Ojaank IAS Academy




24 November 2022 – Current Affairs

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Lachit Borphukan

Paper 1 – History

Why You Should Know?

A three-day celebration of the 400th birth anniversary of the legendary Assamese general and folk hero Lachit Borphukan began in New Delhi on November 23, 2022.

In detail –
Ahom kingdom
  • The Ahom kings ruled large parts of what is now known as Assam for nearly 600 years, from the early 13th century to the early 19th century.
  • This was a prosperous, multi-ethnic kingdom which spread across the upper and lower reaches of the Brahmaputra valley, surviving on rice cultivation in its fertile lands.
  • The Ahoms engaged in a series of conflicts with the Mughals from 1615-1682, starting from the reign of Jahangir till the reign of Aurangzeb.
  • One of the major early military conflicts was in January 1662, where the Mughals won a partial victory, conquering parts of Assam and briefly occupying Garhgaon, the Ahom capital.
  • The counter-offensive to reclaim lost Ahom territories started under Ahom King Swargadeo Chakradhwaja Singha.
  • After the Ahoms enjoyed some initial victories, Aurangzeb dispatched Raja Ram Singh I of Jaipur in 1669 to recapture the lost territory — eventually resulting in the Battle of Saraighat in 1671.
About  Lachit Borphukan
  • Lachit was a brilliant military commander who knew the terrain of the Brahmaputra valley and the surrounding hills like the back of his hand.
  • He was chosen as one of the five Borphukans of the Ahom kingdom by king Charadhwaj Singha, and given administrative, judicial, and military responsibilities.
  • Unlike the Mughals who preferred battles in the open with their massive armies, Borphukan preferred guerrilla tactics which provided an edge to his smaller, but fast moving and capable forces.
  • Much like Shivaji’s encounters with the Mughals in Marathwada, Lachit inflicted damage on the large Mughal camps and static positions.
  • His raids would kill unsuspecting Mughal soldiers and frustrate the mighty armies that were too ponderous to respond swiftly.
  • When the monsoon set in, Mughal plans were complicated further. However, as the Mughals were able to successfully camp around the foothills of Alaboi, the Ahom king ordered Borphukan to carry out a frontal assault which led to the deaths of nearly 10,000 Ahom warriors and ended in a weary Mughal victory in 1669.
  • As the Mughals attempted to progress through the valley, they realised that travelling by the river would be faster.
  • Lachit, who was a great naval warrior and strategist, created an intricate web of improvised and surprise pincer attacks.
  • According to the historian H K Barpujari (‘The Comprehensive History of Assam’), the Ahom forces combined a frontal attack with a surprise attack from behind.
  • They lured the Mughal fleet into moving ahead by feigning an attack with a few ships from the front.
  • The Mughals vacated the waters behind them, from where the main Ahom fleet attacked and achieved a decisive victory.
  • Lachit Borphukan died a year after the Battle of Saraighat from a long festering illness. In fact he was very ill during the Battle of Saraighat, as he heroically led his troops to victory. This only added to his legend.
Lachit Divas
  • Every culture and community has its heroes. Over time, Lachit Borphukan’s exploits have become a symbol of resistance against outsiders against all odds.
  • He has become one of the greatest of Assamese heroes, symbolising the valour, courage, and intelligence that defines the Assamese self-identity.
  • November 24 is celebrated as Lachit Divas (Lachit Day) in Assam to commemorate the heroism of Lachit Borphukan and the victory of the Assamese army at the Battle of Saraighat.
  • The best passing out cadet of National Defence Academy is conferred the Lachit Borphukan gold medal every year from 1999.

Sources – IE


Guru Tegh Bahadur

Paper 1–History

Why Should You Know?

November 24, is commemorated as the Shaheedi Divas of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth guru of the Sikhs.

