonnes of microplastic and polypropylene (PP) are being generated due to this.

Proper management and disposal of microplastics is necessary

• Not only this, in this study, Indian researchers have analysed the microplastic waste being generated due to face masks in 36 countries of the world. Its findings show that in these countries of the world where the highest number of covid-19 cases have been reported, about 154.6 lakh tonnes of face masks are used every year, with a total of about 151,540 crore. About 97.7 million tonnes of microplastics are being produced.
• According to scientists, even though China is not among the countries where the highest number of COVID-19 cases have been reported, china has the highest population in the world. In this sense, most of the face masks are used there. China’s total population is more than 143.9 million.
• This population is using around 40.8 lakh tonnes of face masks every year, generating about 25.8 lakh tonnes of microplastics. At the same time, where more than 8.5 crore COVID-19 cases have been reported in the US so far, it is the third largest consumer of these face masks. About 12.5 lakh tonnes of face masks are being used every year, which is producing about 7.9 lakh tonnes of microplastics.
• If you see where face masks have saved the lives of millions of people around the world. At the same time, by not disposing properly of the waste generated from it, we have invited a new threat. This microplastic poses a risk of biomagnetization and bioacumulation. This means that this waste being stored in the environment can pose a big threat to the environment and organisms.
• Not only this, these microplastics can also serve as a potential carrier of coronavirus, which may further increase the risk of the spread of this epidemic. In such a situation, scientists suggest that effective policies are urgently needed for proper management and disposal of face masks, sanitizer bottles, gloves and PPE kits, thereby limiting this growing menace at the earliest.

What is microplastic?

• According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOA), microplastics are plastic particles smaller than 0.2 inches (5 millimeters). In appearance, their size can be equal to that of a sesame seed.

Where does microplastic come from?

• Plastic reaches the sea through different paths. Where plastic breaks down into fine particles due to sun, wind or other reasons, which is microplastic. The products we use in everyday life such as cosmetics (microbids) used in toothpaste and facial scrubs also contain microplastics.
• Microbids often contain polyethylene plastics, although they can also contain polystyrene or polypropylene.
• Microplastics also come from synthetic fabrics. If you look at these names the next time you buy clothes, you understand that these products are man-made and have microplastics- nylon, spandex, acetate, polyester, acrylic, rayon, etc. Whenever you wash these clothes, they release some of their fibers, which are swept away in the water coming out of the washing machine, which later breaks down into fine particles and becomes microplastic.

How does microplastic affect the environment?

• These small particles of microplastics serve as carriers of bacteria and persistent organic pollutants (POP). POP are toxic organic compounds, which are like plastic, which take years to destroy.
• These include pesticides and chemicals such as dioxins, which are dangerous to human and animal health at high concentrations.

How does microplastic affect marine life?

• A lab-based study from the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University and the University of Hainan showed that 12.5 percent of plastic micro-and-contaminated camill particles reach fish that swallow them as food. Which causes them a lot of harm, even they die.
• Scientists said up to 47% of microplastic particles were found in the feces of the seabirds of northern Phulmar. Turtles and other marine creatures are also not untouched by the influence of microplastics.

How does microplastic affect humans? 

• Microplastics are being ingested by marine organisms, the same organisms are being eaten by humans as seafood. Even if you don’t eat seafood, you’ve been exposed to microplastics in one place or another through your drinking water.
• Now the particles of the microplastics are also in the air of the atmosphere where you breathe. When cars and trucks move, the amount of these particles in the dust emitted from their tires is 0.71 ounces (20 grams), which contains plastic stylin-butadiene.
• However, the World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested that microplastics have no effect on human health.
• A recent study by the Journal of Environmental Science and Technology states that people ingest particles of 39,000 to 52,000 microplastics every year. There are many dangers of ingesting microplastics that. For example, bisphenol A (BPA) can cause changes in behavior and an increase in blood pressure. PBDE can cause endocrine disruption and an effect on the nervous system in humans, as well as damage to the liver and kidneys.

Source – Down to Earth

Monkeypox – a viral disease

Paper 2- Health

Why You Should Know?

After the corona epidemic, a new disease has knocked in the world – that is “Monkeypox”. Recently the World Health Organization (WHO) has also issued a warning about Monkeypox, let’s know what monkeypox is?

