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OJAANK IAS ACADEMY

27 July 2022 – Current Affairs

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Kargil Vijay Diwas

Paper 3- Security
Why Should You Know?
Kargil Vijay Diwas is commemorated every 26 July in India.
In details –
  • Kargil Vijay Diwas is commemorated every 26 July in India, to observe India’s victory over Pakistan in the Kargil War for ousting Pakistani Forces from their occupied positions on the mountain tops of Northern Kargil District in Ladakh in 1999.
  • The town of Kargil is located 205 km (127 mi) from Srinagar, facing the Northern Areas across the LOC.
  • Initially, the Pakistani army denied their involvement in the war, claiming that it was caused by Kashmiri militants forces.
  • However documents left behind by casualties, testimony of POWs and later statements by the Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif and Pakistan Army Chief of Army Staff Pervez Musharraf showed the involvement of Pakistani paramilitary forces, led by General Ashraf Rashid.
  • Kargil Vijay Diwas is celebrated on 26 July every year in honour of the Kargil War’s Heroes. This day is celebrated all over India and in the national capital, New Delhi, where the Prime Minister of India pays homage to the soldiers at Amar Jawan Jyoti at the India Gate every year.
  • Functions are also organized all over the country to commemorate the contributions of the Indian Armed Forces.
Operation Vijay –
  • The Kargil War, also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict fought between India and Pakistan from May to July 1999 in the Kargil district of Jammu and Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LoC).
  • In India, the conflict is also referred to as Operation Vijay which was the name of the Indian military operation to clear out the Kargil sector.
  • The Indian Air Force’s role in acting jointly with Indian Army ground troops during the war was aimed at flushing out regular and irregular troops of the Pakistan Army from vacated Indian positions along the LoC.This particular operation was given the codename Operation Safed Sagar.
  • The cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani troops—disguised as Kashmiri militants—into positions on the Indian side of the LoC,which serves as the de facto border between the two states in Kashmir.