In details –
Guru Tegh Bahadur
  • Tegh Bahadur was born in Amritsar on April 21, 1621 to Mata Nanki and Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh guru, who raised an army against the Mughals and introduced the concept of warrior saints.
  • As a boy, Tegh Bahadur was called Tyag Mal because of his ascetic nature.
  • He spent his early childhood in Amritsar under the tutelage of Bhai Gurdas, who taught him Gurmukhi, Hindi, Sanskrit, and Indian religious philosophy, while Baba Budha trained him in swordsmanship, archery, and horse-riding.
  • He was only 13 when he distinguished himself in a battle against a Mughal chieftain. His bravery and swordsmanship in the battle earned him the name of Tegh Bahadur.
  • He was married to Mata Gujri at Kartarpur in 1632, and subsequently left for Bakala near Amritsar.
The ninth Sikh Guru
  • After Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh guru, the guruship became hereditary.
  • When Tegh Bahadur’s elder brother Gurditta died young, the guruship went to his 14-year-old son, Guru Har Rai, in 1644.
  • He remained on the seat until his death at the age of 31 in 1661.
  • Guru Har Rai was succeeded by his five-year-old son Guru Har Krishan, who passed away in Delhi in 1664 before he could reach the age of eight.
  • It is said that when asked about his successor, he took the name of “Baba Bakala”, his grand uncle.
  • Guru Tegh Bahadur had built a ‘bhora’ (basement) in his house at Bakala where he spent most of his time in meditation.
  • In the ancient Indian tradition, ‘bhoras’ were considered ideal for meditation as they were soundproof and had an even temperature.
  • But since Guru Har Krishan hadn’t directly named Guru Tegh Bahadur, many claimants cropped up.
  • according to lore, Makhan Shah, a wealthy trader whose ship was caught in a storm at sea, had prayed that if it was saved he would give 500 gold mohurs (coins) to the reigning guru.
  • But when he reached Delhi, he learnt that Har Krishan had passed away and there was a line of claimants at Bakala. It is said that he decided that whoever was the real guru would ask him for the exact sum he had promised in his prayers.
  • He had exhausted his options when he was told about Tegh Bahadur meditating in the ‘bhora’.
  • Tegh Bahadur took one look at Makhan Shah, and told him that he had promised 500 coins. He added, “It’s not wise to test your guru.”
  • An ecstatic Makhan Shah is said to have run to the rooftop and shouted “Guru ladho re! (I have found the guru!)”
  • In August 1664, a Sikh Sangat arrived in Bakala and appointed Tegh Bahadur as the ninth guru of Sikhs.
  • Soon afterward, Tegh Bahadur moved to Kiratpur Sahib. In 1665, on the invitation of Raja Bhim Chand of Kahlur who was his devotee, he bought land at Makhowal village and renamed it Chak Nanki (now Anandpur Sahib) after his mother.
  • Aurangzeb was the ruling Mughal emperor at the time. There were conversions, either through a government order or through coercion.
  • When people were charged with some crime or misdemeanour, they would be pardoned if they converted.
  • Guru Tegh Bahadur who started travelling extensively through Malwa and Majha, first came into conflict with the authorities when he started questioning the tradition of worshipping at the graves of pirs and faqirs.
  • He preached against this practice, and urged his followers to be ‘nirbhau’ (fearless) and ‘nirvair’ (without envy).
  • His sermons, delivered in a mix of Sadukhri and Braj languages, were widely understood from Sindh to Bengal.
  • The metaphors he used resonated with people across North India. Guru Tegh Bahadur often alluded to Panchali (Draupadi) and Ganika in his preachings and declared that Hindustan could regain its piety if it took refuge in one God.
  • As his message began to spread, a local chieftain at Dhamtan near Jind in present-day Haryana picked him up on fabricated charges of collecting revenue from villagers, and took him to Delhi. But Raja Ram Singh of Amer, whose family was a long-time follower of the gurus, intervened and kept him in his house for around two months until he convinced Aurangzeb that the guru was a holy man with no political ambitions.
  • Earlier, Raja Jai Singh of Amer had donated land for a dharamshala where the gurus could rest while visiting Delhi. The present-day Bangla Sahib gurdwara is built on this site.
  • a little more than a year after setting up his headquarters in present-day Anandpur Sahib in 1665, the guru spent four-odd years travelling up to Dhaka in the east, and going up to Puri in Odisha.
  • He also visited Mathura, Agra, Benares, Allahabad, and Patna, where he left his wife and her brother in the care of the local devotees. Guru Gobind Singh was born in Patna in 1666.
  • While the guru was on the way back from Dhaka, Raja Ram Singh sought his help to broker a truce with the Ahom king.
  • Gurdwara Dhubri Sahib on the banks of the Brahmaputra commemorates this peace accord. The guru was also honoured at Guwahati’s Kamakhya temple.
  • According to historians, the guru rushed back to Punjab on learning about the increasing atrocities by the Mughals.
Guru’s martyrdom
  • Back in Anandpur Sahib, the Guru was approached by Kirpa Das, a Kashmiri Brahmin who sought his protection with a group from the Valley.
  • Das told Guru Tegh Bahadur that local chieftains had told him to convert or face retribution. The guru assured Das and his group of his protection and told them to tell the Mughals that they should first try to convert the guru.
  • Aurangzeb considered this an open challenge to his authority. According to the ‘Sri Gur Bilas Patshahi Dasmi’, a biography of Guru Gobind Singh by Kavi Sukha Singh written in 1797, the Guru himself went to Delhi where he revealed his identity, and was arrested by the Mughals.
  • In a paper titled ‘Who killed Guru Tegh Bahadur?’, historian Sardar Kapur Singh wrote that Aurangzeb ordered the public execution of the Guru on November 11, 1675 after the guru declined to embrace Islam.
  • He was tortured to death and beheaded at Chandni Chowk along with his three companions, Bhai Mati Das, who was torn asunder, Bhai Sati Das, who was burnt to death, and Bhai Dyala ji, who was put in boiling water.
  • Till the very end they were asked to change their minds, but they remained resolute. Gurdwara Sis Ganj was built on the site on which they were executed in 1783.
  • There is some confusion regarding the date of Guru Tegh Bahadur’s martyrdom. Until a decade or so ago, it used to be observed on November 11 but ever since some scholars sought to introduce the Nanakshahi calendar to fix dates of important events in the Sikh history, it has been observed on November 24.
  • Guru Tegh Bahadur contributed many hymns to Granth Sahib including the Shloks, or couplets near the end of the Guru Granth Sahib.
  • Guru Tegh Bahadur toured various parts of the Mughal Empire and was asked by Gobind Sahali to construct several Sikh temples in Mahali.
  • His works include 116 shabads, 15 ragas, and his bhagats are credited with 782 compositions that are part of bani in Sikhism.
  • His works are included in the Guru Granth Sahib.
  • They cover a wide range of topics, such as the nature of God, human attachments, body, mind, sorrow, dignity, service, death, and deliverance.

