Ojaank IAS Academy




27 August 2022 – Current Affairs

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MoU between India and Sweden

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?
Recently AAI signed MoU with Sweden to facilitate smart and sustainable aviation technology collaboration
In details –
  • On 26 august, 2022 the Airports Authority of India (AAI) and LFV Air Navigation Services of Sweden (LUFTFARTSVERKET) signed a Memorandum of Understanding at the Corporate Headquarters of AAI in New Delhi.
  • The agreement brings together two air navigation service providers, India and Sweden, with demonstrated capabilities in building and operationalizing the next generation of sustainable aviation technology, to explore smart aviation solutions.
  • This MoU shall pave the way for bi-lateral exchange of aviation expertise and technology between the two countries.
  • It will allow the Indian companies to accelerate growth while leveraging Swedish innovation and expertise. Under the aegis of the MoU, the companies can collaborate in areas of mutual interest.
Points of Acknowledging –

Acknowledging the pressing need for rapid development concerning next-generation smart airports and the necessity to build sustainable transport systems, both parties consented to the following elements of the MoU:

  • Exchange of aviation knowledge and technical transfer program
  • Promote close and friendly relations between the two agencies
  • Aim to expand technical cooperation in airports
  • Support the development of a safe, secure, sustainable, and efficient aviation sector
  • Positive contributions in promoting bilateral and international trade
Cooperation areas and plan of activity –

AAI and LFV, both Government agencies of India and Sweden respectively, will jointly collaborate on the following co-operation areas:

  • Air Traffic Management
  • Air Traffic Control
  • Remote Airport Management and Traffic Control
  • Airspace Design and Planning
  • Airport Design and Infrastructure
  • Digitalized Airport and Aviation
  • Capability and Training
  • Sustainable Airports and Aviation
  • Processes for pilots
  • Processes for scale-up

A Joint Working Group shall be organized to prioritize interest areas and drive collaboration between the two countries. This MoU will play a crucial role in furthering government-to-government engagements between India and Sweden in the Aviation sector in addition to other existing engagements such as sustainability, healthcare, innovation, energy, and infrastructure etc.

India and Bangladesh joint Rivers Commission Meeting

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?
Recently 38th Ministerial meeting of India-Bangladesh Joint Rivers Commission was held in New Delhi.
In details –
  • The 38th Meeting of the Ministerial level Joint Rivers Commission of India and Bangladesh was held on 25 August 2022 in New Delhi.
  • The Indian delegation was led by Union Minister for Jal Shakti, Gajendra Singh Shekhawat. The meeting was held after a long gap of 12 years.
  • as a bilateral mechanism to address issues of mutual interest on common / border / transboundary rivers.
Addition of 8 more rivers –
  • India and Bangladesh share 54 rivers, of which 7 rivers have been identified earlier for developing the framework of water sharing agreements on priority.
  • During the meeting, it was agreed to widen this area of ongoing cooperation by including 8 more rivers for data exchange. The matter will further be discussed at the Technical Level Committee of Joint Rivers Commission (JRC).
  • In addition to this, discussions were held on ongoing bilateral issues of mutual interest including river water sharing of common rivers, sharing of flood data, addressing river pollution, conducting joint studies on sedimentation management, river bank protection works etc.
Finalization of MOUs –
  • Both sides- India and Bangladesh, finalized the text of MoU on Interim Water Sharing of Kushiyara river.
  • They also welcomed finalization of the design and location of water intake point on the Feni River to meet the drinking water needs of Sabroom town in Tripura as per the October 2019 India -Bangladesh MoU on this subject.
  • The MoU between India and Bangladesh on withdrawal of 1.82 cusec of water from Feni River by India for drinking water supply scheme for Sabroom town Tripura, benefited over 7000 population of Sabroom town.
India- Bangladesh Cooperation –
  • One of the important areas of cooperation, where India has been assisting Bangladesh, is sharing of real time flood data. India has recently extended the period of flood data sharing beyond October 15 to help Bangladesh address unforeseen flood events.
  • Earlier in 2021, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), India and the Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief, Bangladesh on Cooperation in the field of Disaster Management, Resilience and Mitigation.
  • The MoU sought to put in place a system whereby both India and Bangladesh benefit from the disaster management mechanisms of each other. It aims to help in strengthening the areas of preparedness, response and capacity building in the field of Disaster Management.
About Kushiyara River –
  • The Kushiyara River is a distributary river in Bangladesh and Assam, India.
  • It forms on the India-Bangladesh border as a branch of the Barak River, when the Barak separates into the Kushiyara and Surma.
  • The waters of the Kushiyara thus originate in the state of Nagaland in India and pick up tributaries from Manipur, Mizoram and Assam.