Various Project in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu

Paper 3- Infrastructure
Why Should You Know?
Prime minister Narendra modi is going to visit Gujarat and Tamil Nadu on 28-29 July and he will inaugurate various project in Gujarat and Tamilnadu.
In details –
  • Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi will visit Gujarat and Tamil Nadu on 28-29 July, 2022. At around 12 Noon on 28 July, Prime Minister will inaugurate and lay the foundation stone of multiple projects of Sabar Dairy at Gadhoda Chowki, Sabarkantha.
  • Thereafter, Prime Minister will travel to Chennai and declare open the 44th Chess Olympiad at JLN Indoor Stadium, Chennai at around 6 PM.
  • On 29th July at around 10 AM, Prime Minister will attend the 42nd Convocation of Anna University. Thereafter he will travel to Gandhinagar to visit GIFT City, where he will launch and lay the foundation stone of various projects at around 4 PM.
PM in Gujarat
  • A key focus of the government has been boosting the rural economy and making agriculture and allied activities more productive. In yet another step in this direction, Prime Minister will visit Sabar Dairy, and inaugurate and lay the foundation stone of multiple projects worth more than Rs. 1,000 crores on 28th July. These projects will empower local farmers and milk producers and increase their income. This will also give a boost to the rural economy in the region.
  • Prime Minister will inaugurate the Powder Plant at Sabar Dairy with a capacity of around 120 metric tonnes per day (MTPD).  The total cost of the entire project is more than Rs. 300 crores. The layout of the plant meets global food safety standards. It is highly energy efficient with almost zero emission. The plant is equipped with the latest and fully automated bulk packing line.
  • Prime Minister will also inaugurate the Aseptic Milk Packaging Plant at Sabar Dairy. It is a state of the art plant having capacity of 3 Lakh Litre per day. The project has been executed with a total investment of around Rs. 125 crores. The plant has the latest automation system with highly energy efficient and environment friendly technology. The project will help ensure better remuneration to milk producers.
  • Prime Minister will also lay the foundation stone of the Sabar Cheese & Whey Drying Plant Project. The estimated outlay of the project is around Rs. 600 crores. The Plant will manufacture Cheddar Cheese (20 MTPD), Mozzarella Cheese (10 MTPD) and Processed Cheese (16 MTPD). Whey generated during manufacturing of cheese shall also be dried at Whey Drying Plant, having capacity of 40 MTPD.
  • It is noteworthy that Sabar Dairy is a part of Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF), which makes and markets a whole range of milk and milk products under the Amul brand.
GIFT City –
  • On 29th July, Prime Minister will visit GIFT City in Gandhinagar. GIFT city (Gujarat International Finance Tec-City) was envisaged as an integrated hub for financial and technology services not just for India but for the world.
  • Prime Minister will lay the foundation stone of the Headquarters Building of the International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFSCA), the unified regulator for the development and regulation of financial products, financial services and financial institutions in International Financial Services Centres (IFSCs) in India. The building has been conceptualised as an iconic structure, reflective of the growing prominence and stature of GIFT-IFSC as a leading International Financial Centre.
  • Prime Minister will launch India International Bullion Exchange (IIBX), India’s first International Bullion Exchange in GIFT-IFSC. IIBX will facilitate efficient price discovery with the assurance of responsible sourcing and quality, apart from giving impetus to the financialisation of gold in India. It will empower India to gain its rightful place in the global bullion market and serve the global value chain with integrity and quality. IIBX also re-enforces the commitment of the Government of India towards enabling India to be able to influence global bullion prices as a principal consumer.
  • Prime Minister will also launch NSE IFSC-SGX Connect. It is a framework between NSE’s subsidiary in GIFT International Financial Services Centre (IFSC) and Singapore Exchange Limited (SGX). Under Connect, all orders on NIFTY derivatives placed by members of Singapore Exchange will be routed to and matched on the NSE-IFSC order matching and trading platform. Broker-Dealers from India and across international jurisdictions are expected to participate in large numbers for trading derivatives through the Connect.  It will deepen liquidity in derivative markets at GIFT-IFSC, bringing in more international participants and creating a positive impact on the financial ecosystem in the GIFT-IFSC.
PM in Tamil Nadu
  • The 44th Chess Olympiad will witness a grand inauguration on 28th July as Prime Minister will declare it open in a launch programme organised at JLN Indoor Stadium, Chennai.
  • Prime Minister had also launched the first-ever Chess Olympiad Torch Relay at the Indira Gandhi National Stadium in New Delhi on June 19, 2022. The torch travelled to 75 iconic locations in the country for over a period of 40 days, traversing close to 20,000 kilometres and culminating in Mahabalipuram, before heading over to the FIDE Headquarters, Switzerland.
  • The 44th Chess Olympiad is being held in Chennai from July 28 to August 9, 2022. The prestigious competition, which has been organised since 1927, is being hosted in India for the first time and in Asia after 30 years. With 187 countries participating, this will be the largest participation in any Chess Olympiad. India is also feilding its biggest ever contingent in the competition comprising 30 players across 6 teams.
  • Prime Minister will attend the 42nd Convocation of prestigious Anna University in Chennai on 29th July. During the programme, he will award gold medals and certificates to 69 gold medalists. The Prime Minister will also address the gathering on the occasion.
  • Anna University was established on 4 September 1978. It is named after C. N. Annadurai, the former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. It has 13 Constituent Colleges, 494 Affiliated Colleges spread over Tamil Nadu and 3 Regional Campuses – Tirunelveli, Madurai and Coimbatore.

