Ojaank IAS Academy




28 September 2022 – Current Affairs

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MoU signed between ISA and ICAO

Paper 2- International Relations
Why Should You Know?
Recenty a MoU was signed between International Solar Alliance(ISA) and international Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)
In details –
  • In a ceremony held on the sidelines of the 42th Session of International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) Assembly in Montreal on 26 September 2022, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between International Solar Alliance (ISA) and ICAO in the presence of Shri Jyotiraditya M. Scindia, Minister of Civil Aviation of India, H.E. Monsieur Clement Beaunne, Minister of Transport of France and Mr. Salvatore Sciacchitano, President of the ICAO Council.
  • Under the MoU the ICAO and ISA will scale up the deployment of solar energy solutions for aircraft, airports, and other aviation-related applications.
  • During the visit of Minister Jyotiraditya M. Scindia to Montreal in May 2022, the idea of ICAO becoming a partner organisation of ISA was mooted by the Minister in his meeting with President of ICAO.
  • In a period of four months, the MoU was agreed and concluded.
  • The conclusion of MoU between ISA and ICAO in the presence of Ministers from India and France carries forward the legacy of the bold initiative laid down by Shri Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India and H.E. Francois Hollande, former President of France in 2015 at COP 21 in Paris.
About ISA
  • The International Solar Alliance was launched by the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and the French President Emmanuel Macron in 2015 to implement the Paris agreement on climate change.
  • The ISA is an alliance of 121 signatory countries and 32 partner organizations including many UN organizations. ISA works for efficient consumption of solar energy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels.
  • ISA strives to devise cost effective and transformational solutions for using renewable energy to member countries with a particular focus in delivering on impact in LDCs and SlDCs.
  • India has pledged for Net Zero Carbon goal in 2070 in COP 26. Its approach continues to be human-centric, based on respect and national ownership principles, with commitment to one and all. India has pledged a target of installing 175 GW of renewable energy of which 100 GW will be solar energy by 2022 and reduction in emission intensity by 33-35% by 2030, to let solar energy reach the most unconnected villages and communities. Cochin International Airport in India became the world’s first fully Solar powered airport in the world in 2015.
  • India, with the support of France, has invited nations to facilitate infrastructure for implementation of solar projects. The alliance has committed one trillion dollars as investment, and it is committed to making the costs of solar power more affordable for remote and inaccessible communities.
About ICAO
  • International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations, Headquarterd in  Montreal, Canada
  • It  was set up on 4 April 1947.
  • Currently it has 193 Members countries
  • The ICAO is dedicated to developing safe and efficient international air transport for peaceful purposes and ensuring a reasonable opportunity for every state to operate international airlines.
  • ICAO is committed towards reducing carbon emissions in aviation sector through its numerous initiatives and goals. In this noble initiative, Partnership between ISA and ICAO through this MoU could not have come at a better time, as it will trigger a range of interventions towards developing capacity of States to use solar energy.
  • It will work towards providing information, providing advocacy, capacity building and demonstration projects. It will enable the solarization of aviation sector across all Member States.

Cryogenic Engine Manufacturing Facility

Paper 3 – Science & Tech
Why Should You Know?
Recently President of India Inaugurated Integrated Cryogenic Engine Manufacturing Facility of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.
In details
  • The President of India, Smt Droupadi Murmu, inaugurated the Integrated Cryogenic Engine Manufacturing Facility of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) in Bengaluru today (September 27, 2022).
  • Addressing the gathering, the President said that inauguration of the Integrated Cryogenic Engine Manufacturing Facility is indeed a historic moment not only for HAL and ISRO, but also for the whole country to have a state-of-the-art facility to manufacture Cryogenic and Semi-cryogenic Engines. She said that HAL has contributed immensely to India’s self reliance in defence.
  • It can be said that HAL has been the force behind the forces. HAL has time and again demonstrated its capabilities in research, development and manufacturing of various Aircraft Platforms.
India became the sixth country in the world
  • The President said that ISRO has been the pride of the nation. When this institution started operations in the 1960s, India was still a young Republic, facing challenges of severe poverty and illiteracy. But there was immense potential.
  • The rapid pace, with which ISRO has grown, caught the attention of even the most advanced and technologically developed countries.
  • Sincere efforts and dedication of ISRO have made India emerge as the sixth country in the world to have Cryogenic Engine Manufacturing Capabilities.
  • The President said that HAL and ISRO together contribute to strategic defence and development. Both the organizations have played a major role in the development of various equipment and programmes which have reinforced the security and development of our country. HAL with its high end facility of manufacturing defence related equipment has proved to be an invaluable asset for our country.
What is a Cryogenic Engine?
  • A cryogenic engine/ cryogenic stage is the last stage of space launch vehicles which makes use of Cryogenics. Notebly Cryogenics is the study of the production and behaviour of materials at extremely low temperatures (below -150 degree Centigrade) to lift and place the heavier objects in space.
  • Cryogenic stage is technically a much more complexed system with respect to solid or liquid propellant (stored on earth) stages due to the usage of propellants at extremely low temperatures.
  • A cryogenic engine provides more force with each kilogram of cryogenic propellant it uses compared to other propellants, such as solid and liquid propellant rocket engines and is more efficient.
  • Cryogenic engine makes use of Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) as propellants which liquefy at -183 deg C and -253 deg C respectively. LOX and LH2 are stored in their respective tanks.
  • From there they are pumped in to turbo pump by individual booster pumps to ensure a high flow rate of propellants inside the combustion/thrust chamber.
  • The major components of a cryogenic rocket engine are combustion/thrust chamber, igniter, fuel injector, fuel cryo pumps, oxidizer cryo pumps, gas turbine, cryo valves, regulators, the fuel tanks and a rocket engine nozzle.