Assam & Meghalaya border disputes

Paper 2 – Governance
Why Should You Know?
Assam & Meghalaya is going  to form committees to settle border disputes.
In details –
  • on August 21, 2022,  Meghalaya and Assam began their talks on the five-decade-long border dispute and they decided to create three regional committees to work on issues relating to the remaining disputed areas.
  • As part of the second round of border negotiations, the announcement was made during the ninth meeting in Guwahati held between Meghalaya Chief Minister Conrad Sangma and Assam Chief Minister Himanta Biswa Sarma.
  • The committees will make extensive visits, talk to people living in the areas, build confidence to iron out differences, and find out mutually agreeable solutions.
Five-decade-long border dispute –
  • The 884-kilometer border between the two states has been witnessing repeated flare-ups in 12 disputed sites for years.
  • On March 29, the two northeastern states signed a memorandum of understanding that would settle the five-decade-long border dispute in six of the 12 disputed territories.
  • “Of the 12 areas over which we had differences, we decided to resolve 6 less complicated ones in 1st phase and we accordingly made substantial progress in this regard”, said CM Himanta Biswa Sarma in his tweet.
six points of contention –
  • The six areas that were taken up for final settlement in March include Tarabari (4.69 sq km), Gizang (13.53 sq km), Hahim (3.51 sq km), Boklapara (1.57 sq km), Khanapara-Pilangkata (2.29 sq km) and Ratacherr1.20 sq km).
  • “For the six areas of differences in Phase 1, the process is moving forward with the survey and demarking of borders underway,” Meghalaya CM Sangma ensured in his tweet.
  • The second round of border negotiations between Assam and Meghalaya has begun, and it will focus on settling the remaining six points of contention: Khanduli and Psiar, Block 1 and 2, Borduar, Langpih, Nongwah-Mawtamur, and Desh Doreah.
  • “We have also decided since Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council is there in Block 1 and Block 2 and in Khanduli and Psiar, the members of the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council will also be a part of these committees. We have also decided that both I and the chief minister of Assam will visit certain locations like Block 1 and Block 2 to gain the confidence of the people and to show
  • that both the state governments are committed to finding a resolution to the long-pending border dispute”, Meghalaya CM said.
  • Further Assam CM informed that the Survey of India has started delineating the border but due to floods and other harsh weather conditions the work was initially slow but now the delineation will resume again.
  • He also said that within 15 days, both the state governments will notify their respective three regional committees. When the committees are created for both states, the chairman of the committees will meet, visit the sites, and speak with the parties involved in the disputed areas to address the border issue while keeping the MoU in mind.
About the Assam-Meghalaya Dispute
  • Since the 1960s, there have been ongoing border disputes between a number of Indian northeastern states. After states like Nagaland, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, and Mizoram were split off from an undivided Assam, problems started to arise.
  • Meghalaya attained statehood on January 21, 1972, after gaining autonomy on April 2, 1970. It was created from the United Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills, and Garo Hills districts of Assam.
  • The creation of the new State was based on the Assam Reorganisation (Meghalaya) Act of 1969, which the Meghalaya government refused to accept. This was because the Act followed the recommendations of a 1951 committee to define the boundary of Meghalaya.
  • On that panel’s recommendations, areas of the present-day East Jaintia Hills, Ri-Bhoi and West Khasi Hills districts of Meghalaya were transferred to the Karbi Anglong, Kamrup (metro) and Kamrup districts of Assam.
  • Meghalaya contested these transfers after statehood, claiming that they belonged to its tribal chieftains.
  • Assam said the Meghalaya government could neither provide documents nor archival materials to prove its claim over these areas.
  • After claims and counter-claims, the dispute was narrowed down to 12 sectors on the basis of an official claim by Meghalaya in 2011.

