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OJAANK IAS ACADEMY

27 June 2022 – Current Affairs

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Coking Coal Production

Paper 1 – Natural Resources
Why Should You Know?

Recently Ministry of Coal prepares action plan for substantial increase in coking coal production.

In details –
  • The Government said the country’s domestic raw coking coal output may touch 140 million tonnes (MT) by 2030 from the present 51.7 MT.
  • It is noteworthy that Coking coal is an essential raw material for the production of iron and steel.
  • India has produced 51.7 Million Ton (MT) raw coking coal during the financial 2021-22 which is 15 % more as compared to 44.8 MT during FY21.
  • Domestic raw coking coal production continues to witness increasing trend in the current fiscal as well with production of 8.3 MT,  as per the figures up to May 2022, which is 20% more compared to 6.9 MT during the same period of the previous year. 
  • At present, domestic raw coking coal washing capacity is about 23 MT per annum including 9.26 MT of the private sector. 
  • Coal India Ltd. (CIL) is planning to set up and operationalize nine more new washeries with a capacity of 30 MTPA. With setting up of new washeries, it is estimated that CIL will be able to supply about 15 MT of washed coking coal to the steel sector, thereby reducing import of coking coal.
  • There is need to set up more washeries to enhance capacity to meet the fast increasing demand of coking coal in the country.
  • During FY 22, CIL supplied 1.7 MT washed coking coal to the steel sector and has set  a target of 3.45 MT during FY23.
For Enhancing production –
  • To further enhance raw coking coal production, the Ministry of Coal has auctioned 10 coking coal blocks to the private sector with a PRC of 22.5 MT during the last two years. Most of these blocks are expected to start production by 2025.
  • The Ministry has also identified four coking coal blocks and the Central Mine Planning and Design Institute (CMPDI) also will finalize GR for 4 to 6 new coking coal blocks in the next two months.
  • These blocks may be offered in subsequent rounds of auction for private sector to further step up domestic raw coking coal supply in the country.
  • CIL has planned to increase raw coking coal production from existing mines up to 26 MT and identified nine new mines with PRC of about 20 MT by FY 2025. Also, CIL has offered six discontinued coking coal mines, out of the total 20 discontinued mines, on an innovative model of revenue sharing to the private sector with expected PRC of about 2 MT.
  • With these transformative measures taken by Ministry of Coal under ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’ initiative of PM, domestic raw coking coal production is likely to reach 140 MT by 2030.
What is Coking Coal ?
  • Coking coal or Metallurgical coal is a grade of coal that can be used to produce good-quality coke. It is noteworthy that Coke is an essential fuel and reactant in the blast furnace process for primary steelmaking.
  • Metallurgical coal is low in ash, moisture, sulfur and phosphorus content, and its rank is usually bituminous.
  • Some grades of anthracite coal are used for sintering, pulverized coal injection, direct blast furnace charge, pelletizing, and in production of ferro-alloys, silicon-manganese, calcium-carbide and silicon-carbide.
  • Metallurgical coal produces strong, low-density coke when it is heated in a low-oxygen environment. On heating, the coal softens, and volatile components evaporate and escape through pores in the mass. During coking, the material swells and increases in volume.
  • The demand for metallurgical coal is highly coupled to the demand for steel. Primary steelmaking companies often have a division that produces coal for coking, to ensure a stable and low-cost supply.
  • Metallurgical coal comes mainly from Canada, the United States, and Australia,with Australia exporting 58% of seaborne trade, mostly going to China. In the United States, the electric power sector used “93% of total U.S. coal consumption between 2007 and 2018”; only 7% of the total was metallurgical coal and coal for other uses such as heating.

 

Bharat New Car Assessment Programme

Paper 3 – Science & Tech, Economy
Why Should You Know?

The Union Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has issued a notification that sets regulations for Bharat New Car Assessment Programme under which star ratings will be issued for automobiles based on their level of protection.