Sources – IE

Assam-Meghalaya border dispute

Paper 2 – Polity

Why You Should Know?

Recently Six people, including a forest guard, were killed in a firing incident at Mukroh village in Meghalaya’s West Jaintia Hills, leading to tensions in the Assam-Meghalaya border villages.

In detail –
what was the matter?
  • The incident took place when a team from the Assam forest department tried to intercept a smuggled timber laden truck at around seven in the morning.
  • The vehicle did not stop and sped away, leading to a hot chase.
  • However, the forest guards somehow managed to stop the truck by puncturing one of the tires at the Mukroh village in Meghalaya, where local villagers surrounded the Assam police and forest guards.
  • The Meghalaya government shut down mobile internet/data services in seven districts of Meghalaya.
  • The state government has filed a First information Report, or FIR, and also ordered a judicial enquiry to determine the facts of the incident.
  • On its part, Assam has announced a one-man inquiry commission under a retired High Court judge.
What is the border dispute?
  • Assam and Meghalaya have a longstanding dispute in 12 stretches of their 884-km shared border.
  • During the British rule, undivided Assam included present-day Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Mizoram.
  • Meghalaya was carved out in 1972, its boundaries demarcated as per the Assam Reorganisation (Meghalaya) Act of 1969, but has held a different interpretation of the border since.
  • In 2011, the Meghalaya government had identified 12 areas of difference with Assam, spread over approximately 2,700 sq km.
  • some of these disputes stem from recommendations made by a 1951 committee headed by then Assam chief minister Gopinath Bordoloi.
  • For example, a 2008 research paper from the Manohar Parrikar Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses refers to the Bordoloi Committee’s recommendation that Blocks I and II of Jaintia Hills (Meghalaya) be transferred to the Mikir Hill (Karbi Anglong) district of Assam, besides some areas from Meghalaya’s Garo Hills to Goalpara district of Assam.
  • The 1969 Act is based on these recommendations, which Meghalaya rejects, claiming these areas originally belong to the Khasi–Jaintia Hills.
  • On the other hand, Assam says Meghalaya does not have the requisite documents to prove these areas historically belonged to Meghalaya.
  • A number of attempts had been made in the past to resolve the boundary dispute. In 1985, under then Assam chief minister Hiteswar Saikia and Meghalaya chief minister Captain W A Sangma, an official committee was constituted under the former Chief Justice of India Y V Chandrachud. However, a solution was not found.
  • From July 2021, Sangma and his Assam counterpart, Himanta Biswa Sarma, held several round of talks to make some headway.
  • Both state governments identified six out of 12 disputed areas for resolution in the first phase:
  • three areas contested between West Khasi Hills district in Meghalaya and Kamrup in Assam,
  • two between RiBhoi in Meghalaya and Kamrup-Metro, and
  • one between East Jaintia Hills in Meghalaya and Cachar in Assam.
  • After a series of meetings and visits by teams to the disputed areas, both sides submitted reports based on five mutually agreed principles: historical perspective, ethnicity of local population, contiguity with boundary, peoples’ will and administrative convenience.
  • A final set of recommendations were made jointly: out of 36.79 sq km of disputed area taken up for settlement in the first phase, Assam would get full control of 18.46 sq km and Meghalaya of 18.33 sq km. In March, an MoU was signed based on these recommendations.