Global Centre for Traditional Medicine

Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?
Recently Minister of Ayush Shri Sarbananda Sonowal gave information about Global Centre for Traditional Medicine in a written reply in Rajya Sabha.
In details –

The Ministry of Ayush and WHO signed a Host Country Agreement on 25th March 2022 for the establishment of the first WHO’s Global Centre for Traditional Medicine in India. The salient aspects of this agreement are as follows:

  • That WHO will set up GCTM Centre in Jamnagar (Gujarat).
  • That it aims to support nations in developing policies & action plans to strengthen the role of traditional medicine as part of their journey to universal health coverage.
  • The Government shall respect the functional independence of WHO in carryingout its activities and in assigning to the Centre such WHO officials or other WHO personnel as it deems necessary for carrying out the particular functions assigned to the Centre.
  • The Government shall provide to WHO, free of charge, appropriate and adequate office premises for the Centre and its installations.
  • The Government shall also be responsible for the maintenance and security of the workplace premises for the Centre, its installations and technical plants, together with storage and archive space, meeting space, equipment and other facilities.
Main Office –
  • The Ground breaking ceremony of main office of WHO GCTM has been carried out by the  Prime Minister and DG WHO in Jamnagar, Gujarat.  The construction of Interim office of WHO GCTM is under progress.
  • All expenditure involved for operational, programmatic, infrastructure and construction costs of the Interim Office and the Main Office of WHO GCTM will be borne by the Ministry of Ayush.
  • The financial implications of Rs. 130.00 Cr (approx.) have been approved by the Ministry of Ayush towards the functional cost of the Interim Office of WHO-GCTM and Funds of Rs. 63.26 Cr have been released till date.
  • The WHO-GCTM Centre aims to provide support for all traditional medicines in the world. No proposal is under consideration for setting up another such type of centre elsewhere in India.
What is traditional medicine?
  • The WHO describes traditional medicine as the total sum of the “knowledge, skills and practices indigenous and different cultures have used over time to maintain health and prevent, diagnose and treat physical and mental illness”. “Its reach encompasses ancient practices such as acupuncture, ayurvedic medicine and herbal mixtures as well as modern medicines,” the WHO says.
  • Traditional medicine in India is often defined as including practices and therapies — such as yoga, Ayurveda, Siddha — that have been part of Indian tradition historically, as well as others — such as homeopathy — that became part of Indian tradition over the years. Ayurveda and yoga are practised widely across the country; the Siddha system is followed predominantly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala; the Sowa-Rigpa system is practised mainly in Leh-Ladakh and Himalayan regions such as Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Darjeeling, Lahaul & Spiti.