In details –
  • The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has issued a notification dated 24th June 2022, whereby it is proposed to insert a new rule 126E in CMVR (Central Motor Vehicles Rules), 1989 regarding the Bharat New Car Assessment Program (BNCAP).
  • Bharat New Car Assessment Programme rating will provide consumers with an indication of the level of protection offered to occupants by evaluating the vehicle in the areas of
  • Adult Occupant Protection (AOP)
  • Child Occupant Protection (COP)
  • Safety Assist Technologies (SAT).
Star ratings –
  • The vehicle shall be assigned a star rating from one to five stars, based on scoring against various tests undertaken as per the Automotive Industry Standard (AIS) 197.
  • The new rule is applicable on Type Approved motor vehicles of category M1 [motor vehicles used for the carriage of passengers, comprising eight seats, in addition to driver’s seat] with gross vehicle weight less than 3.5 Tonnes, manufactured or imported in the country, in accordance with the Automotive Industry Standard (AIS)-197, as amended from time to time.
  • The standard is  aligned with global benchmarks: it is beyond minimum regulatory requirements.
Boost export capability –
  • Star Rating of Indian cars based on crash tests is extremely crucial not only to ensure structural and passenger safety in cars, but to also increase the export-worthiness of Indian automobiles.
  • The testing protocol of Bharat NCAP shall be aligned with global crash-test protocols factoring in the existing Indian regulations, allowing original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to get their vehicles tested at India’s own in-house testing facilities.
  • Bharat NCAP will prove to be a critical instrument in making our automobile industry Aatmanirbhar with the mission of making India the top automobile hub in the world.
  • Bharat NCAP will encourage manufacturers to participate voluntarily in the safety testing assessment programme and incorporate higher safety levels in new car models.
when will it start?
  • The testing of vehicles for this programme will be carried out at testing agencies, with the necessary infrastructure.
  • As per the notification issued on June 25, 2022, Bharat NCAP will be rolled out from April 1, 2023.
  • Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways Nitin Gadkari said that Bharat-NCAP will serve as a consumer-centric platform allowing customers to opt for safer cars based on their ratings.
  • It will also promote healthy competition among original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in India to manufacture safer vehicles.

Swachh Certification Protocols

Paper 2 – Government Policies
Why Should You Know?

Swachh Bharat Mission- Urban 2.0 launches Revised Swachh Certification Protocols to sustain Open Defecation Free Status across Urban India

In details –
  • The Union Housing and Urban Affairs Ministry has released a revised cleanliness certification protocol with the aim to sustain open defecation free status across urban India and move towards achieving new sanitation goals, according to a statement.
  • According to the ministry, seven years since the launch of the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), lakhs of citizens, especially women, children and divyangs, have been provided dignity and safety.
  • The need of the hour is to sustain these achievements while steadfastly moving towards new sanitation goals.
About the protocol –
  • The revised protocol, launched at an event is aligned with the objectives of SBM-2.0.
  • It is designed to ensure that no untreated used water or faecal sludge is discharged into the environment and all used water, including sewerage and septage, grey water and black water, is safely contained, transported and treated, along with maximum reuse of treated used water in all cities with less than one lakh population, the statement said.
  • It is also aimed at sustaining open defecation free status in all statutory towns.
  • The revamped protocol contains provisions to encourage cities to have robust infrastructure with reliable operation and maintenance (O&M) mechanism to achieve the goal of a clean urban India, the ministry said in the statement.
  • Key interventions against each certification include ODF category — robust monitoring mechanism ensured by increasing the number of survey sample size and location types.
  • It also includes ODF+ — focus on functionality of community and public toilets and innovative O&M business model for their sustainability in the long run.
  • Under ODF++ category, it emphasises on mechanised cleaning of septic tanks and sewers, safe collection & treatment of used water as well as safe management of faecal sludge.
  • Under Water+ category, the focus will be on collection, transportation, treatment and reuse of both used water and faecal sludge to prevent environmental pollution.
About Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 –
  • Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0, launched by the Prime Minister on 1st October 2022 with the overall vision of creating ‘Garbage Free Cities’, has introduced Used Water Management as a newly funded component for towns with less than 1 lakh population.
  • This showcases the Mission’s commitments to improving the overall Used Water Management ecosystem in Urban India by ensuring that no un-treated used water is discharged into water bodies (as per the Water+ Protocol).
  • Under the Mission, maximum reuse of treated used water is a key area focus along with eradication of hazardous entry into sewers and septic tanks through mechanization of their cleaning operations.