Sources –IE

Maharashtra-Karnataka border dispute

Paper 2 –Polity

Why You Should Know?

The border dispute between the two states is decades-old, having its origins in the states’ reorganisation in the 1950s.

In detail –
What happened recently
  • Recently Karnataka CM Basavraj Bommai’s claims that villages in Jat tehsil of Sangli were a part of Karnataka.
History of the dispute
  • Both Maharashtra and Karnataka were formed in 1960.
  • But since its inception, Maharashtra has claimed that 865 villages along the border, including Carvar, Nippani and Belgavi ( earlier Belgaum), should be merged with it.
  • On its part, Karnataka has asserted rights over 260 Kannada-speaking villages along the Maharashtra border.
  • The erstwhile Bombay Presidency, a multilingual province, included the present-day Karnataka districts of Vijayapura, Belagavi, Dharwad, and Uttara Kannada.
  • In 1948, the Belgaum municipality requested that the district, having a predominantly Marathi-speaking population, be incorporated into the proposed Maharashtra state.
  • However, The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 made Belgaum and 10 talukas of Bombay State a part of the then Mysore State (which was renamed as Karnataka in 1973).
  • While demarcating borders, the Reorganisation of States Commission included talukas with a Kannada-speaking population of more than 50 per cent in Mysore.
  • But the opponents of the decision have maintained that in 1956, Marathi-speakers outnumbered Kannada-speakers in those areas.
  • The Mahajan Commission was set up by the Government of India in October 1966 to look into the border dispute.
  • In its report submitted in August 1967, the Commission, led by former Chief Justice of India Mehr Chand Mahajan, recommended that 264 villages should be transferred to Maharashtra, and that Belgaum and 247 villages should remain with Karnataka.
  • Maharashtra rejected the report, calling it biased and illogical. Despite demands from Karnataka, the Centre never implemented the report.
  • In 2004, the Maharashtra government moved the Supreme Court for settlement of the border dispute under Article 131(b) of the Constitution.
  • The case is pending in the apex court.

Source – IE


Tipu Sultan

Paper 1 –History

Why You Should Know?

Recently The birth anniversary of Tipu Sultan was observed on November 20, 2022.