Zonal Institute of Virology

Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?
Recently President of India Laid The Foundation Stone for The Zonal Institute of Virology (South Zone).
In details –
  • On September 27, 2022 President of India Inaugurated Integrated Cryogenic Engine Manufacturing Facility of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, she also Laid The Foundation Stone for The Zonal Institute of Virology (South Zone).
  • Speaking about the Covid pandemic, the President said that the resilience and extraordinary effort of our doctors and scientists helped us deal with the crisis. She noted that the Indian Council of Medical Research has provided exemplary support for effective COVID management and is expanding its research infrastructure.
  • National Institute of Virology, Pune under Indian Council of Medical Research, is also taking all possible steps to increase R&D in the field of virology.
  • She was happy to note that the National Institute of Virology has been designated as one of the collaborating laboratories of the World Health Organization.
  • She said that the expansion of National Institute of Virology through Zonal Campuses across the country catering to the demands in the different geographical regions is praiseworthy.
About National Institute of Virology
  • The National Institute of Virology in Pune, India is an Indian virology research institute and part of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).
  • It was previously known as ‘Virus Research Centre’ and was founded in collaboration with the Rockefeller Foundation. It has been designated as a WHO H5 reference laboratory for SE Asia region.
  • The Virus Research Centre (VRC), Pune came into existence in 1952 under the joint auspices of the ICMR and the Rockefeller Foundation, as a part of the global programme of investigations on the arthropod-borne group of viruses.
  • In view of its expanded scope and activities, the VRC was re-designated as the National Institute of Virology (NIV) in 1978.
  • The NIV is identified today as the WHO Collaborating Centres for arboviruses reference and hemorrhagic fever reference and research. NIV is also the National Monitoring Centre for Influenza, Japanese encephalitis, Rota, Measles, Hepatitis and Coronavirus.