Agricultural Improvement

Paper 3 – Agriculture
Why Should You Know?
Recently the Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Shri Narendra Singh Tomar  told about recent Improvement in Agriculture.
In details –
The budget allocation for Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has been increased from Rs 1,31,531.19 crore in 2021-22 to Rs 1,32,513.62 crore in 2022-23.
Schemes implemented by the Department of Agriculture and farmers welfare are for the benefit of all farmers including women and small and marginal farmers.
The Government is implementing various schemes and programmes for providing assistance to the farmers including women and small &marginal farmers as per eligibility and conditions existing in scheme guidelines.
Details of major beneficiary oriented schemes implemented by the Department of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare is as follows:
Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)
  • The scheme aims to supplement the financial needs of all landholding farmers. Under the Scheme an amount of Rs.6000/- per year is released (in three equal instalments of Rs. 2000/- every four months) by the Central Government online directly into the bank accounts of the eligible farmers.
Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana (PM-KMY)
  • To provide social security net for the landholding Small and Marginal Farmers (SMFs) as they have minimal or no savings to provide for old age and to support them in the event of consequent loss of livelihood
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana- Remunerative Approaches for Agriculture and Allied sector Rejuvenation (RKVY-RAFTAAR)
  • Aims at making farming a remunerative economic activity through strengthening the farmers’ effort, risk mitigation and promoting agri business entrepreneurship.
Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)
  • Affordable crop insurance scheme for farmers against all non preventable natural risks.
Per Drop More Crop (PDMC)
  • The PMKSY-Per Drop More Crop mainly focuses on water use efficiency at farm level through precision/micro irrigation. Besides promoting precision irrigation (drip and sprinkler irrigation systems) and better on-farm water management practices to optimize the use of available water resources, this component also supports micro level water storage or water conservation/management activities to supplement micro irrigation.
National Honey and Bee Mission (NHBM)
  • Promotion and development of scientific beekeeping in the country
Agriculture Infrastructure Fund (AIF)
  • Medium – long term debt financing facility for investment in viable projects for post-harvest management Infrastructure and community farming assets through interest subvention and financial support.
Interest Subvention Scheme (ISS)
  • Aims at providing adequate and timely credit support by way of short term crop loan upto Rs 3 lakhs to all farmers.
National Bamboo Mission (NBM)
  • To increase the area under bamboo plantation in non-forest Government and private lands to supplement farm income and contribute towards resilience to climate change as well as availability of quality raw material requirement of industries.
Soil Health Management (SHM)
  • To develop and promote soil test based nutrient management for enhancing nutrient use efficiency
Sub-Mission on Agriculture Extension (SMAE)
  • Aims at making the extension system farmer driven and farmer accountable by disseminating technology to farmers through new institutional arrangements viz. Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) at district level to operationalize extension reforms in a participatory mode.
Sub-Mission on Agriculture Mechanization(SMAM)
  • Increase the reach of farm mechanization to small and marginal farmers and to the regions where availability of farm power is low;
Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH)
  • Stimulate holistic growth of the horticulture sector through area based regionally differentiated strategies involving technology promotion, extension, post harvest management (PHM), processing and marketing in consonance with comparative advantage of each State/region and its diverse agro-climatic features;
Sub-Mission on Seed and Planting Material (SMSP)
  • Production and multiplication of high yielding certified/quality seeds of all crops and making them available to the farmers
National Food Security Mission (NFSM).
  • Increasing production of rice, wheat, pulses coarse cereals (maize & barley), nutri-cereals (jowar, bajra, ragi & other small millets) and commercial crops (jute, cotton & sugarcane), oilseeds & oilpalm through area expansion and productivity enhancement in a sustainable manner in the identified districts of the country.
Integrated Scheme for Agriculture Marketing (ISAM)
  • To develop marketing infrastructure to effectively handle and manage marketable surpluses of agricultural and allied produce including horticulture, livestock, poultry, fishery, bamboo, minor forest produce and such like produce supportive to enhance farmers’ income etc.
Formation and Promotion of 10,000 Farmer Produce Organizations (FPOs)
  • Aggregation of small, marginal and landless farmers into FPOs in order to enhance economic strength & market linkages for enhancing their income.

Standards Clubs

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?
Bureau of Indian Standards established 1037 Standards Clubs in schools and colleges across India in 2021-22.
In details –
  • Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the National Standards Body is mandated by Government of India to create a robust quality Eco System in the Country through its core activities of Standardization and Certification.
  • Towards this mandate, BIS had started off with the concept of creating Standards Club in Schools and Colleges, wherein the concepts of Standardization and Quality are introduced to the Students at an early age.
  • BIS in its first year of 2021-22 established 1037 Standards Clubs across India and upon realizing the potential and success of the novel endeavor, the target is ambitiously enhanced to creating 10,000 clubs by the end of 2022-23.
Aim –
  • Through Standards Clubs, BIS aims to expose science students of class 9th and above classes to the concept of Quality and Standardization with the help of student centric activities.
  • The values children are exposed to, in their formative years get embedded in their young minds and serve as a force multiplier that has the capacity to transform the future of the nation.
Mentors –
  • Each Standards club comprises of a Science Teacher as its Mentor and a minimum of 15 students as the members.
  • BIS organizes a two-day residential training for Mentors of Standard club wherein they are introduced to concepts of Standards & Quality, their role and expectation as Mentors and different student centric activities that can be taken up.
  • As on date nearly 1000 Mentors have been trained. Such schools have also initiated conducting activities under the aegis of Standards club such as Quizzes, Standard writing competitions, essay writing etc. Student members have also created small videos, scripts, Instagram pages that can promote Standards and its applicability.   
  • In pursuance to the current target in 2022-23 of opening 10,000 Standards Clubs, BIS is aggressively following up with Schools and Colleges on pan India basis and has already created over 1755 and many more are in its advance stage of approvals. As on date over 43,000 students are members of these Standards clubs.
About Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) –
  • The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is the National Standards Body of India under Department of Consumer affairs,Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, Government of India.
  • It is established by the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 2016 which came into effect on 12 October 2017. The Act establishes the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) as the National Standards Body of India.
  • set up under the Resolution of the Department of Industries and Supplies dated 3 September 1946. The ISI was registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860.
  • BIS is responsible for the harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Innovations for Defence Excellence(iDEX)