In detail –
Who was Tipu Sultan?
  • Tipu Sultan was born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu on November 10, 1750 in Devanahalli, present-day Bangalore.
  • He was born to Hyder Ali, who rose through the ranks of the army of the Wodeyars, the then Hindu rulers of Mysore.
  • Hyder Ali ceased power in 1761 with Tipu succeeding his father in 1782.
  • Tipu was an educated ruler, having studied the Quran, Islamic jurisprudence, languages, philosophy and science.
  • He was also adept in the art of warfare, having been involved in his first battle at the age of 15.
  • While fighting the British in 1767, Tipu first came in contact with European culture and lifestyle, something that would fascinate him.
  • This fascination would be reflected in his rule of Mysore: Tipu undertook various policies and reforms which would modernise the princely state and go on to become a lasting aspect of his legacy.
  • Hyder Ali died in 1782, during a period of conquest and expansion of his realm. Thus, Tipu inherited the throne under trying circumstances, with his primary motivation being to consolidate the territory he had inherited from his father.
  • Over the past 20 years, the kingdom of Mysore had slowly expanded by capturing disputed areas at its borders.
  • Tipu inherited rebellious provinces in Malabar, Kodagu, and Bednur, all of which were crucial to Mysore’s strategic and economic interests.
  • His rule in these areas is what is often cited as proof of his bigotry and authoritarianism.
Death of Tipu Sultan
  • In the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, a combined force of British East India Company troops, supported by the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad defeated Tipu.
  • He was killed on 4 May 1799 while defending his stronghold of Seringapatam.
  • His forces were heavily outnumbered and his French allies had not been able to come to his aid.
Reforms of Tipu Sultan
  • Tipu’s fascination with European culture was evident in many of the innovations that can be credited to him and his rule.
  • One of his emissaries returned from France with gunsmiths, watchmakers, workers of porcelain from Sèvres, glass-workers, textile weavers, printers who could work with Eastern languages, an engineer and a physician, not to speak of clove and camphor trees, European fruit trees, and seeds of various flowers.
  • According to Brittlebank, Tipu wanted Mysore to be a modern rival of the European powers and made investments in technology accordingly.
  • Most famously, Tipu is credited for the introduction of iron-cased rockets in warfare.
  • While rocket-like weapons had previously been used in War, Tipu’s army used what can be termed as the first modern war rockets in the Anglo Mysore Wars (though some sources say that it was his father Hyder Ali who introduced these and Tipu only improved upon existing models).
  • These rockets were used to devastating effects against much larger British armies, driving them to panic and disarray.
  • The British used Tipu’s models for their own rockets, which would go on to play an important role in the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Tipu Sultan also pioneered administrative and economic reforms. He introduced new coins, started a new land revenue system in Mysore, as well as introduced sericulture, which continues to employ many Kannadigas to date.
  • Furthermore, some claim that upon hearing of the plight of lower caste women who were not allowed to wear blouses, Tipu personally supplied them with cloth.

Source – IE


‘Millet Luncheon’

Paper 3 –Agriculture

Why You Should Know?

Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare and Ministry of External Affairs are co-hosting special ‘Millet Luncheon’ for High Commissioners/Ambassadors to India

In detail –
  • As a pre-launch to India’s year-long grand celebration of ‘International Year of Millets (IYOM) 2023’, the Department of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare (DA&FW) and the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) is hosting a special ‘millet luncheon’ with the Ambassadors/High Commissioners of different countries appointed to India, in New Delhi on November 23, 2022.
  • With the aim to generate mass awareness, increase production, productivity and strengthen the Millet value-chain towards enhanced Millet consumption, accepting Government of India’s proposal, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) declared the year 2023 as the International Year of Millets (IYOM).
  • Government of India is at the forefront to celebrate IYOM 2023 in a grand manner as per the vision of the Prime Minister of India, by making it a ‘Peoples’ Movement’.
  • High Commissioners/Ambassadors to India from more than 60 countries are expected to attend the official luncheon to be organized on Thursday.
  • The key objective of the luncheon is to spread awareness about Indian millets and engage with other nations for a successful and impactful global celebration of IYOM 2023.
  • Shri Narendra Singh Tomar, Union Agriculture Minister and Dr. S. Jaishankar, External Affairs Minister will share the vision of the Government for successful celebration of IYOM 2023.
  • A video showcasing the miraculous impact of Millets on consumers, farmers and the mother earth will be shown at the beginning to make the delegates walk through a visual journey of the ‘Super grain’.
  • The lunch to be served will include an elaborate curated Millet spread to highlight the diversity of Indian Millets & variety of Millet cuisines.
  • Alongside the millet culinary experience and formal interaction, around 30 Millet based Indian start-ups will participate in an exhibition at the event venue to showcase various food products, including ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook millet items.
International events
  • The GoI has kick-started the pre-launch celebration in a big way and has planned a total of twenty-three international events through APEDA & MEA.
  • The international events will encourage multi-stakeholder collaboration and include B2B, B2G and G2G interactions, showcasing of millet based value-added products.
  • Indian diaspora, Indian embassies, Chefs, Media and community at large will play crucial roles to promote millets and IYOM 2023.
What are Millets?
  • Millets are a highly varied group of small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.
  • Millets are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in India, Mali, Nigeria, and Niger), with 97% of millet production in developing countries.
  • This crop is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, high-temperature conditions.
  • Nutritious cereals include bajra, jowar, ragi/manduva, kangni, kodo, kutki, chena, sawan, browntop millet, teff millet, phonio millet etc.
  • Millets are indigenous to many parts of the world.The most widely grown millets are sorghum and pearl millets, which are important crops in India and parts of Africa.Finger millet, proso millet, and foxtail millet are also important crop species.