G-20 Summit

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?
Union Minister Shri Narendra Singh Tomar arrived in Bali, Indonesia-20.
In details
  • The Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Shri Narendra Singh Tomar, accompanied by a high level delegation of the Ministry, arrived in Bali, Indonesia on September 27, 2022 on a three day visit to 𝚊ttend the G-20 Summit.
  • Shri Tomar held separate bilateral meetings with the Canadian Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Ms. Marie-Claude Bibeau and Australia Assistant Minister for Trade and Manufacturing, Mr. Tim Ayres in Bali.
  • In his bilateral meetings, Shri Tomar extended invitation to both the ministers for the G-20 Agri-Summit to be hosted by India next year. Besides, he sought their support for the International Year of Millets – 2023 to be celebrated under India’s stewardship. The Australian and Canadian Ministers assured their cooperation.
  • The announcement stated that the summit’s priorities are being “firmed up,” and that discussions will include “women’s empowerment, digital public infrastructure, health, agriculture, education, culture, tourism, climate financing, circular economy, global food security, energy security, green hydrogen, disaster risk reduction and resilience, fight against economic crime, and multilateral reforms.”
  • India will host over 200 G20-related meetings across the country during its presidency of the G20, which will begin on December 1, 2022 and end on November 30, 2023.
  • Bangladesh, Egypt, Mauritius, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Oman, Singapore, Spain, and the UAE will be “guest countries” at the G20 Leaders’ Summit in New Delhi on September 9 and 10, 2023, the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) announced on September 13.
  • It is noteworthy that India is currently a member of the G20 Troika [current, previous, and incoming G20 Presidency], which includes Indonesia, Italy, and India.
About the G20
  • The G20 is a formal organization of 20 major economies of the world, including 19 countries and 1 European Union.
  • The G-20 is seen as an extension of the G-7, a group of the world’s most powerful countries. The G-7 comprises France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK, the US and Canada. In 1998, the group also joined Russia and it became G-8 from G-7.
  • Russia was separated from the group in 2014 due to the annexation of Ukraine’s Crimea region and once again became the G-7. In 1999, the G-8 countries met in Cologne, Germany, in which asia’s economic crisis was discussed.
  • After this, it was decided to bring the countries with twenty powerful economies of the world on one platform. In December 1999, the G-20 group met for the first time in Berlin. Later, the G-8 was recognized as a political and the G-20 as an economic forum.
  • The G20 is composed of most of the world’s largest economies, including both industrialized and developing nations, and accounts for around 80% of gross world product (GWP), 75–80% of international trade,
  • Two-thirds of the global population,and roughly half the world’s land area.
  • It works to address major issues related to the global economy, such as international financial stability, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development.
  • The G20 does not have a permanent secretariat or Headquarters. Instead, the G20 president is responsible for bringing together the G20 agenda in consultation with other members and in response to developments in the global economy.
  • The G20 Presidency rotates annually according to a system that ensures a regional balance over time. Every year when a new country takes on the presidency, it works hand in hand with the previous presidency and the next presidency and this is collectively known as TROIKA.
Member Countries
  • USA, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa,  South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the European Union.
  • Spain is a permanent guest who is specially invited every year. Every year, in addition to Spain, g20 guests include the president of ASEAN countries including two African countries (president of the African Union and representative of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development) and one country (sometimes more than one) invited by the president of the G20.

Campaign on Fortified Rice

Paper 3 – Agriculture
Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?
Recently experts highlighted the positive impact of fortified rice on public health in an IEC campaign conducted on Fortified Rice in Tribal Areas in five States.
In details
  • In order to popularise and create awareness about the benefit of Fortified Rice specially in Tribal Areas of the country, the Department of Food and Public Distribution (DFPD) and States governments of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Telangana Rajasthan, Kerala organized workshops and seminars in the tribal belts and districts that have populations that are vulnerable to Thalassemia and Sickle Cell Anemia.
  • workshops/seminars was organised in 8 locations across 5 States namely: vapi in Gujarat, Nandurabar and Nashik in Maharashtra, Kanker in Chhattisgarh, Barwani, Shahdol in Madhyapradesh and East Singhbhum, Jamshedpur in Jharkhand.
  • The experts discussed the importance of Fortification and how it will boost nutritional requirements of the people of the country.
  • Notebly Fortification is the process of adding Fortified Rice Kernels (FRK), containing FSSAI prescribed micronutrients (Iron, Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) to normal Rice (Custom Milled Rice) in the ratio of 1:100 (Mixing 1 Kg of FRK with 100 Kg custom milled rice).
  • Fortified rice is nearly identical to traditional rice in aroma, taste, and texture. This process is done in the rice mills at the time of milling of rice.
  • Rice fortification ecosystem has been enhanced significantly on boarding rice millers, FRK manufacturers, industries and other stakeholders for production and supply of fortified rice to meet the target requirement.
  • There are more than 9000 rice mills in the country which have installed blending infrastructure for production of fortified rice and their cumulative monthly production capacity is around 60 LMT which is increased by more than 4 times since last year.
  • Fortification of rice is found to be a cost-effective and complementary strategy to increase vitamin and mineral content in diets with low turnaround time (TAT) and a step towards nutritional security and helps in fighting anaemia and malnutrition in the country. This strategy is implemented in many geographies in the world.
What is Fortification?
  • Nutrients (vitamins and minerals) reach our body through food. But in today’s era, due to changing eating habits and unbalanced food of the poor class, their shortage has increased.
  • To overcome this, vitamins and minerals made by companies are added to foods through processing.
  • That is, separate vitamins and minerals are delivered to our food. This whole process is called food fortification.
What is Fortified Rice?
  • Fortification of rice, thus, is the way to increase the amount of micronutrients required in rice and improve the nutritional quality of rice. It is a process similar to making salt iodized.
  • Fortified rice is rich in nutrients like iron, vitamin B12, folic acid compared to normal rice. Due to the good amount of these nutrients in rice, their nutritional value is also very high. And anyone who eats this rice is not a victim of malnutrition.
  • According to FSSAI norms, 1 kg of fortified rice should contain iron (28 mg-42.5mg), folic acid (75-125 micrograms) and vitamin B-12 (0.75-1.25 micrograms). In addition, rice is mixed with micronutrients, single or in combination, with zinc (10mg-15 mg), vitamin A (500-750 micrograms RE), vitamin B1(1 mg-1.5mg), vitamin B2(1.25mg-1.75 mg), vitamins B3(12.5mg-20 mg) and vitamin B6(1.5 mg-2.5mg) can also be strengthened at the level per kilogram.
Need in India
  • There is no exact data available on the status of nutrients among the citizens of the country. For this, based on the survey of various agencies, it is believed that about 60-70 percent of the people of the country are deficient in nutrients.
  • According to the report of the National Institute of Nutrition, the food received by children in 40 percent of the households in the country is unbalanced. 55% of children under the age of five are underweight.
  • Similarly, the amount of vitamin A in children up to the age of five years is less than normal. 52 percent of children are underweight. At the same time, 35 percent of men and women are facing energy shortage.
  • Apart from this, the amount of protein, iron, calcium, thiamine in people’s food is constantly decreasing.
  • Malnutrition is a serious problem in India. India’s number in the Global Food Security Index of 113 countries was 71st in 2021. According to the Food Ministry, on an average, every second woman in the country is anaemic and every third child is weak.
  • According to the National Family Health Survey-4, 38.4 per cent of children under the age of five in India are underweight. Of the women and girls, 53.1 per cent were anaemic. When women suffering from anemia give birth to a child, they are also likely to have anemia.


