Ojaank IAS Academy




26 November 2022 – Current Affairs

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Kutia Kondha Tribe

Paper 1 – Art & Culture

Why You Should Know?

Millet is slowly disappearing from the food list of the tribal community of Odisha, in such a situation, the Burlang festival of Odisha is an important festival where the people of the community exchange millet seeds.
In detail –
  • At a time when the revival of nutritious millets in Odisha is drawing wide attention, with the Centre and other State governments ready to adopt its promotion model, Kutia Kondh tribals in this little known pocket of Kandhamal district at least deserve some accolades for their contribution to the crop’s survival and subsequent mainstreaming.
  • In the past, millets used to be the staple food for tribals in Odisha. When paddy and other foods reached their doorstep through the public distribution system and the expanding consumer market, tribals started treating millets as a subsistence crop which they grew to use or eat themselves, rather than to sell. Some millets started to disappear from the tribal food basket.
  • The reasons behind millets losing its significance were many. Tribals, especially from the younger generation, felt that they were looked down upon for consuming millets, which is perceived as the poor man’s food.
  • Moreover, it was not easy to harvest the crop. The de-husking of millet involved strenuous labour. Since there was no market available for the crop, people did not produce more than what they required for their own consumption.
Festive promotion
  • NIRMAN, in collaboration with Millet Network of India (MINI), a forum founded for promotion of millet, started celebrating the Burlang Yatra on a large scale in order to increase awareness about millets and get rid of the inferiority complex prevailing among young tribals.
  • Soon tribals started taking interest in millets, which figured in discussions within the communities.
  • The exchange of millet seeds was taken up more vigorously. People started collecting millet seeds from their relatives in Kandhamal and outside. In a few years, millets staged a comeback to crop field.
Burlang Yatra
  • Burlang Yatra is a traditional festival of the Kutia Kondh tribe celebrated every year when the community members, especially women, worship and exchange seeds.
Government Efforts
  • In 2017, the Odisha government realised the importance of highly nutritious and climate resilient millets in tribal society.
  • The government launched Millet Mission in 2017 and the programme was expanded with additional investment of over ₹2,800 crore in 2022.
  • This year, almost two lakh farmers in 19 districts are involved in millet cultivation. About 3.23 lakh quintals of millets have been procured.
  • On its part, the Odisha government has also started celebrating Mandia Dibas (Millet Day) on November 10 to popularise the crop.
About Kutia Kondha Tribe
  • Kutia Kondha is one of the primitive sections of Kondha tribe.
  • The Kondha’s who live in hill top and valleys are known as Kutia Kondha.
  • Whereas those who live in high land and near the streams are called Dongria Kondha and kondhas who are residing in plain area are known as Desia kondh..
  • Kutia kondh are mostly dependent on shifting cultivation, cultivation of minor agriculture products and collection of NTFP.
  • The Kutia kondhs are residing mostly in Langigarh,Th.rampur,M.Rampur and Bhawanipatna block of Kalahandi.
  • The Kutia Kondh settlement is having two rows of houses, across a rectangular space facing each other.
  • All the Kutia kondh houses of a village maintain single roof, although each house having partition wall, and the varandha run from one end to other.
  • The economic life of Kutia kondh is dependent on forest. They practice shifting cultivation, cultivating varities of crop and during lean period collecting food stuffs from the forest.
  • Minor forest products also fetch them cash income. The social organization is very strong and unified.
  • The family is mostly nuclear and patriarchal in character. Social unity and co-opration is remarkable.
  • Women play a bigger role in the family economy. They are mostly nature worshipper. Jani is the fulltime magico religious specialist of the village.
  • In the pre-independence era they were practicing human sacrifice but now a day as substitute buffalo and sheep sacrifice.
  • The practice of youth dormitory are though gradually losing its importance but still prevalent among Kutia kondh villages.  Dhap, Salap baja are the important musical instruments of Kutia Kondhs.
  • The kutia kondhs are in transition in the recent decade with the intervention of Government. There is gradual development and transformation in the field of social life, education, infrastructural development etc.