Key Points

• Monkeypox is a rare but potentially serious viral disease that starts with a flu-like disease and inflammation of the lymph nodes and develops into a rash widespread on the face and body. Most infections last for 2-4 weeks.
• The rare monkeypox virus belongs to the chickenpox virus family. The infection can also be quite serious. This infection can be identified on the basis of large donations on the body of the infected person.
• According to the latest report, 92 monkeypox patients have been found around the world so far, all of which have been found in 12 countries, including the UK, European countries, North America and Australia.
• While no cases of monkeypox have been found in India so far, the central government has asked the National Centre for Disease Control and the Indian Council of Medical Research to remain alert.
• On Monkeypox, the World Health Organization (WHO) has also warned about Monkeypox. The WHO said that in countries where the infection has not spread, more cases of monkeypox may be reported, and monkeypox is spreading to people who have come into physical contact for some reason.


• According to the World Health Organization (WHO), monkeypox was reported for the first time in humans in 1970. So far, the presence of this virus has been confirmed in 11 countries of Africa. The initial cases of MonkeyPox were reported in 1958. When the disease spread to monkeys kept for research. The first case of monkeypox in humans was reported in 1970 in Cango (Africa).
• According to reports, the infection spread in the Us in 2003. Then the reason for this was attributed to the pet dogs imported from Ghana. There is no confirmation of the cases of this virus in India and other Asian countries.

How does it spread?

• Monkeypox virus can spread in many ways. However, according to the WHO, the transition from one human to another is quite low. However, when the infected person sneezes and coughs, the virus is present in the droplets, which can spread like Covid.
• In addition, the virus spreads to humans due to exposure to the blood, body fluids or skin of infected animals.


• According to the WHO, it can take 6 to 13 days for symptoms to appear after a monkeyvirus infection. Infected people may feel severe weakness with fever, sharp headaches, back and muscle pain. Inflammation of the lymph nodes is considered to be its most common symptom.
• A sick person may have large rashes on his face and hands and feet. If the infection is severe, these rashes can also affect the cornea of the eyes.

The treatment 

• According to the WHO, there is currently no cure available for monkeypox. Smallpox vaccines (made from the vaccinia virus) are considered to be protective against monkeypox.
• People exposed to the virus are often given some doses of smallpox vaccines, as it is currently shown to be effective against Monkeypox.
• The European Center for Disease Prevention and Control has recommended that all suspected patients be isolated and those at high risk be vaccinated with smallpox.

Source – Indian Express 

NGO “CRY” report on missing children

Paper 1- social Issues

Why You Should Know?

Recently, on the occasion of International Day of missing children, On May 25, an NGO “CRY” released a ‘Status Report on Missing Children’ report on missing children.

Key Points

• According to the report, there has been a significant increase in the cases of missing children in four major states of North India. Five children went missing every day in 2021 in eight police districts of Delhi, while in 58 districts of Uttar Pradesh, on an average, eight children, six girls and two boys- have gone missing every day.
• The number of missing girls in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in 2021 is five times more than that of boys. According to the National Crime Bureau’s 2020 data, 8,751 cases of missing children were registered in Madhya Pradesh and 3,179 in Rajasthan.
• In response to applications filed under the Right to Information Act (RTI) on behalf of the partner organisations of CRY, the governments said that in 2021, 10,648 cases of missing children were registered in Madhya Pradesh and 5,354 in Rajasthan.

Other highlights of the report

• Data collected through RTI applications shows that the top five districts in terms of the number of missing children in Madhya Pradesh include Indore, Bhopal, Dhar, Jabalpur and Rewa. On an average, 29 children, including 24 girls and five boys, have gone missing from Madhya Pradesh every day, says the report.
• A total of 2,998 children, including 835 boys and 2,163 girls, went missing in 2021 in 58 of the 75 districts of Uttar Pradesh. About 88.9 per cent of the missing children in the state were in the age group of 12-18 years. The data shows that the top five districts in terms of the number of missing children in Uttar Pradesh include Lucknow, Moradabad, Kanpur Nagar, Meerut and Maharajganj.
• A total of 1641 children went missing in 2021 in eight police districts of Delhi, i.e. on an average, five children went missing every day. About 85 per cent of the missing children in Delhi were in the age group of 12-18 years.
• As per the records provided, delhi has lost the highest number of children in 2021 in north-east district while south east district has the least number of missing. The highest number of children in the age group of 18 have gone missing from the North East district. Data for west, north west and south districts has not been provided.