Paper 3- Security
Why Should You Know?
Recently Successful Flight Tested of Very Short Range Air Defence System (VSHORADS) Missile by DRDO.
In details
  • DRDO conducted two successful test flight of Very Short Range Air Defence System (VSHORADS) missile on 27 Sep 2022 from a ground based portable launcher at the Integrated Test Range, Chandipur, off the coast of Odisha.
  • VSHORADS is a Man Portable Air Defence System (MANPAD) designed and developed indigenously by DRDO’s Research Centre Imarat (RCI), Hyderabad in collaboration with other DRDO laboratories and Indian Industry Partners.
  • VSHORADS missile incorporates many novel technologies including miniaturized Reaction Control System (RCS) and integrated avionics, which have been successfully proven during the tests.
  • The missile, meant for neutralizing low altitude aerial threats at short ranges is propelled by a dual thrust solid motor. The design of the missile including launcher has been highly optimized to ensure easy portability. Both the flight tests have completely met the mission objectives.
  • Hon’ble Raksha Mantri, Shri Rajnath Singh complimented and appreciated the efforts of DRDO and industry partners and said that this new missile equipped with modern technologies will give further technological boost to the Armed Forces. Secretary DDR&D and Chairman DRDO congratulated the entire VSHORADS team for this tremendous success.
About DRDO
  • The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is the premier agency under the Department of Defence Research and Development in Ministry of Defence of the Government of India, charged with the military’s research and development,
  • It is headquartered in Delhi, India. It was formed in 1958 by the merger of the Technical Development Establishment and the Directorate of Technical Development and Production of the Indian Ordnance Factories with the Defence Science Organisation.
  • Subsequently, Defence Research & Development Service (DRDS) was constituted in 1979 as a service of Group ‘A’ Officers / Scientists directly under the administrative control of Ministry of Defence.
  • With a network of 52 laboratories, which are engaged in developing defence technologies, covering various fields, like aeronautics, armaments, electronics, land combat engineering, life sciences, materials, missiles, and naval systems, DRDO is India’s largest and most diverse research organisation.
  • Presently, the Organisation is backed by over 5000 scientists and about 25,000 other scientific, technical and supporting personnel.