Sources – TH

Gulf Cooperation Council

Paper 3 –International Relations

Why You Should Know?

India-Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) decide to pursue resumption of Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Negotiations.
In detail –
  • Both sides agreed to expedite conclusion of the requisite legal and technical requirements for formal resumption of the FTA negotiations.
  • The FTA is envisaged to be a modern, comprehensive Agreement with substantial coverage of goods and services.
  • Both sides emphasized that the FTA will create new jobs, raise living standards, and provide wider social and economic opportunities in India and all the GCC countries.
  • Both sides agreed to significantly expand and diversify the trade basket in line with the enormous potential that exists on account of the complementary business and economic ecosystems of India and the GCC.
Largest trading partner
  • It may be noted that the GCC is currently India’s largest trading partner bloc with bilateral trade in FY 2021-22 valued at over USD 154 billion with exports valued at approximately USD 44 billion and imports of around USD 110 billion (non-oil exports of USD 33.8 Billion and non-oil imports of USD 37.2 Billion).
  • Bilateral trade in services between India and the GCC was valued at around USD 14 billion in FY 2021-22, with exports valued at USD 5.5 Billion and imports at USD 8.3 Billion.
  • GCC countries contribute almost 35% of India’s oil imports and 70% of gas imports.
  • India’s overall crude oil imports from the GCC in 2021-22 were about $48 billion, while LNG and LPG imports in 2021-22 were about $21 billion. Investments from the GCC in India are currently valued at over USD 18 billion.
About GCC
  • Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), political and economic alliance of six Middle Eastern countries—Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman.
  • The GCC was established in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in May 1981.
  • The purpose of the GCC is to achieve unity among its members based on their common objectives and their similar political and cultural identities, which are rooted in Arab and Islamic cultures.
  • Presidency of the council rotates annually.
  • Arguably the most important article of the GCC charter is Article 4, which states that the alliance was formed to strengthen relations among its member countries and to promote cooperation among the countries’ citizens.
  • The GCC also has a defense planning council that coordinates military cooperation between member countries.
  • The highest decision-making entity of the GCC is the Supreme Council, which meets on an annual basis and consists of GCC heads of state.
  • Decisions of the Supreme Council are adopted by unanimous approval.
  • The Ministerial Council, made up of foreign ministers or other government officials, meets every three months to implement the decisions of the Supreme Council and to propose new policy.
  • The administrative arm of the alliance is the office of the Secretariat-General, which monitors policy implementation and arranges meetings.

Source – TH


Handbook of Statistics on Indian States

Paper 3 –Economy

Why You Should Know?