International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking

Paper 1 – Social Issues
Why Should You Know?

The International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking is observed annually on 26 June.

In details –
  • The International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking is a United Nations International Day against drug abuse and the illegal drug trade. It is observed annually on 26 June, since 1989.
  • The date June 26 is to commemorate Lin Zexu’s dismantling of the opium trade in Humen, Guangdong, ending on June 25, 1839,just before the First Opium War in China.
  • The observance was instituted by General Assembly Resolution 42/112 of 7 December 1987.
  • On 26 June 1987, two important texts- 1. Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control & 2.Declaration of the International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking were adopted at the International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking, which was held in Vienna during 17–26 June 1987.
  • The Conference recommended that an annual day should be observed to mark the importance of the fight against drug abuse and illicit trafficking.
  • Both the dates 17 June and 26 June were suggested, and in the later meetings 26 June was chosen and written into the draft and final resolution.
  • On this day Campaigns, rallies, poster designing and many other programs are conducted. People of different countries celebrate the day together. As drug use increases, the day becomes more important.
Theme of 2022 –
  • The theme of International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking-2022 is “Addressing drug challenges in health and humanitarian crises”.
  • each year, individuals, entire communities, and various organizations all over the world join in to observe World Drug Day to help raise awareness of the major problem that illicit drugs pose to society.
Drug Trap in India –
  • Drug abuse is one of the most serious health problems that the world is facing today. It is also a psycho-social evil that, in addition to social stigma, gives rise to anti-social behavior such as theft, crime and violence, and thus, destroys the importance of society and leads to its complete downfall.
  • The menace of drug addiction is spreading rapidly among the youth of India.
  • India is situated in the middle of the world’s two largest opium producing regions, with the Golden Triangle region on one side and the Golden crescent region on the other.
  • The Golden Triangle region includes Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam and Laos.
  • The Golden Crescent region includes Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran.
AIIMS report –

According to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) report released in the year 2019 on drug use in India –

  1. Alcohol is the most widely used substance in India.
  2. According to the survey conducted in the year 2018, cannabis and opium were used by about 5 crore Indians.
  3. According to estimates, about 8.5 lakh people use injectable drugs.
  4. States such as Punjab, Assam, Delhi, Haryana, Manipur, Mizoram, Sikkim and Uttar Pradesh account for more than half of the total estimated drug cases in the report.
  5. About 60 lakh people need to be free from the problem of opium consumption.
  6. The highest percentage of alcohol consumption among children was found in Punjab followed by West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh respectively.

 

 

Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan

Paper 2- Social Justice, Governement Policies
Why Should You Know?

Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan or Drug free India campaign was launched on the occasion of International Day against Drug Abuse.