12th edition of DefExp

Paper 3 – Security
Why Should You Know?
Recently Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh reviewed DefExpo 2022 preparations in New Delhi
In details
  • Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh reviewed the preparations of the forthcoming DefExpo 2022 at a meeting in New Delhi on September 27, 2022. During the meeting, the Raksha Mantri was briefed by officials about the extensive arrangements being made by multiple stakeholders for the event.
  • He expressed satisfaction at the preparations, while encouraging the officials to make the DefExpo 2022 the best-ever defence exhibition. Raksha Rajya Mantri Shri Ajay Bhatt, Defence Secretary Dr Ajay Kumar and other senior officials of Ministry of Defence were present in the meeting.​
About DefExpo- 2022
  • ​The 12th edition of DefExpo, scheduled to be held in Gandhinagar, Gujarat between October 18-22, 2022, will be the biggest ever as a record 1,136 companies have registered for the event as on September 27, 2022 and the numbers are expected to rise.
  • The event is being planned in the largest ever total area of over one lakh sqm (previous edition being 76,000 sqm).
  • The theme of 12th DefExpo is ‘Path to Pride’ which is in line with Indian government’s vision to transform India into a strong and self-reliant nation by supporting, showcasing and forging partnerships for the Indian Aerospace and Defence manufacturing sectors with Indian as well as global customers.
  • The event will showcase the might of the domestic defence industry which is now powering ‘Make in India, Make for the World’ resolve of the Government and the nation at large.
  • The event will be the first-ever edition exclusively for Indian companies. Indian companies, Indian subsidiaries of Foreign OEMs, Division of company registered in India, Exhibitor having Joint Venture with an Indian company will be considered as Indian participants.
  • The DefExpo 2022 will also mark the celebration of one year of the formation of the seven new defence companies, carved out of the erstwhile Ordnance Factory Board. All these companies will be participating for the first time at DefExpo.​
Five-day exhibition
  • The 12th DefExpo will be a five-day exhibition, with October 18-20 being business days and October 21 & 22 for public display. For the first time, the event will be held in a four-venue format.
  • The inaugural ceremony and seminars will be held at Mahatma Mandir Convention and Exhibition Centre; Exhibition at Helipad Exhibition Centre; Live Demonstrations at Sabarmati River Front and ship visits for public by Indian Navy & Indian Coast Guard at Porbandar. The biggest-ever drone-show by IIT Delhi start-up M/s Botlabs, which is an iDEX winner, has also been organised.
2nd edition of the India-Africa Defence Dialogue
  • In addition, the exhibition will host the 2nd edition of the India-Africa Defence Dialogue, in which several Defence Ministers from African countries are expected to participate. A separate Indian Ocean Region plus conclave has also been planned.
Indigenous defence products
  • The India Pavilion – a marque pavilion of Department of Defence Production, Ministry of Defence – will showcase the maturity of indigenous defence products, start-ups, latest technology, including Artificial Intelligence in defence, and will present India’s vision for 2047.
  • It has been named ‘Path to Pride’. Over 50 start-ups will showcase their products at the pavilion. For the first time, States/Union Territories have been invited to set up pavilions at the event, with several confirming their participation.
  • More than 300 partnerships in terms of MoUs, Transfer of Technology agreements and product launches are being finalised.
  • In another first, Raksha Mantri Awards for Excellence in Defence Manufacturing will be presented during the DefExpo.

Dadasaheb Phalke Award

Paper 2 – Awards
Why Should You Know?
Asha Parekh to be honoured with Dadasaheb Phalke Award, 2020
In details
  • Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has today(sept 27) announced that the Dadasaheb Phalke Award for the year 2020 will be accorded to legendary actress Ms Asha Parekh.
  • The award will be presented at the National Film Award ceremony in New Delhi.
  • Announcing the decision Union Minister Shri Anurag Thakur said “I am honoured to announce that the Dadasaheb Phalke Selection Jury has decided to recognise & award Ms Asha Parekh ji for her exemplary lifetime contribution to Indian Cinema.” The Minister also announced that the 68th National Film Awards will be held on 30th September, 2022 and will be presided over by President of India Smt Droupadi Murmu.
About Asha Parekh
  • Ms Asha Parekh is a renowned film actress, director and producer and an accomplished Indian classical dancer. Starting her career as a child actor she made her debut as lead heroine in Dil Deke Dekho and has gone on to act in over 95 movies. She has acted in celebrated films like Kati Patang, Teesri Manzil, Love in Tokyo, Aya Saawan Jhoom Ke, Aan Milo Sajna, Mera Gaon Mera Desh.
  • Ms Asha Parekh was conferred the Padma Shri in 1992. She has also served as the head of Central Board for Film Certification from 1998-2001.
Jury members

Shri Anurag Thakur also announced that the decision to confer the award to Ms Parekh was taken by a jury of five members. The jury for the selection of 52nd Dadasaheb Phalke award consisted of five members from the film industry:

  • Ms Asha Bhosle
  • Ms Hema Malini
  • Ms Poonam Dhillon
  • Shri T. S. Nagabharana
  • Shri Udit Narayan
About Dadasaheb Phalke Award
  • The Dadasaheb Phalke Award is India’s highest award in the field of cinema. It is presented annually at the National Film Awards ceremony by the Directorate of Film Festivals, an organisation set up by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
  • Presented first in 1969, the award was introduced by the Government of India to commemorate Dadasaheb Phalke’s contribution to Indian cinema.
  • Phalke (1870–1944), who is popularly known as and often regarded as “the father of Indian cinema”, was an Indian filmmaker who directed India’s first full-length feature film, Raja Harishchandra (1913).
  • The recipient is honoured for their “outstanding contribution to the growth and development of Indian cinema” and is selected by a committee consisting of eminent personalities from the Indian film industry.
  • The award comprises a Swarna Kamal (Golden Lotus) medallion, a shawl, and a cash prize of ₹1,000,000 (US$13,000).
  • Note – The first recipient of Dadasaheb Phalke Award award was actress Devika Rani

National SC-ST Hub Mega Event

Paper 2 – Social Justice
Why Should You Know?
National SC-ST Hub Mega Event/Conclave to be held at Ahmedabad, Gujarat on September 28, 2022.
In details –
  • Member of Parliament and Chairman, Parliamentary Standing Committee on Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Welfare, Shri Kirit Premjibhai Solanki will preside over the National Scheduled Caste-Scheduled Tribe Hub Conference on September 28, 2022.
  • The Conclave is being organized by the Ministry of MSME, Govt. of India to spread awareness of the National SC-ST Hub (NSSH) Scheme and other Schemes of the Ministry.  It will also be a time to interact with aspiring/existing SC-ST entrepreneurs, CPSEs, Industry Associations, lending institutions to enhance participation of SC-ST MSEs in public procurement.
  • Notebly MSME sector plays a significant role in terms of job creation and improving livelihood. Currently, it consists of over 6 crore units employing over 11 crore people, contributing significantly to economic growth with nearly 30% of contribution to GDP and more than 45% of overall exports from India.
NSSH scheme
  • For inclusive growth of the Indian economy, Ministry of MSME, Govt. of India has launched National Scheduled Caste Scheduled Tribe Hub (NSSH) scheme.
  • It is aimed at capacity enhancement and promoting “entrepreneurship culture” amongst the SC-ST population for enhancing their participation in the public procurement.
  • It is being implemented by National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC), a CPSE under the Ministry of MSME.
  • Given the impact of MSMEs on our economy, it is imperative that focused efforts are given to promote entrepreneurship amongst the youth and create a conducive ecosystem where they play an integral role in development of Indian economy to realize the 5 trillion USD economy.
  • Nurturing the MSME sector is important for the economic well-being of the nation. M/o MSME is consistently working to empower MSMEs for sustainable growth and to become compatible in the global value chain.
  • State level conclaves will help the SC-ST MSMEs to expand their horizons by incorporating new ideas as they become aware of the various interventions given by the Government.

‘Sign Learn’ App

Paper 2 – Social Justice
Why Should You Know?
Recently The Centre government launched an Indian Sign Language (ISL) dictionary mobile application called ‘Sign Learn’
In details
  • The Centre government launched an Indian Sign Language (ISL) dictionary mobile application called ‘Sign Learn’ containing 10,000 words.
  • The app was launched by Minister of State for Social Justice and Empowerment Pratima Bhoumik.
  • Sign Learn is based on the Indian sign language dictionary of the Indian Sign Language Research And Training Centre (ISLRTC) which contains 10,000 words.
  • The app is available in Android as well as iOS versions, and all the words in the ISL dictionary can be searched through Hindi or English medium.
  • The sign videos of the app can also be shared on social media.
  • “The app has been developed to make the ISL dictionary easily available and to make it more accessible for the public at large,” a senior official said.
  • Notably, ISLRTC had recently signed an MoU with the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) on October 6, 2020 for converting NCERT textbooks from classes 1 to 12 into the Indian Sign Language (digital format) to make the textbooks accessible to children with hearing disabilities.
  • This year, ISL e-content of NCERT textbooks of class 6 was launched, the official added.
  • Under Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav, the Centre had launched ISL versions of selected books of National Book Trust’s ‘Veergatha’ series.
  • With the joint effort of ISLRTC and NCERT, 500 academic words in Indian Sign Language were launched. These academic words are used at the secondary level which are often used in history, science, political science and mathematics, the official added.

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