The seventh edition of the Handbook of Statistics on Indian States 2021-22 is released by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
In detail –
  • It covers sub-national statistics on socio-demographics, state domestic product, agriculture, price and wages, industry, infrastructure, banking, and fiscal indicators across the states during various time periods ranging from 1951 to 2021-22.
  • In this seventh edition Two new sections have been included– health and environment.
About the Report
  • The report ‘Handbook of Statistics on Indian States’ released by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on November 19, 2022 revealed that Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Tripura are getting the lowest daily wages in 2021-22 amid rising inflation.
  • On the other hand, the prices of milk, fruits, vegetables and other essential commodities are skyrocketing.
  • According to the Reserve Bank, the wages of laborers working in agriculture, construction, horticulture and other sectors including non-agriculture sectors in these states are less than the national average.
  • It has been learned that where male laborers working in agriculture are getting wages at the rate of Rs 217.8 per day.
  • Whereas in Gujarat this wage is Rs 220.3 per day. After these states comes the number of Odisha, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Bihar.
  • On the other hand, the laborers engaged in agriculture in the rural areas of Kerala are getting the highest daily wage of Rs.726.8 in the country.
  • After this, workers in Jammu and Kashmir get Rs 524.6, Himachal Pradesh Rs 457.6 and Tamil Nadu get Rs 445.6 per day.
  • It has been learned from the report that on an average, the laborers engaged in the agriculture sector in the country get Rs 323.32 as wages every day.
  • At the same time, in only 50 percent of the 20 states and union territories studied, workers get wages higher than the national average.
  • These states include Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Meghalaya, Punjab, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu.
  • On the other hand, if we talk about the laborers working in the construction sector, then the situation there too is similar to that of the agriculture sector.
  • While Tripura has an average daily wage of Rs 250 per worker, it has been recorded at Rs 266.7 in Madhya Pradesh and Rs 295.9 in Gujarat.
  • On the other hand, if we talk about Kerala, then a laborer engaged in the construction sector in rural areas gets Rs 837.7 on an average every day.
  • Apart from this, in Jammu and Kashmir (Rs. 519.8) and Tamil Nadu (Rs. 478.6), the wages of laborers in this region are more than Rs. 450.
  • As per the data, the increase in rural wages has failed to keep pace with rising inflation. Meanwhile, where the retail inflation rate was recorded at 6.77 percent.
  • However, if seen, it had fallen below seven per cent in October. Still, it is well above the RBI’s tolerance limit of two to six per cent.
  • Meanwhile, prices of cereals and products continued to rise in October 2022 despite the government banning the export of wheat and rice.
  • Food inflation reached a nine-year high of 12.08 per cent in October 2022, up from 11.53 per cent in September 2022.
  • It has also been revealed in the RBI data that the laborers associated with non-agriculture sector are also getting the highest wages in Kerala, Jammu Kashmir and Tamil Nadu.
  • Whereas in Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Tripura, their daily wages are lowest.
  • However, there has been a marginal increase in the wage rate in Gujarat during 2021-22 as compared to 2020-21.
  • But on the other hand, a decline has been registered in Madhya Pradesh, while Tripura is in a similar situation.

Sources – DE

Sangeet Natak Akademi

Paper 1–Art & Culture

Why Should You Know?