In details –
  • The Department of Social Justice & Empowerment is organized  Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan Run – 19th Run Against Drug Abuse today at Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, New Delhi.
  • The Run is being organized in association with Health Fitness Trust, New Delhi. To wean away youth and others from drugs and to make our country drugs free, a Pledge will also be administered to the participants.
  • The Pledge will be followed by the Run to be flagged off by Dr. Virendra Kumar, Minister for Social Justice & Empowerment for spreading mass awareness against the drug abuse.
  • It is noteworthy that the International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking is marked on 26 June every year to strengthen action and cooperation in achieving a world free of drug abuse.
  • This run is organized to create awareness for the same and to present a united front against Drug Abuse.
  • A nationwide drug-free India campaign namely Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan is going on in 272 identified districts of the Country.
  • There are more than 8000 master volunteers for campaign activities in these 272 districts, reaching out to more than 3.10 crore people including more than 1.20 crore youth and over 31 lakh women through various activities actually carried out so far.
  • So far, the results of Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan have been very encouraging and this Ministry is also working vigorously to declare 100 districts drug free by the end of the year 2022 within defined parameters.
  • The Mass Event “Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan Run – Run against Drug Abuse” initiative is being taken and 1 km, 5 km, 10 km run, jumba classes, aerobics are being organized.
Theme –
  • This year’s theme is “Share Facts on Drugs, Save Lives”. The motive is to combat misinformation by sharing real facts on drugs — from health risks and solutions for the world drug problem to evidence-based prevention, treatment, and care.
About Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan –
  • Drug free India campaign or Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan was started on 26 June 2020.
  • The campaign focuses not only on institutional support, but also on community outreach programs in the districts identified for drug free India campaign through Narcotics Control Bureau, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
  • Under this campaign, the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment will conduct drug de-addiction campaign in schools and colleges to raise funds for institutions working in drug de-addiction and to prevent drug abuse among youth.
  • The campaign includes awareness generation programmes, community outreach and identification of drug dependent populations, focusing on treatment facilities as well as capacity building programs for service providers.

 

“One Health” pilot project

Paper 2- Health
Why Should You Know?

The central government is going to be launch “One Health” Pilot project in Bengaluru on June 28, 2022.

In details –
  • The Government of India’s Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying (DAHD), Ministry of Fisheries, Animal husbandry and Dairying, Government of India has taken an initiative to bring stakeholders from animal, human and environment health on a common platform to address the challenges through One-Health approach.
  • DAHD in collaboration with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) and The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) as implementation partner is implementing the One-Health Framework undertaking project in the states of Karnataka and Uttarakhand.
  • Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying (DAHD) will launch One Health Pilot in Karnataka at Bengaluru tomorrow on 28 june 2022.
  • This Pilot project in Karnataka would be launched by Shri Atul Chaturvedi, Secretary, Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying, Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying in presence of other key dignitaries and stakeholders from Centre and state level across livestock, human, wildlife, and environment sectors.
  • DAHD would develop a national One Health roadmap based on the learnings of this initiative which in turn would help to prevent the future zoonotic disease outbreaks, equipped with better response mechanism and management while incorporating global best practices. Capacity building plan for Karnataka and One Health brochure (Kannada) will be unveiled during the event.
Key features –
  • Six interventions have been planned for the implementation of the One Health Pilot Project. The interventions will help in covering the institutionalization and operationalization aspects for better coordination among different relevant sectors.
  • Some of the key activities that will be undertaken as part of the One Health Pilot Project will include institutionalizing the mechanism for the data collection on prevalence, disease outbreak, management, integration of a network of laboratories, development of targeted surveillance plan, among others.
  • The inter-ministerial One Health committee under the Chairmanship of the Principal Scientific Advisor has also been established to lead the implementation of the One Health Support Unit.
  • Based on the recommendations, the state and district level one health committees need to be constituted by involving the competent authorities from animal husbandry, health, and environment ministries.
Significance –
  • The One Health Pilot Project will support the creation of the One Health Framework for India and will also help in building a strong social infrastructure that supports the health of the people and the planet.
  • Co-ordinated engagement among all the stakeholders will be facilitated for the successful implementation of the pilot.
  • One Health Pilot Project will also help in the capacity building and the understanding of the disease prioritization.

United Nations Ocean Conference

Paper 2- International realtions
Why Should You Know?

The United Nations Ocean Conference is being held in Lisbon from 27 June to 1 July 2022.