Sources – PIB


Paper 3 – Security

Why You Should Know?

Recently India carries out successful training launch of Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile, Agni-3 from APJ Abdul Kalam Island.

In detail –
  • The successful test was part of routine user training launches carried out under the aegis of the Strategic Forces Command.
  • The launch was carried out for a predetermined range and validated all operational parameters of the system.
About Agni-3
  • The Agni-III is an Indian intermediate-range ballistic missile inducted into service in 2011 as the successor of the Agni-II.
  • It has a range of 3,000 to 5,000 kilometres (1,900 to 3,100 mi) and can reach targets deep inside neighbouring countries including China.
  • It is Designed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
  • Agni-III is a two-stage ballistic missile capable of nuclear weapons delivery. It uses solid propellant in both stages.
  • The missile is equipped with sophisticated navigation, guidance and control systems and advanced on-board computer systems.
  • The electronic systems are designed to withstand greater vibration, heat and noise.
  • the missile’s circular error probable (CEP) lies in the range of 40 meters, This would make Agni-IIIthe most accurate strategic ballistic missile of its range class in the world.
  • This is of special significance because a highly accurate ballistic missile increases the “kill efficiency” of the weapon; it allows Indian weapons designers to use smaller yield nuclear warheads (200 kiloton thermonuclear or boosted fission) while increasing the lethality of the strike.
  • This permits India to deploy a much larger nuclear force using less fissile/fusion material (plutonium/lithium deuteride) than other nuclear powers.
  • Older ballistic missiles, such as those deployed by earlier nuclear powers required larger yield (1–2 megaton) warheads to achieve the same level of lethality.
  • It has also been reported that with smaller payloads, the Agni-III can hit strategic targets well beyond 3,500  km.
What are Agni missiles
  • The Agni missileis a family of medium to intercontinental range ballistic missiles developed by India, named after one of the five elements of nature.
  • Agni missiles are long range, nuclear weapons capable, surface to surface ballistic missiles.
  • The first missile of the series, Agni-I was developed under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (lGMDP) and tested in 1989.
  • After its success, Agni missile program was separated from the GMDP upon realizing its strategic importance.
  •  It was designated as a special program in India’s defence budget and provided adequate funds for subsequent development.
Various Agni Missiles
Agni-IMRBM700–1,200km (Operational)
Agni-PMRBM1,000-2,000 km (Under development)
Agni-IIMRBM2,000–3,500km  (Operational)
Agni-IIIIRBM3,000–5,000 km (Operational)
Agni-IVIRBM3,500–4,000  km (Operational)
Agni-VICBM5,500–8,000 km (Operational)
Agni-VIICBM11,000–12,000 km (Under development)

Sources – TH


Paper 2 – International Relations

Why You Should Know?

Recently Indian army special forces commence joint exercise Garuda Shakti with Indonesian special forces at Sangga buana training area, karawang, Indonesia

In detail –
  • As part of military-to-military exchange programs, a contingent of Indian Special Forces troops are currently engaged in a bilateral joint training Exercise GARUDA SHAKTI with Indonesian Special Forces at Sangga Buana Training Area, Karawang, Indonesia.
  • Exercise GARUDA SHAKTI is the eighth edition of the series of bilateral exercises under this banner.
  • The exercise which commenced on 21 November 2022 aims at enhancing understanding, cooperation and interoperability between the Special Forces of both armies.
  • The scope of the joint exercise includes orientation to advance special forces skills, sharing of information on weapon, equipment, innovations, tactics, techniques & procedures and lessons learnt from various operations undertaken, Special Forces Operations in Jungle terrain, strikes on terrorist camps and a validation exercise integrating basic and advance special forces skills apart from gaining an insight into the lifestyle and culture of both countries to foster military cooperation.
  • The joint training would also focus on a high degree of physical fitness, tactical drills, techniques and procedures for which a comprehensive 13-day training programme has been worked out.
  • The exercise will culminate in a 48-hour long validation exercise.
  • The joint exercise will facilitate both armies to know each other better, and share their wide experiences and combat experience on countering terrorist operations, Regional Security Operations & Peace Keeping Operations in an international environment.
  • The exercise is yet another significant milestone in ensuring cordial relations between the two countries and another step forward towards ensuring regional security.
  • Garuda Shakti is a bilateral exercise between special forces of armies of India and Indonesia.
  • The bilateral military exercise between India and Indonesia had started off from 2012
  • The aim of the India-Indonesia bilateral exercise is to enhance the trust and cooperation between the two armies.
  • Garuda Shakti is a counter-terrorism drill that incorporates close-quarter combat and focuses on promoting military knowledge among the two nations.
  • The seventh edition of the Garuda Shakti exercise took place in India (Agra) and the 6th one in Bandung, Indonesia.