Sangeet Natak Akademi announced one-time Sangeet Natak Akademi Amrit Award, Ustad Bismillah Khan Yuva Puraskar, Akademi Puraskar under Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav (AKAM).
In details –
Sangeet Natak Akademi Amrit Award
  • The General Council of Sangeet Natak Akademi, the National Academy of Music, Dance and Drama, New Delhi, at its meeting held from 6-8 November 2022 at  New Delhi has unanimously selected Eighty Six (86) artists for this one-time Award.
  • These include artists  who are above the age of 75 years and haven’t been accorded any national honour in their career so far, from the field of the Performing Arts of India.
  • The Awardees so selected represent the nation as a whole, and belong to different States and Union Territories. Besides, these artists cover the different genres of the performing arts of India.
  • The Sangeet Natak Akademi Amrit Award carries a purse money of  Rs. 1,00,000/- (Rupees one lakh), besides a Tamrapatra and Angavastram.
Akademi Puraskar
  • The General Council of Sangeet Natak Akademiunanimously elected Ten (10) eminent personalities in the field of performing arts as Akademi Fellows.
  • The Fellowship of the Akademi is a most prestigious and rare honour, which is restricted to 40 at any given time.  With the election of ten (10) Fellows, there are presently (39) Fellows of Sangeet Natak Akademi.
  • The General Council also selected one hundred and twenty-eight (128) artists from the field of Music, Dance, Theatre, Traditional/Folk/Tribal Music/Dance/Theatre, Puppetry and Overall contribution/scholarship in the Performing Arts for the Sangeet Natak Akademi Awards (Akademi Puraskar) for the years 2019, 2020 & 2021. 
  • These one hundred and twenty eight (128) artists include three joint awards.
  • The eminent artists cover  the entire gamut of the performing arts such as vocal  music, both Hindustani and Carnatic; instrumental music, both Hindustani and Carnatic including Flute, Sitar and Mridangam; Sugam Sangeet as well as Harikatha; 
  • The major forms of Indian dance such as Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kathakali, Kuchipudi, Odissi, Sattriya, Mohiniattam as well as Contemporary Dance;  the different specializations of  theatre such as playwriting, direction, acting, make-up, lighting, stage design; the other major traditions of theatre like Isai Natakam;  the folk and tribal arts as well as the arts of puppetry and instrument making.
  • The honour of Akademi Fellow carries a purse money of Rs.3,00,000/- (Rupees three lakh) while the Akademi Award carries a purse money of Rs 1,00,000/- (Rupees one lakh), besides a Tamrapatra and Angavastram.
  • The Sangeet Natak Akademi Awards will be conferred by the President of India in a special investiture ceremony. 
Ustad Bismillah Khan Yuva Puraskar
  • Sangeet Natak Akademi, the National Academy of Music, Dance and Drama in the meeting of its General Council held from 6-8 November 2022 in New Delhi selected 102  (Including three joint Awards) artists of India who have made a mark as young talents in their respective fields of the performing arts for the Ustad Bismillah Khan Yuva Puraskar for the years 2019, 2020 & 2021.
  • The Ustad Bismillah Khan Yuva Puraskar, given to artists below the age of 40 years, was introduced with the objective of identifying and encouraging outstanding young talents in diverse fields of performing arts and giving them national recognition early in their life, so that they may work with greater commitment and dedication in their chosen fields.
  • Younger artists cover  the entire gamut of the performing arts such as vocal  music, both Hindustani and Carnatic, instrumental music both Hindustani and Carnatic including Flute, Sitar and Mridangam, and other major traditions of music also. 
  • The North-eastern States of the country have also been adequately represented with 19 artists from the North-east selected for the Award  from Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim and  Tripura.
  • The Ustad Bismillah Khan Yuva Puraskar carries a purse money of Rs. 25,000/- (Rupees twenty-five thousand only). The Yuva Puraskar will be presented at a special ceremony by the Chairman, Sangeet Natak Akademi.
About Sangeet Natak Akademi
  • Sangeet Natak Akademi (The National Academy of Music, Dance and Drama in English) is the national level academy for performing arts set up by the Government of India.
  • It was set up by the Indian education ministry on 31 May 1952 and became functional the following year, with the appointment of its first chairman, Dr. P. V. Rajamannar. Dr Rajendra Prasad, the first President of India, inaugurated it on 28 January 1953 in a special function held in the Parliament House.
  • The academy’s Fellowship and Award are considered very prestigious.
  • The academy functions as the apex body of the performing arts in the country to preserve and promote the vast cultural heritage of India expressed in music, dance and drama.
  • It also works with governments and art academies in states and territories of the country.
Award and Fellowship
Sangeet Natak Akademi Award
  • The Sangeet Natak Akademi Award is the highest national recognition given to practicing artists, gurus and scholars.
  • It carries a purse money of Rs. 1,00,000/-, a shawl, and a tamrapatra (a brass plaque).
  • The number of awards given annually is 33 at present and, till date, over 1000 artists have been honoured.
Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship, Ratna Sadsya
  • Each year the Academy awards Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowships, Ratna Sadsya, to distinguished individuals for their contribution to the field of arts, music, dance and theatre.
  • The first Fellow of the Akademi was elected in 1954, and till date, the Akademi has honoured 123 eminent personalities as Akademi Fellows (Akademi Ratna).
Ustad Bismillah Khan Yuva Puraskar
  • Instituted in 2006, in memory of Ustad Bismillah Khan, this award is given to young artists (below 40 years of age) for their talent in the fields of music, dance and drama.
Tagore Ratna and Tagore Puraskar
  • On the occasion of the commemoration of the 150th birth anniversary of Rabindranath Tagore Sangeet Natak Akademi Tagore Ratna and Sangeet Natak Akademi Tagore Puraskar were conferred.
  • These awards were given at events in Kolkata – Sangeet Natak Akademi Tagore Samman on 25 April 2012and in Chennai Sangeet Natak Akademi Tagore Samman on 2 May 2012.

Sources – AIR

Verghese Kurien

Paper 1 – History

Why You Should Know?