In details –
  • In the last week of June, the second United Nations Ocean Conference will be held in Lisbon, the capital of Portugal.
  • It is noteworthy that Earlier in the year 2017, the first conference was held.
  • It is hoped that the conference can lead to an agreement between countries on measures to reduce the damage caused to marine life by man-made activities.
  • The conference, which began on June 27, will continue till July 1. Apart from the member countries of the United Nations, experts and entrepreneurs from NGOs, universities will also participate in this conference.
  • The conference will discuss ways to develop and use ‘blue economy’, that is, sustainable use of marine resources for economic progress.
  • The conference will seriously discuss topics such as increasing ocean acidification, pollution, illegal fishing and harm to habitats and biodiversity, and ways to deal with them will be found.
  • The United Nations has set 10 ocean-related goals, which are to be achieved by the end of this decade under the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
  • These include reducing and preventing pollution and acidification, protecting ecosystems, regulating fishing, and increasing scientific knowledge, among other goals that will be discussed during the conference.
The inextricable link between the ocean and global climate
  • According to the latest report on climate change by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the average rate of rise in global sea level during 2013 to 2021 was 4.5 mm per year. Because the rate of melting of frozen water sheets has accelerated.
  • It is noteworthy that oceans provide oxygen, food and livelihood to all of us. In addition, they support biodiversity. In addition, the oceans stabilize the climate and absorb greenhouse gases. According to UN figures, 68 million people are living in low-lying coastal areas, and their number is expected to increase to one billion by the year 2050.
  • In addition, by the end of this decade, about 40 million people will be employed in ocean-based industries.

 

Abortion laws in America

Paper 2- International Issues
Why Should You Know?

Recently In one of its important decisions, the US Supreme Court has overturned a five-decade-old decision that legalized abortion.

In details –
  • In the US, the Supreme Court has overturned a 50-year-old decision in which abortion was considered a constitutional right of women.
  • The Supreme Court, with a majority of six to three, upheld the Republican-backed Mississippi law, which prohibits abortions after 15 weeks.
  • This decision will change the abortion laws in America.More than 50 percent of US states are expected to implement the new sanctions.
  • 13 provinces have also passed orders outlawing abortion after the Supreme Court’s decision.
  • President Joe. Biden has criticized the decision to end abortion rights and called it putting women’s lives at risk in the name of the ideal.
  • Anti-abortion laws have been debated in America for a long time. A recent Pew survey found that nearly 61 percent of adults said abortion should be completely legal or, in most cases, legal. Whereas 37 percent said that this should not happen.
Background –
  • In 1971, a petition was filed in the Supreme Court on behalf of a woman who failed to get an abortion. It was called the Roe vs. Wade case. It called for easy access to abortion facilities and said that the decision of pregnancy and abortion should rest with the woman and not the government.
  • Two years later, in 1973, the court gave its verdict in this case. The court declared abortion legal and said that the constitution gives the pregnant woman the right to take decisions related to abortion. After this, it became obligatory for hospitals to provide abortion facilities to women.
  • But after that the matter caught fire. This was a big issue for religious groups because they believed that the fetus had the right to life. The views of the Democratic Party and the Republican Party differed on this issue. By 1980, this issue started becoming a cause of polarization.
  • In the decade that followed, many states implemented rules banning abortion, while many continued to give these rights to women.
  • In the current session of the Supreme Court, when the case of Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization came up, then once again the debate about abortion broke out.
  • This was the case of Mississippi, in which the state law was challenged (the law on the prohibition of abortion after the 15th week).
  • The Conservative-majority Court, ruling in favor of the state, effectively abolished the constitutional right to abortion.
  • Five judges were in favor of this decision, while three judges disagreed with this decision of the majority.
What is the law in india ?
  • In India, the law regarding abortion was amended last year, after which the valid period for abortion was increased from 20 weeks to 24 weeks.
  • According to the Ministry of Health and Welfare, on 16 March 2021, the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Bill, 2020 in India was passed in the Rajya Sabha.
  • It said that the period of validity for abortion has been extended for specific types of women, which will be defined by amendment in the MTP rules and include rape victims, victims of sexual contact with relatives and other vulnerable women (women with disabilities)., minor) would also be involved.
  • Earlier, India had the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971, in which amendments have been made.
  • There was a provision in this act that if a woman is pregnant for 12 weeks, then she can get an abortion on the advice of a doctor. At the same time, the advice of two doctors was mandatory in 12-20 weeks and the woman was not allowed to have an abortion in 20-24 weeks.
  • But in this amended bill, it has been made necessary to consult a doctor at 12 and 12-20 weeks.
  • Apart from this, if the fetus is of 20-24 weeks, then some category of women will have to consult two doctors and if the fetus is more than 24 weeks, then permission will be given only after medical advice.