Sources – PIB


India-Australia Cooperation

Paper 2 – Interantional Relations

Why You Should Know?

Australia and India partnering to address India’s water challenges.

In detail –
  • Sustainable management of water is a key challenge for both Australia and India. 
  • Collaboration in water research, training, and education between our two countries is growing rapidly through several activities supported by the Ministry of Jal Shakti, the Australian Water Partnership, Western Sydney University, and the Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati.
Young Water Professional Program
  • In this pursuit, the National Hydrology Project, Department of Water Resources, RD & GR, Ministry of Jal Shakti has initiated an innovative Young Water Professional Program in collaboration with Western Sydney University and Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, lead of the Australia India Water Centre.
  • The objective of this program are to build the capacity of Young Water Professionals (YWPs) and to provide them with the required knowledge, skills, attitude, and aptitude to offer their best in the country’s water sector by accepting leadership roles and responsibilities.
  • The Young Water Professional Program focuses on gender equality and diversity.
  • The first phase of this Programme has selected 20 young officers (10 men and 10 women) from the National Hydrology Project’s central and state implementing agencies.
  • While conducting this program, the Australia India Water Centre brought together eight universities and one State Government Department from Australia and 16 IITs and key universities of India.
  • The concluding event of this 11-month YWP program was organised on 23rd Nov.
‘My Well’ App
  • On this occasion, Western Sydney University, with the Ministry of Jal Shakti and the Australian Water Partnership also launched an app for farmers and ordinary citizens, ‘My Well’. 
  • It is a citizen science tool for participatory monitoring and visualisation of groundwater, surface water, rainfall, water quality, check dam water levels, and other parameters.
  • This app will be used by villagers trained to manage their groundwater resources.

Source – PIB


Paper 2 – Health

Why Should You Know?

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has decided to depute three high-level multi-disciplinary three-member teams to Ranchi, Ahmedabad and Malappuram (Kerala) to take stock of the upsurge in cases of Measles there.

  • The teams will assist the state health authorities in instituting public health measures and facilitate operationalization of requisite control and containment measures.
  • These teams will also undertake field visits to investigate the outbreak and assist the state health departments in terms of public health measures, management guidelines and protocols to manage the increasing cases of Measles being reported in the three cities.
  • The teams will also coordinate with the States for ensuring active case search in the area and testing of the identified cases.
In detail –
About Measles
  • Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by measles virus.
  • Symptoms usually develop 10–12 days after exposure to an infected person and last 7–10 days.
  • Initial symptoms typically include fever, often greater than 40 °C (104 °F), cough, runny nose, and inflamed eyes.
  • Small white spots known as Koplik’s spots may form inside the mouth two or three days after the start of symptoms.
  • A red, flat rash which usually starts on the face and then spreads to the rest of the body typically begins three to five days after the start of symptoms.
  • Common complications include diarrhea (in 8% of cases), middle ear infection (7%), and pneumonia (6%).
  • These occur in part due to measles-induced immunosuppression.
  • Less commonly seizures, blindness, or inflammation of the brain may occur.
  • Other names include morbilli, rubeola, red measles, and English measles.
  • Both rubella, also known as German measles, and roseola are different diseases caused by unrelated viruses.
  • Measles is an airborne disease which spreads easily from one person to the next through the coughs and sneezes of infected people.
  • It may also be spread through direct contact with mouth or nasal secretions.
  • It is extremely contagious: nine out of ten people who are not immune and share living space with an infected person will be infected.
  • Once a person has become infected, no specific treatment is available,although supportive care may improve outcomes.
  • Such care may include oral rehydration solution (slightly sweet and salty fluids), healthy food, and medications to control the fever.
  • Antibiotics should be prescribed if secondary bacterial infections such as ear infections or pneumonia occur.
  • Vitamin A supplementation is also recommended for children.
  • The measles vaccine is effective at preventing the disease, is exceptionally safe, and is often delivered in combination with other vaccines.

Sources – AIR


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