More girls among the missing children

• A total of 5,354 children — 4,468 girls and 886 boys — went missing in Rajasthan. According to the report, on an average, 14 children, including 12 girls and two boys, go missing every day in Rajasthan.
• These figures indicate an increase of about 26 per cent in the number of missing children in Madhya Pradesh and a 41 per cent increase in Rajasthan as compared to 2020. According to her, 2,222 children were trafficked in 2020 and the highest number of them was from Rajasthan where 815 children were trafficked.
• Only 58 districts of Uttar Pradesh provided data. Similarly, not all police districts in Delhi provided data. At the same time, Haryana did not respond to applications filed under RTI.
• According to Soha Moitra, regional director of Cry (North), more than 83 per cent of the children who went missing in 2021 in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan were girls. Madhya Pradesh recorded 8,876 missing cases last year and Rajasthan 4,468 missing cases. It is a matter of serious concern that the number of girls among the missing children for the last five years is high.

About the NGO

• Child Rights and You (CRY) is an Indian non-governmental organisation (NGO) that works towards ensuring the rights of children.
• The organization was started in 1979 by Rippan Kapur.
• CRY addresses children’s critical needs by working with parents, teachers, Anganwadi (Indian rural child care centre) workers, communities, district and state-level governments, as well as the children, themselves.
• The organization focuses on changing behaviours and practices at the grassroots level and influencing public policy at a systemic level, to create an environment where children are a priority.
• It ensures in partnership with local NGOs that the primary health centres are functioning, pre-natal and postnatal care services are available, vaccination camps are conducted.
• It, along with its coalition partners, lobby for policy-level changes to ensure that children have access to quality, free and equitable education; This ensures that children attend bridge classes or non-formal educational centres and get admitted to government schools with functional infrastructure.

Source – The Hindu

Indo-Pacific Economic Framework

Paper 2- International Realtions

Why You Should Know?

Recently, Hon’ble Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi participated in the discussion programme of the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF), let’s know what is this Indo-Pacific Economic Framework.

Key Points

• The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi, attended an event to initiate discussions on the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF) in Tokyo on May 23, 2022. The event was also attended by His Excellency Mr. Joseph R. Biden, President of the United States and His Excellency Mr. Kishida Fumio, Prime Minister of Japan.
• Along with this, leaders from other participating countries such as Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam had virtual presence.
• A joint statement was issued highlighting the key elements envisaged in the IPEF. IPEF seeks to strengthen the economic partnership between partner countries with the objective of enhancing flexibility, stability, inclusiveness, economic growth, fairness and competitiveness in the Indo-Pacific region.

What is the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework ?

• The Indo-Pacific Economic Framework (IPEF) is actually the brainchild of US President Joe Biden and not much information is available about it right now. Whether India will join it or not, it is not yet clear, but still India has given a strong commitment that it is willing to join this framework.
• Through this initiative, the US will partner with countries in Asia on issues of common interest such as clean energy, decarbonization, infrastructure and supply chain improvements. In the Corona period, the supply from China has been disrupted and that is the reason why the whole world wants to create a concrete alternative to it.
• India has said many times that the world needs a reliable supply chain and is committed to a free, open and inclusive Indo-Pacific region.

An American initiative

• US President Joe Biden first spoke of the IPEF at the East Asia Summit in October 2021. He had then said that the US would explore the possibilities of developing the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework.
• According to the Insights paper of the US Congressional Research Service, IPEF is not a traditional trade agreement. It will have several different modules which include Fair and Resilient Trade, Supply Chain Resilience, Infrastructure and Decarbonization and Tax and Anti-Corruption. The countries joining it will have to join all the components of a module but they do not need to join all the modules.
• Fair and Resilient Trade will be led by the US Trade Representative and will have digital, labour and environment-related issues. Some of these will be binding.
• The IPEF will not have issues like lowering of tariff barriers. It will be a kind of administrative arrangement that will not require parliament’s approval. The trade agreements require the approval of Congress. It is worth mentioning that former US President Donald Trump had separated the US from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP).
• The IPEF plan follows a US plan for a “Blue Dot Network” to certify infrastructure projects against a set of norms and standards launched by the US, Japan and Australia in 2019.