Department of Animal Husbandry to celebrate National Milk Day in Bengaluru to commemorate 101st birth anniversary of the “Father of the White Revolution in India”
In detail –
  • The Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying, Government of India, Department of Animal Husbandry and Fisheries, Govt. of Karnataka, National Dairy Development Board and Karnataka Milk Federation have joined hands to organize this memorable national event in the state of Karnataka.
  • Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Balyan, Minister of State for Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Government of India will also lay the foundation stone of advanced training facility at Central Frozen Semen production and Training Institute at Heseraghatta, Karnataka Bovine IVF-(Invitro-fertilization) activities at Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Heseraghatta, Bengaluru virtually.
  • During the function, a book on the life of Varghese Kurian and a booklet on Milk Adulteration is also to be released by the Dignitaries.
  • The Minister of State for Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying, will also inaugurate  Animal Quarantine Certification Services as part of the celebrations in Hasserghata Bengaluru.
  • The AQCS will be equipped with online clearance System for imports of livestock products and livestock in due course and be a game changer for local economy.
About Verghese Kurien
  • Verghese Kurien known as the “Father of the White Revolution” in India,was a social entrepreneur whose “billion-litre idea”, Operation Flood, made dairy farming India’s largest self-sustaining industry and the largest rural employment sector providing a third of all rural income.
  • It made India the world’s largest milk producer, doubled the milk available for each person, and increased milk output four-fold in 30 years.
  • his work has greatly impacted on the lives of millions of cooperative dairy farmers — socially, politically, and most importantly, economically.
  • The milk revolution is, in fact, a by-product of the empowerment he brought about through the Amul-model (also known as Anand-pattern) dairy cooperatives.
  • In Dr. Kurien’s words, he was not in the business of milk. Milk was only the ‘medium’ that he used to empower the farmers.
  • He was the founder-Chairman of several world class organizations like NDDB, GCMMF (Amul), IRMA and so on. He has been a great institution builder.
  • He was also closely associated with the making of internationally acclaimed feature films like ‘Manthan’ and ‘Sardar’.
  • Many management institutions have conducted case studies on his management style. Besides numerous National Awards (including Padma Shree, Padma Bushan and Padma Vibhushan) and International Awards which include World Food Prize in 1989, Carnegie Foundation’s Wateler Peace Prize in 1986, International Person of the Year Award by the World Dairy Expo in 1993, Ordre duMerite Agricole by the Government of France in 1997, the Regional Award from the Asian Productivity Organization of Japan in 2000,
  • Dr. Kurien has received around 15 honorary Doctorates and more than 10 ‘Fellowships’ from leading foreign and Indian Universities / Academic Institutions. The only National Award that has eluded him is the ‘Bharat Ratna’.
About Operation Flood
  • Operation Flood, launched on 13 January 1970, was the world’s largest dairy development program and a landmark project of India’s National Dairy Development Board (NDDB).
  • It transformed India from a milk-deficient nation into the world’s largest milk producer, surpassing the United States of America in 1998 with about 22.29 percent of global output in 2018.
  • Within 30 years, it doubled the milk available per person in India and made dairy farming India’s largest self-sustainable rural employment generator.
  • It was launched to help farmers direct their own development and giving them control of the resources they create.
  • All this was achieved not merely by mass production, but by production by the masses; the process has since been termed as the “White Revolution”.

Operation Flood’s objectives included:-

  • Increase in milk production
  • Augmented rural incomes
  • Fair prices for consumers
  • Increased income and reduced poverty among participating farmers while ensuring steady supply of milk in return

Note – World Milk Day is celebrated every year on 1 June.

Sources – PIB

Samvidhan Diwas

Paper 2 – Polity

Why You Should Know?