Paper 3- Security
Why Should You Know?
Recently iDEX-DIO signed 100th contract for defence innovation, lets know about it.
In details –
  • iDEX (Innovations for Defence Excellence), the flagship initiative of the Department of Defence Production, Ministry of Defence, ceremoniously embarked upon the milestone of signing its 100th contract on 26 July 2022.
  • It is noteworthy that iDEX framework was launched by Hon’ble Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi in 2018 with the objective that it would provide the platform of co- creation and co-development in the Defence sector, and would engage start-ups to contribute to the defence sector and develop defence and aerospace setup in the country.
  • iDEX is being implemented by Defence Innovation Organisation (DIO), established under Department of Defence Production, Ministry of Defence.
  • Within a short span of time iDEX, which has also been awarded the prestigious Prime Minister Award for Public Policy in Innovation Category for the year 2021, has emerged as a game changer in the Defence eco-system through its flagship programmes like Defence India Start-up Challenges (DISC), Prime and Open Challenges (OC).
  • iDEX has been able to build the required momentum and generate critical mass of start-ups in the defence sector.
  • On July 26, 2022 the 100th contract was signed by Additional Secretary (Defence Production) and CEO, DIO Shri Sanjay Jaju with CEO Pacify Medical Technologies Pvt Ltd Shri Saiprasad Poyarekar.
  • Till date, iDEX has launched iDEX Prime, seven rounds of DISC (including DISC SPRINT) and five rounds of OC, receiving more than 4,000 applications from individual innovators, MSMEs and start-ups. More than Rs 250 crore worth of projects have been allocated and procurement of 14 items worth over Rs 400 crore have been cleared. iDEX has also been able to generate thousands of jobs and attract India’s talent back to the country.
  •  In the last four years, 17 start-ups in 14 projects have already been accorded the Acceptance of Necessity (AoN) by Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) for trial and procurement in March 2022. Projects from balance of DISC 1 & 2 and some from DISC 3 are nearing completion and may be accorded AoN by DAC by end of current Financial Year.
  • iDEX is working at path breaking pace to ensure that its agreements with the start-ups and innovators reach logical conclusions timely, eventually opening myriad of options for the budding, soon to be unicorns and also at the same time addressing the requirement of Services.