 

India is the fourth largest gold recycler

Paper 3 – Economy
Why Should You Know?

According to a recent report by the World Gold Council (WGC) now India is the fourth largest gold recycling country.

In details –
  • According to a recent report by the World Gold Council (WGC), India will be the fourth-largest gold recycling country in 2021, recycling 75 tonnes, or 6.5% of all gold recycled globally.
  • According to the WGC report, 11% of India’s gold supply originated from ‘old gold’ during the last five years, driven by changes in the gold price, future gold price forecasts, and the wider economic outlook.
  • According to WGC’s research, gold recycling (jewellery, manufacturing scrap, and end-of-life industrial scrap) is influenced by price movements of the yellow metal, current and future expectations, and the economic backdrop.
  • A 1% increase in the price of gold raises recycling by 0.6% in the short run. Positive GDP growth in the same year and the preceding year, on the other hand, reduces recycling by 0.3% and 0.6%, respectively. “In addition, a 1% rise in jewellery demand reduces recycling by 0.1%,” according to WGC.
  • India’s organised gold refining capacity has also increased significantly over the years, from roughly 300 tonnes in 2013 to around 1,800 tonnes in 2021.
What is World Gold Council?
  • The World Gold Council is the market development organisation for the gold industry. It works across all parts of the industry, from gold mining to investment, and their aim is to stimulate and sustain demand for gold.
  • They frequently publish research that demonstrates gold’s strength as a preserver of wealth – both for investors and countries.
  • They also provide analysis of the industry, offering insights into the drivers of gold demand. They have also launched various products such as SPDR GLD and gold accumulation plans in India and China.
  • The World Gold Council is an association whose members comprise the world’s leading gold mining companies. It helps to support its members to mine in a responsible way and developed the Conflict Free Gold Standard.
  • Headquartered in London, United Kingdom, they have offices in India, China, Singapore and the United States.

 

International Day of the Seafarer 2022

Paper 2 – International Issues
Why Should You Know?

Every year the International Day of the Seafarer/ Sailor is observed on 25 june.

In details –
  • International Seafarers Day is organized every year on 25 June, which aims to recognize the invaluable contribution of seafarers to the commerce and economic system around the world.
  • Sailor’s Day was established by Resolution 19, adopted by the Diplomatic Conference in Manila in 2010, which adopted revised standards for training, certification and monitoring for seafarers. After this, the first ‘International Sailor Day’ was organized in the year 2011.
  • The primary goal of starting this day is to make the general public aware of the important role seafarers play in global trade and transportation. Along with this, the day also urges private ship companies to provide adequate facilities to their sailors for safe travel at sea.
  • At the same time, the day encourages governments, shipping organizations, companies, shipowners and all other relevant parties to take action to duly and appropriately promote and celebrate Sailor’s Day.
Theme –
  • The IMO has aptly themed this year’s campaign ‘Your voyage – then and now, share your journey’.
  • This spotlights each seafarer’s voyage, examining how it has evolved over time and what remains at the heart of seafarers’ reality.
  • #SeafarerJourney is the new hashtag for this campaign and participating seafarers will be posting two photos – one from their first voyage and another from their latest/ most recent voyage – sharing changes that they have experienced/ learned.
  • Anyone paying tribute to seafarers is also encouraged to use this hashtag to be a part of the campaign on social media.
About International Maritime Organization (IMO) –
  • The International Maritime Organization or IMO is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is authorized to regulate the traffic of ships.
  • It was established in the year 1948 through an agreement during the Geneva Convention.
  • The first meeting of the IMO was held in the year 1959, almost 10 years after its establishment.
  • At present, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has a total of 174 members and 3 associate members and is headquartered in London.
  • It is an international standards-setting authority primarily responsible for improving the safety of international shipping and preventing pollution caused by ships.

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