India’s side

• The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi, in his address at the Launch, said that the announcement of ipef is a declaration of collective desire to make the Indo-Pacific region a vehicle of global economic progress.
• India has historically been the centre of trade flows in the Indo-Pacific region and the world’s oldest commercial port is located at Lothal in Gujarat. The Prime Minister called for seeking common and constructive solutions to address the economic challenges in the Indo-Pacific region.
• He expressed India’s commitment to work together with all Indo-Pacific countries for IPEF, which is inclusive and flexible. He stressed that the foundation of a flexible supply chain should have 3T-trust, transparency and timelessness.
• India is committed to a free, open and inclusive Indo-Pacific region and believes that sustainable development, peace and prosperity are vital to strengthening economic connectivity between partner countries. India is keen to cooperate with partner countries under the IPEF and work towards promoting regional economic engagement, integration and trade and investment in the region.
• With the process initiated for the establishment of the IPEF, the partner countries will begin discussions focusing on strengthening economic cooperation and achieving common goals.

Source – The Hindu 

8th International Day of Yoga

Paper 2 Health, Education, Human Resources

Why You Should Know?

The 8th International Day of Yoga will be celebrated in Mysore on June 21, 2022.

Key Points

• The main event of the 8th International Yoga Day (IDY-2022) demonstration will be held on 21st June 2022 in Mysore, Karnataka . Ayush Minister Shri Sarbananda Sonowal recently announced that Mysore has been selected as the venue for the mass yoga demonstration (main event).
• As this International Yoga Day “Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav” is falling in the year, the ministry has planned to organise it at 75 prestigious locations across the country and the focus is on branding India globally.
• Apart from the main event in Mysore, another event Guardian Ring will also be the centre of attraction on June 21 this year. It is a relay yoga streaming event that will capture together the digital feed of International Yoga Day events organised by Indian missions abroad. The proposed plan is to start streaming from Japan, the land of the rising sun, at 6 am local time .
• It is worth mentioning that a series of programs have been planned up to this IDY. Its 25-day countdown is being launched in Hyderabad on May 27, in which about 10,000 yoga enthusiasts will participate in the yoga demonstration programme.
• The event will be attended by the Governor of Karnataka, Union Ministers, film stars, sportspersons, eminent personalities, eminent yoga gurus, dignitaries, experts in yoga and allied sciences, local yoga institutes and yoga enthusiasts.
• Earlier , mega countdown events were held at Shivdol (50th day countdown on May 2) and Red Fort (75thday countdown on April 7).

About The International Day of Yoga

• The International Day of Yoga is celebrated every year on June 21 all over the world, the aim is to spread awareness about the benefits of Yoga and to make people aware of the layers of their health.
• It is worth mentioning that the international day of yoga was first celebrated in the year 2015. The purpose of celebrating this day is to raise global awareness about the benefits of practicing yoga.
• It is worth mentioning that yoga is a practice that originated in India. The word yoga is a Sanskrit word which means to connect. Yoga symbolizes the integration of body and consciousness. There are 84 classical asanas in yoga such as tadasana, trikonasana, bhujangasana etc.
• Physical inactivity has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide in the last few decades due to busy lifestyle as it causes non-communicable diseases like diabetes, heart disease etc. Yoga is more than physical activity, it not only promotes good health but also helps in maintaining a balanced day-to-day life.
• As a means of improving health in this time of uncertainty, yoga has benefits that can help a person deal with stress by enhancing mental peace, flexibility and fitness. Due to this, due to India’s initiative all over the world, the practice of celebrating The International Day of Yoga started.


• India had moved a proposal for the idea of the International Day of Yoga during the opening of the 69th session of the UN General Assembly.
• The United Nations passed the resolution in December 2014 and declared June 21 as the International Day of Yoga.
• The first Yoga Day was celebrated in 2015 at Rajpath, New Delhi. It set a Guinness World Record for being the world’s largest yoga session with 35,985 people.

Why on June 21st?

• There is a special reason to celebrate June 21. According to Indian culture, after the summer solstice, the sun becomes dakshinayan. On this day, the northern hemisphere gets the most sunlight.
• Of the 365 days of the year, June 21 is the biggest day of the year. On june 21, the sun rises quickly and sets late. It is said that on this day, the heat of the sun is the most effective. For this reason, June 21 is celebrated as ‘International Yoga Day’.

Source – PIB

Share with

Leave a Comment

हिंदी में देखें




error: Content is protected !!