Samvidhan Diwas (Constitution Day) also known as “National Law Day”, is celebrated in India on 26 November every year to commemorate the adoption of the Constitution of India.
In detail –
  • This year also, on 26th November, the Constitution Day is being celebrated with great enthusiasm across nation including in all Central Govt. Ministries/Departments.
  • Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment is the Nodal agency for these celebrations.
  • Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs as an active participant in this national programme, has revamped and updated two digital portals, one for reading Preamble to the Constitution in English  and 22 other languages mentioned under 8th Schedule to the Constitution and another “ Online Quiz on the Constitution of India” specifically for Constitution Day, 2022.
  • As a curtain raiser, the Minister of Parliamentary Affairs, Shri Pralhad Joshi, has today (25.11.2022) virtually launched these updated portals – for reading the Preamble to the Constitution in 22 Official Languages and English and “Online Quiz on the Constitution of India” .
  • Since 2015 was the 125th birth anniversary year of B. R. Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), who is known as the father of the Indian constitution, the government decided in May 2015 to celebrate this year “in a big way”.
  • Ambedkar, who had chaired the drafting committee of the Constituent Assembly and played a pivotal role in the drafting of the constitution.
  • A special committee chaired by Prime Minister of India was announced for year-long celebrations.
  • Various programmes will be held by various ministries and departments throughout the year to spread thoughts and ideas of Ambedkar.
  • As part of the celebrations while laying foundation stone for an Ambedkar memorial at the Indu Mills compounds in Mumbai in October 2015, the Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi announced that 26 November will be celebrated as “Constitution Day”.
  • In November 2015, the government officially announced celebration of the day.The GOI declared 26 November as Constitution Day on 19 November 2015 by a gazette notification.
  • Previously this day was celebrated as Law Day.26 November was chosen to spread the importance of the constitution and to spread thoughts and ideas of Ambedkar.
About Indian constitution
  • Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first President of India, was the President of the Constituent Assembly, which was established in 1946.
  • It took almost three years (two years, eleven months, and seventeen days to be precise) to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India.
  • On August 29, 1947, the Constituent Assembly set up a Drafting Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar to prepare a draft.
  • While deliberating upon the draft Constitution, the Assembly moved, discussed, and disposed of as many as 2,473 amendments out of a total of 7,635 tabled.
  • During this period, it held eleven sessions covering a total of 165 days. Of these, 114 days were spent on the consideration of the Draft Constitution.
  • The Constituent Assembly adopted the present-day Constitution on November 26, 1949 but it was decided that it will come into effect after a gap of almost two months i.e. on January 26, 1950.
  • During this two-month break, the members of the constituent assembly thoroughly read it in order to find any mistakes.

Sources – IE


‘CEO round table on Sustainable Tourism’

Paper 3 – Tourism

Why You Should Know?

The Ministry of Tourism organises ‘CEO round table on Sustainable Tourism’ in partnership with the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and Responsible Tourism Society of India (RTSOI)

In detail –
  • In alignment with the National Strategy for Sustainable Tourism and with an objective to enhance engagement and participation of industry stakeholders in transition of Tourism sector towards sustainability pathway, the Ministry of Tourism, in partnership with the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and Responsible Tourism Society of India (RTSOI organised a ‘CEO round table on Sustainable Tourism’ On 25 November, 2022.
  • The round table saw participation from CEOs, senior-mid level representatives from the key industry groups, Ministry of Tourism, UN in India, UNEP, Responsible Tourism Society of India, and technical agencies/experts working on Sustainable Tourism.
  • The round table aimed to enhance awareness of industry stakeholders on national and global priorities for sustainable tourism and share and promote best practices on sustainable tourism.
  • The round table followed and drew linkages with the following three important initiatives on sustainable Tourism, which was signed by participants,
  • with an objective to accelerate sustainable consumption and production (SCP) in tourism policies and practices for addressing the triple planetary crisis and accelerate low carbon, climate resilient and green economic transformation of tourism sector:
  • Travel for LiFE Pledge
  • Responsible Traveller Campaign
  • Global Tourism Plastics Initiative
Tourism Sector
  • Tourism sector’s contribution to a growing economy and livelihoods for millions of people, is well recognised. It is an important driver for growth in economic activities and local livelihoods and an essential medium for showcasing natural and cultural heritage.
  • Tourism was also one of the hardest hit sectors during the global COVID19 pandemic and is constantly dealing with growing threats of climate change, degradation of ecosystems and biodiversity loss. 
  • The COVID19 pandemic has further highlighted the link between human health risk, biodiversity, and the economic system, underscoring the need to simultaneously boost resilience and sustainability of the tourism sector, in response to the triple planetary crisis of climate change, biodiversity loss, and pollution, to ensure prosperity for all. 
  • Prior to the Covid-19 pandemic, the sector accounted for over 10% of global GDP and 10% of jobs worldwide with international tourist arrivals predicted to rise from 1.1 billion in 2014 to 1.8 billion in 2030.
  • Due to this, in a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario, by 2050 tourism sector (globally) is set for an increase of 154% in energy consumption, 131% in greenhouse gas emissions, 152% in water consumption and 251% in solid waste disposal.
  • Travel & Tourism sector is known to leave significant environmental and carbon footprints. Additionally, the growing plastics production and use, needs special attention of the tourism sector to ensure reduction of plastic and enhance circularity in its use.
  •  In a post pandemic scenario, where tourism sector is gradually recovering from the effects of pandemic, there is an opportunity to accelerate transition of Tourism sector towards a more resilient, sustainable, and inclusive industry. 
  • Its revival and sustainability will be critical to ensure its continued contribution to livelihoods and economies. In summary, sustainability needs to now define development of the tourism sector in the 21st century.
National Summit
  • On 4th June 2022, the Ministry of Tourism, in partnership with United Environment Program (UNEP) and Responsible Tourism Society of India (RTSOI) organized the National Summit on Developing Sustainable & Responsible Tourist Destinations and launched the National Strategy for Sustainable Tourism and Responsible Traveller Campaign.
  • The National Strategy for sustainable tourism aims to mainstream sustainability in Indian tourism sector and ensure a more resilient, inclusive, carbon neutral and resource efficient tourism while safeguarding natural and cultural resources.
  • Tourism Industry’s transition to sustainability pathways will require significant investment and innovation.
  • Adopting low-emissions technologies, optimizing resource use, reduction in operation costs, and increase in efficiency would be essential for improving environmental performance and tackling climate change.