Petrol vehicles Ban in California

Paper 3- Environment
Why Should You Know?
California announces to ban sale of new petrol vehicles by 2035
In details –
  • In USA, the California state announced that it will ban the sale of new petrol vehicles by 2035
  • Under the rules, issued by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), 35 per cent of new vehicles sold in the state must be electric, hybrid and hydrogen powered by 2026.
  • The regulations would apply to 68 per cent of vehicle sales by 2030, and 100 per cent by 2035.
  • The new rules are aimed to force car makers to accelerate the introduction to the market of cleaner vehicles.
  • The move is important as California is the most populous state in the US and one of the world’s biggest economies.
  • The announcement is the latest move by California as it continues to move faster than the US federal government to tighten emission rules.
Other countries who is going to ban Petrol vehicles –
Britain –
  • Britain will ban the sale of new petrol and diesel cars and vans from 2030, five years earlier than previously planned, as part of what Prime Minister Boris Johnson is casting as a “green revolution” to cut emissions to net zero by 2050.
  • Britain last year became the first G7 country to set in law a net zero emission target by 2050, which will require wholesale changes in the way Britons travel, use energy and eat.
Canada –
  • The Canadian province of Quebec said it would ban the sale of new gasoline-powered passenger cars from 2035.
European Union –
  • EU environment ministers struck a deal on Oct 23 to make the bloc’s 2050 net zero emissions target legally binding, but left a decision on a 2030 emissions-cutting target for leaders to discuss in December.Germany:
  • German cities started to introduce bans on older diesel vehicles that emit higher amounts of pollutants than from late 2018.
Norway –
  • Norway, which relies heavily on oil and gas revenues, aims to become the world’s first country to end the sale of fossil fuel-powered cars, setting a 2025 deadline.
  • Fully electric vehicles now make up about 60% of monthly sales in Norway.
China –
  • In 2017 China begun studying when to ban the production and sale of cars using traditional fuels but did not specify when it might be introduced.
  • Sales of new energy vehicles (NEV) will make up 50% of overall new car sales in China, the world’s biggest auto market, by 2035, an industry official said last month.

Supreme Court starts live-stream proceedings

Paper 2 – Governance
Why Should You Know?
In a landmark decision, the Supreme Court has started live telecast of its hearing process.
In details –
  • The Supreme Court hearing was broadcast live on the web portal of the National Informatics Centre.
  • National Informatics Center (NIC) is an important information dissemination center of the Government of India, established in 1976 to provide e-government/e-governance solutions adopting best practices, integrated services and global solutions in the government sector.
  • It is noteworthy that On 26 September 2018, a three-member bench headed by the then Chief Justice of India Justice Dipak Misra delivered the historic verdict. In this decision, the bench had said that the hearing in the Supreme Court should be telecast live. The bench comprised Chief Justice Justice Dipak Misra, besides Justice AM Khanwilkar and Justice DY Chandrachud.
  • This decision taken in 2018 clearly states that there will be live streaming of cases of constitutional importance in the Court of Chief Justice of India. The Supreme Court has constituted a panel headed by Justice DY Chandrachud to frame rules to regulate the live streaming of hearings in High Courts and Trial Courts across the country.
  • Notebly Today(26 august) was the last working day of Justice Nathulapati Venkata Ramanna, the current Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and today the Supreme Court has given a big gift to the countrymen by starting live streaming.
  • Obviously, today is a golden day for the judicial history of India because the general public will also be able to understand the decisions of the Chief Justice of the country in a transparent manner.
Big step towards Digital India and e-Governance –
  • Under the Digital India campaign in 2015, the central government has made tireless efforts to promote digitalization in the country.
  • Today there are many such areas including digital payment, digital shopping, exchange of digital services, from where people are making their lives easier by using technology.
  • The live telecast of the judicial process, especially the hearing of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, will give impetus to the Detail India campaign and is an important step towards e-governance.

Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC) ‘Vikrant’

Paper 3 – Security
Why Should You Know?
The first indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC) ship ‘Vikrant’ will be commissioned into the Navy on 2 September 2022.
In details –
  • 02 Sep 2022 will mark the historical milestone of realisation of Nation’s commitment towards ‘AatmaNirbharta’, a landmark date for the Indian Navy and the entire Nation; with Commissioning of first Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC) ‘Vikrant’.
  • Hon’ble Prime Minister would be the Chief Guest on this momentous occasion. Vikrant is the largest warship to have ever been built in India. It is also the first indigenously designed and built Aircraft Carrier for the Indian Navy.
  • Designed by the Warship Design Bureau (WDB), Indian Navy’s in-house organisation and built by M/s Cochin Shipyard Limited (CSL), a Public Sector Shipyard under Ministry of Ports, Shipping & Waterways, the Indigenous Aircraft Carrier is christened after her illustrious predecessor, India’s first Aircraft Carrier which played a vital role in the 1971 war.
About “Vikrant” –
  • Vikrant meaning victorious and gallant, the foundation for prestigious IAC was firmly established in Apr 2005 by ceremonial Steel Cutting. In order to push the indigenisation drive, the Warship grade steel required for construction of IAC was successfully indigenised through Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) in collaboration with Defence Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) and Indian Navy.
  • The hull fabrication was progressed thereafter and the ship’s keel was laid in Feb 2009. The first phase of ship construction was completed with successful launch of the ship in Aug 2013.
  • The 262 m long and 62 m wide Vikrant displaces approx 43000 T when fully loaded, having a maximum designed speed of 28 Knots with endurance of 7500 NM. The ship has around 2200 compartments, designed for a crew of around 1600 that include specialised cabins to accommodate women officers and sailors.
  • The carrier is designed with a very high degree of automation for machinery operations, ship navigation and survivability. The carrier is equipped with the latest state of the art equipment and systems. (The ship boasts of a fully-fledged state of the art Medical Complex with latest medical equipment facilities that includes major modular OT, emergency modular OT, physiotherapy clinic, ICU, laboratories, CT scanner, X-Ray machines, Dental complex, Isolation ward and telemedicine facilities etc.)
  • The ship would be capable of operating air wing consisting of 30 aircraft comprising of MiG-29K fighter jets, Kamov-31, MH-60R multi-role helicopters, in addition to indigenously manufactured Advanced Light Helicopters (ALH) and Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) (Navy).
  • Using a novel aircraft-operation mode known as Short Take Off But Arrested Recovery (STOBAR), the IAC is equipped with a ski-jump for launching aircraft, and a set of three ‘arrester wires’ for their recovery onboard.
Successive trials –
  • Inspite of COVID related imponderables and restrictions, adversely affecting availability of OEMs & supply chain, readiness of ship’s propulsion and Power generation equipment/ systems in harbour was tested as part of Basin Trials in Nov 20.
  • ‘Vikrant’ has successfully completed multiple phases of Sea Trials from Aug 21 to till date, where the ship’s performance, including response of ship’s hull to various conditions of operations, manoeuvring trials, main propulsion, Power Generation and Distribution (PGD), ship’s Navigation and Communication systems, endurance testing of propulsion machinery, electrical & electronic suites, deck machinery, lifesaving appliances, integrated trials of majority of equipment/ systems and trials of other auxiliary equipment were ascertained and proved to the satisfaction of Indian Navy’s trials team and ship’s crew.
  • In line with the prevailing practices being followed by other advanced countries having experience of building Aircraft Carrier, the deck integration trials of fixed wing aircraft and exploitation of Aviation Facility Complex will be carried out post commissioning of the ship when the operational command & control of the ship including flight safety is with the Navy.
Indigenous Equipments –
  • ‘Vikrant’ has large number of indigenous equipment and machinery, involving major industrial houses in the country viz. BEL, BHEL, GRSE, Keltron, Kirloskar, L&T, Wartsila India etc. as well as over 100 MSMEs.
  • The indigenisation efforts has also led to development of ancillary industries, besides generation of employment opportunities for 2000 CSL personnel and about 13000 employees in ancillary industries thus bolstering plough back effect on Nation’s economy.
  • A major spin off of building an Indigenous Aircraft Carrier is the development and production of indigenous warship grade steel for the ship through partnership between Navy, DRDO and SAIL, which has enabled the country to become self-sufficient with respect to warship steel.
  • Indigenous content of the project is approx. 76%. The Indigenous construction of Aircraft Carrier is a shining example in the Nation’s quest for ‘Aatma Nirbhar Bharat’ and ‘Make in India’ Initiative.
Commissioning –
  • With the commissioning of ‘Vikrant’ on 02 Sep 22, India would join the select group of nations having the niche capability to indigenously design and build an Aircraft Carrier, which will be a real testimony to the Make in India thrust of Government of India.
  • Commissioning of ‘Vikrant’ would be a proud and landmark moment for the Nation showcasing our Aatma Nirbhar credentials during ‘Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav’, a true testament to the country’s zeal and fervour in pursuing capability build up towards enhanced maritime security in the Indian Ocean Region and shall demonstrate Indian Navy’s unwavering commitment to contribute towards peace and stability in the region.
  • The induction and reincarnation of ‘Vikrant’ is thus not only another step towards strengthening our defence preparedness but also our humble tribute to the sacrifices made by our freedom fighters for the independence of the nation and our brave soldiers during the 1971 war.