Indigenous Radio for Armed Forces

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?
Defense Ministry to manufacture indigenous software-powered radios for armed forces.
In details –
·Ministry of Defence (MoD) has fast-tracked the indigenisation of Software Defined Radios (SDRs) with country’s premier R&D institutions viz.
·Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur to fulfill the increasing demand by the Armed Forces across a broad spectrum of operations.
·The complete product life cycle management framework is necessary for security sensitive SDR technology and products. It involves indigenous self-sustainable design, development, manufacturing, testing/certification and maintenance ecosystem.
·Defence Secretary Dr Ajay Kumar, while according high priority to the indigenisation of SDR technology, stated that it will be an important milestone towards achieving the goals of ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’ in the field of secured radio communication.
·Two key elements of indigenous SDR technology are the standardised operating software environment (OE) and applications (also known as waveforms) with associated waveforms repository and test/certification facility.
·Standard OE enables waveform portability and interoperability among SDRs of multiple vendors. Towards this, the Ministry of Defence has taken a decision to define and develop reference implementation of India specific operating environment called India Software Communication Architecture (SCA) profile or Indian Radio Software Architecture.
·Director, IIT Kanpur Dr Abhay Karandikar, who is the Chairman of SCA Committee constituted by MoD, has pioneered the idea of having ‘India SCA Profile’. A Draft Project Report (DPR) has been formulated by DEAL/DRDO towards indigenous development of SDR with a roadmap and timelines.
·The Directorate of Standardisation (DoS) in the Department of Defence Production, MoD will steer the development of IRSA with DRDO, academia and industry with definition in three to six months and additional 18 months for associated reference implementation, testing and compliance certification tools.
·Availability of IRSA through access control will enable the Indian software vendors to integrate and make SDRs interoperable and security gradable. The IRSA will be notified by DoS and shared with the industry towards development of indigenous SDR for use by Indian defence/security forces and export to friendly foreign nations.
·The three institutions involved in the development namely, DEAL/DRDO, IIT-Kanpur and DoS have already started the work as per DPR. Defence Secretary Dr Ajay Kumar exuded confidence on all organisations and said that it will create a new benchmark towards indigenisation of critical equipment which, so far, has been imported.
·This would give a boost to the endeavour to achieve ‘Aatmanirbharta’, reduce import budget and create secured radio network for the Armed Forces. He added that the efforts will be made to complete it in a time-bound manner.

New Ramsar Sites

Paper 3 – Environment
Why Should You Know?
Recently Five new Indian wetlands got Ramsar recognition.
In details –
  • With a renewed emphasis on the protection and well-being of the environment, five new Indian sites have been recognised as wetlands of international importance, as part of the Ramsar Convention.
  • These are –
  • Karikili Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu
  • Pallikaranai Marsh Reserve Forest, Tamil Nadu
  • Pichavaram Mangrove, Tamil Nadu,
  • Pala wetland ,Mizoram
  • Sakhya Sagar, Madhya Pradesh
What is Ramsar recognition?
  • Ramsar Sites are wetlands of international importance that have been designated under the criteria of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands for containing representative, rare or unique wetland types or for their importance in conserving biological diversity.
  • Ramsar recognition is the identification of wetlands around the world, which are of international importance, especially if they provide habitat to waterfowl (about 180 species of birds). There is international interest and cooperation in the conservation of such wetlands and a judicious use of their resources.
  • The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (‘Ramsar Convention’ or ‘Wetlands Convention’) was adopted in Ramsar, Iran in February 1971 and came into force in December 1975.
  • It provides the only international mechanism for protecting sites of global importance and is thus of key conservation significance.
  • The Convention covers all aspects of wetland conservation and ‘wise use’. It has three main ‘pillars’ of activity:
  • the designation of wetlands of international importance as Ramsar Sites;
  • the promotion of the wise use of all wetlands in the territory of each country; and
  • international co-operation with other countries to further the wise use of wetlands and their resources.
  • Sundarbans in West Bengal is the largest Ramsar site in India.

Nasha Mukt Abhiyan

Paper 2 – Social Issues
Why Should You Know?
Recently Minister of State for Social Justice and Empowerment Shri A. Narayanaswamy gave information about Nasha Mukt Abhiyan in Lok Sabha.
In details –
  • A nation-wide anti-drug campaign named ‘Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan’ is being run in the country by the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment.
  • The Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan (NMBA) was launched on 15th August 2020, in 272 identified districts, with an aim to create awareness about ill effects of substance abuse among the youth, with special focus on higher education institutions, university campuses, schools and reaching out into the community to garner community involvement and ownership of the Abhiyaan.
Activities –

The following activities have been organized so far:

  • As part of the Abhiyaan, special emphasis is laid on the participation of stakeholders such as women, children, educational institutions, civil society organizations etc. who may be directly or indirectly affected by substance use.
  • More than 8,000 Master Volunteers have been selected and trained to lead the Abhiyaan activities in the 272 identified districts.
  • Till now through the various activities undertaken on-ground 11.99+ Crore people reached out so far.
  • More than 3.54 Crore youth have actively participated in the activities of the Abhiyaan and spreading on-ground the message against substance use. Around 4,000+ Yuva Mandals, NYKS & NSS Volunteers, Youth Clubs have also been associated with the Abhiyaan.
  • The contribution of 2.01 Crore women have also been vital in reaching out to a larger community through the Anganwadi & ASHA Workers, ANMs, Mahila Mandals & Women SHGs.
  • Across the country till now, 13+ lakh students have been reached with events, competitions and sessions organized in 6000+ schools.
  • Social media has effectively been utilized to spread the message of the Abhiyaan online by creating handles on Facebook, Twitter & Instagram and sharing daily updates on them.
  • An Android based mobile Application has been developed to capture the data of activities happening on ground on a real-time basis by the districts and master volunteers. This App has been placed on the Google Play Store.
  • A short film on the Abhiyaan, its objectives and the efforts of the districts has been made and released on social media.
  • Presently, this campaign is being run in 272 districts.

Green hydrogen

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?
ONGC to make Green Hydrogen; inks MoU with India’s leading renewable energy Company Greenko Zero C
In details –
  • On July 26, 2022 the Energy major Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with M/s Greenko ZeroC Private Limited (Greenko), to jointly pursue opportunities in Renewables, Green Hydrogen, Green Ammonia and other derivatives of green hydrogen.
  • The MoU, valid for two years, was inked in New Delhi by ONGC Director Onshore Shri Anurag Sharma and Greenko CEO & Managing Director Shri Anil Kumar Chalamalasetty, in the presence of Union Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas & Housing and Urban Affairs Shri Hardeep Singh Puri. Secretary (MoP&NG) Shri Pankaj Jain, ONGC CMD Dr. Alka Mittal along with ONGC Directors, other senior officials from MoP&NG , ONGC and Greenko were also present. Greenko is one of India’s leading renewable energy Companies.
  • This MoU is in line with the National Hydrogen Mission launched by Hon’ble Prime Minister in making India a global green hydrogen hub. The activities envisaged under this MoU will contribute towards India’s target of producing of 5 million tonnes of Green hydrogen per annum by 2030.
  • This MoU will also act as a stepping stone for ONGC to achieve renewable energy targets as per its Energy Strategy 2040.
  • As the share of renewables in the energy mix is rising driven by cost competitiveness, climate change awareness and strong regulatory push, ONGC aims to meet its objectives such as de-risking of portfolio against long term disruptions and reducing carbon footprint by moving into renewables space.
What is Green hydrogen –
  • Green hydrogen is hydrogen generated by renewable energy like wind, water or solar or from low-carbon power.
  • Green hydrogen has significantly lower carbon emissions than grey hydrogen, which is produced by steam reforming of natural gas, which makes up the bulk of the hydrogen market.
  • Green hydrogen produced by the electrolysis of water is less than 0.1% of total hydrogen production.
  • It may be used to decarbonize sectors which are hard to electrify, such as steel and cement production, and thus help to limit climate change.
  • The high cost of production is the main factor behind the low use of green hydrogen. Nonetheless, the hydrogen market is expected to grow, with some forecasts of the cost of hydrogen production falling from $6/kg in 2015 to around $2/kg by 2025. In 2020, major European companies announced plans to switch their truck fleets to hydrogen power.
  • Green hydrogen can be blended into existing natural gas pipelines, and also used to produce green ammonia, the main constituent of fertilizer production. It is suggested by hydrogen industry bodies that green ammonia will be cost-competitive with ammonia produced conventionally (gray ammonia) by 2030.

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