Source – PIB

International Electrotechnical Commission

Paper 3 – Science & Tech

Why Should You Know?

India wins the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Vice Presidency and Strategic Management Board (SMB) Chair for the 2023-25 term.
In detail –
  • By securing over 90% of the votes cast by full members of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) during its General Meeting held recently in San Francisco, USA, India’s representative, a member of the Indian National Committee of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and various technical committees of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS-India), was elected.
  • Representation of BIS (India) in policy and governance bodies of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and IEC ensures that Indian viewpoints on the important strategic and policy matters are put forth and it also provides opportunities to align the national standardization priorities with International best practices.
  • BIS is continually expanding its international footprints by working on the growth mantra provided by the Hon’ble Minister of Commerce and Industry, Consumers Affairs, Food & Public Distribution and Textiles, Shri Piyush Goyal.
  • Currently, BIS (India) is represented in various policy and governance bodies of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and IEC such as ISO Council, ISO Technical Management Board (TMB), IEC SMB, IEC Market Strategy Board (MSB), IEC Business Advisory Committee (BAC), etc.
  • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standard setting body that publishes international Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.  Standardization Management Board (SMB) is an apex governance body of IEC responsible for technical policy matters.
  • Shri Vimal Mahendru will be the IEC Vice President representing India.
About Bureau of India Standards –
  • The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is the National Standards Body of India under Department of Consumer affairs,Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, Government of India.
  • It is established by the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 2016 which came into effect on 12 October 2017.
  • The Minister in charge of the Ministry or Department having administrative control of the BIS is the ex-officio President of the BIS.
  • Earlier its name was ‘Indian Standards Institution -ISI’ which was established in the year 1947.
  • A new Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) Act 2016 which was notified on 22 March 2016, has been brought into force with effect from 12 October 2017.
  • BIS was established for the harmonized development of standardization, marking and quality certification activities of goods and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
About International Electrotechnical Commission
  • The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization.
  • It prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as “electrotechnology”.
  • IEC standards cover a vast range of technologies from power generation, transmission and distribution to home appliances and office equipment, semiconductors, fibre optics, batteries, solar energy, nanotechnology and marine energy as well as many others.
  • The IEC also manages fourglobal conformity assessment systems that certify whether equipment, system or components conform to its international standards.
  • It was estabilished on 26 June 1906 and its headquater is situated at Geneva, Switzerland.

Sources – PIB


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