UNESCO Peace Prize 2022

Paper 2 – International Issues
Why Should You Know?
Former German Chancellor Angela Merkel receives prestigious UNESCO Peace Prize 2022.
In details –
  • Former German Chancellor Angela Merkel has been awarded the 2022 UNESCO Peace Prize for “her efforts to welcome refugees”.
  • The former German chancellor, during his tenure in 2015, took a historic decision to resettle nearly 1.2 million refugees from the world’s crisis-hit countries, especially Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and Eritrea, to Germany. He is being given this award for this commendable step.
About Angela Merkel –
  • Angela Merkel was born on 17 July 1954 in Hamburg, Germany. Her full name is Angela Dorothea Merkel.
  • Angela Merkel served as Chancellor of Germany from 2005 to 2021. Before joining politics, she was working as a research scientist.
  • Merkel was the first female chancellor of Germany.
  • She is affiliated with the political party Christian Democratic Union of Germany.
About UNESCO Peace Prize –
  • The UNESCO Peace Prize is formally known as the Felix Houphouet-Boigny Peace Prize.
  • The UNESCO Peace Prize was established in 1989 under the United Nations Charter and the UNESCO Constitution.
  • This award is given to an individual, organization or private or government body for “significant contribution made in the promotion and maintenance of peace”.
  • The award is named after the late former President of Cote d’Ivoire, Felix Hauffouet-Bougain.
  • The award carries a peace letter along with a gold medal and an amount of USD 150,000.
  • Some of the famous personalities to have received the UNESCO Peace Prize include former South African President Nelson Mandela, USA’s 39th President Jimmy Carter, former French President François Hollande and Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina.
About UNESCO –
  • The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations.
  • UNESCO was established on 16 November 1945 in London. Its headquarter is in Paris, France.
  • It provides international cooperation in the field of education, science and culture. UNESCO is a member of the United Nations Sustainable Development Group (UNSDG).

World’s First Hydrogen-Powered Trains

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?
Recently Germany inaugurated the world’s first hydrogen-powered train with opening the door for more environmentally friendly travel.
In details –
  • Germany inaugurated the world’s first hydrogen-powered train. With this initiative, the government is opening the door for more environmentally friendly travel.
  • The route in Bremervorde, Lower Saxony, will be solely served by 14 Coradia iLint trains, powered by fuel-cell propulsion technology, the report further said.
  • An agreement of 93 million euros has been signed between the railway’s owners, Landesnahverkehrsgesellschaft Niedersachsen (LVNG) and Alstom, the producer of these trains.
  • Five of these 14 trains have made their debut on august 24,2022. They will progressively replace the route’s 15 diesel trains by the end of the year. Just one kilogramme of hydrogen fuel is equivalent to approximately 4.5 kilogrammes of diesel fuel.
  • These hydrogen-powered trains have replaced diesel trains on the 100km (60 mile) railway that connects the cities of Cuxhaven, Bremerhaven, Bremervoerde, and Buxtehude near Hamburg.
  • The project also includes the Elbe-Weser Railways and Transport Business (EVB), which will be responsible to run the trains, and the gas and engineering company Linde.
  • The trains emit no pollution and produce little noise, emitting just steam and evaporated water. They have a 1,000-kilometre (621-mile) range, which means they may operate on the network for a full day on a single tank of hydrogen.
  • A hydrogen filling station has already been installed along the route. The trains may reach speeds up to 140 kmph (87mph).

Severe malnutrition in Horn of Africa

Paper 2 – International Issues, Health
Why Should You Know?
Recently UN warned of severe malnutrition in Horn of Africa, Sahel amid drought
In details –
  • The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) has warned that children in the Horn of Africa and Sahel regions could face serious challenges in devastating numbers if urgent support will not be provided.
  • The UNICEF said drought and conflict in Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Niger, and Nigeria were driving up water insecurity, resulting in 40 million children facing high to extremely high levels of water vulnerability.
  • According to the UN agency, about 2.8 million children in the Horn of Africa and Sahel regions are already suffering from severe acute malnutrition. Around two-thirds of children affected are under the age of 5 years.
  • The UN agency said the number means children are up to 11 times more at risk of dying from water-borne diseases than well-nourished children as severe malnutrition and the risk of water-borne disease collide.
  • The organization also said that as natural water sources dried up, the knock-on effect was significant increases in the price of water. Meanwhile, the World Meteorological Organization said that climate change and extreme weather events have increased natural disasters over the past 50 years
  • UNICEF said the number of drought-hit people in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia without reliable access to safe water has risen to 16.2 million from 9.5 million in the space of five months, meanwhile children in the Sahel are also facing extremely high levels of water vulnerability.
  • UNICEF said its appeal to improve families’ long-term resilience in the Horn of Africa region and stop drought devastating lives for years to come is currently just 3 percent funded.
About UNICEF –
  • UNICEF, in full originally called the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, now officially United Nations Children’s Fund is an agency of the United Nations responsible for providing humanitarian and developmental aid to children worldwide.
  • UNICEF is the successor of the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, created on December 11, 1946, in New York, by the U.N. Relief Rehabilitation Administration to provide immediate relief to children and mothers affected by World War II.
  • The same year, the U.N. General Assembly established UNICEF to further institutionalize post-war relief work.
  • In 1950, its mandate was extended to address the long-term needs of children and women, particularly in developing countries. In 1953, the organization became a permanent part of the United Nations System, and its name was subsequently changed to its current form, though it retains the original acronym
  • The agency is among the most widespread and recognizable social welfare organizations in the world, with a presence in 192 countries and territories.
  • UNICEF’s activities include providing immunizations and disease prevention, administering treatment for children and mothers with HIV, enhancing childhood and maternal nutrition, improving sanitation, promoting education, and providing emergency relief in response to disasters.

‘ZORAWAR’- A Light Tank

Paper 3- Security
Why Should You Know?
Indian Army accelerates procurement of light tank ‘Zorawar’ for LAC.
In details –
  • With the experience of deploying armour at an altitude of 15,000 ft. to outmanoeuvre the movement of Chinese forces during the stand-off in eastern Ladakh, the Indian Army is prioritising the procurement of the indigenous Indian light tank named ‘Zorawar’, for deployment in the mountains.
  • In addition to the light tank, the Army will induct niche technologies such as loitering munitions, anti-drone capabilities and next generation Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities.
  • The recent experiences along the northern borders have shown that armour equipment profile is one of the most prominent factors in defining the operational capability of land forces.
Need of that tank –
  • The Army is looking at a light tank with a maximum weight of 25 tons — with a margin of 10 per cent — with the same firepower as its regular tanks, but also armed with Artificial Intelligence (AI), integration of tactical surveillance drones to provide a high degree of situational awareness and loitering munition, along with an active protection system.
  • These tanks will be used to counter Chinese deployment of a large number of similar armoured columns along the Line of Actual Control (LAC).
  • An active protection system is designed to protect vehicles from anti-tank guided missiles and projectiles away from combat vehicles. 
  • The Army also wants the light tank to be amphibious, so it can be deployed across riverine regions and even the Pangong Tso lake in Eastern Ladakh.
  • The project has been named ‘Zorawar’ after Zorawar Singh Kahluria — a military general who served under Jammu’s Raja Gulab Singh — known as the ‘conquerer of Ladakh’. 

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