Ojaank IAS Academy




29 July 2022 – Current Affairs

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International Tiger Day

Paper 3- Biodiversity
Why Should You Know?
World Tiger Day is celebrated across the world on 29 July to protect tigers and save their species from extinction.
In details –
  • The number of tigers, once on the verge of extinction in the country, is increasing rapidly in the country today. World Tiger Day is celebrated to protect tigers and save their species from extinction.
  • World Tiger Day is celebrated across the world on 29 July. It is worth noting that tiger is the national animal of India, despite which tigers in India reached the verge of extinction in the year 2010.
  • It is noteworthy that tigers are found in only 13 countries of the world, while 70 percent of its tigers are in India only. In the year 2010, the number of tigers in India had reached close to 1700.
  • After which a summit was organized in Saint Petersburg, Russia in 2010 to spread awareness about tigers among the people. In which it was announced to celebrate International Tiger Day every year. In this conference, many countries have set a target of doubling the number of tigers by 2022.
  • Through International Tiger Day, people are made aware about the conservation of tigers. Apart from this, people are also told the importance of tigers in the ecosystem. As a result of which the number of tigers is increasing rapidly in the country.
  • The theme for world tiger day 2022 “India launches Project Tiger to revive the tiger population”. Adopting a tiger might do wonders for the WWF and the work it does. The organization support initiatives that collaborate with regional people to safeguard tigers and take strong action against poaching and illegal trade.
  • According to the census done in the year 2010, the number of tigers in India was 1706, while according to the census of the year 2018, the number of tigers in the country has increased to 2967.
  • At present, with the rapid increase in the number of tigers across the country, their occupancy area is also increasing. According to a report, the number of tigers in the country is increasing rapidly in Kerala, Uttarakhand, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh.
  • The tiger census is conducted every four years across the country. By which their growth rate is ascertained. In the year 1973, there were only 9 tiger reserves across the country, whose number has now increased to 53.
Habitat and life –
  • The tiger is considered an endangered species. They are also called ‘Umbrella Species’ because their conservation also protects many other species in the same habitat.
  • While India is set to increase its tiger population due to human encroachment and poorly planned development projects, there has been an increase in the frequency of conflicts between tigers and the people living with them. More serious and concerted attention to human-tiger conflicts is essential to prevent or reduce such public hostility towards tigers.
  • The main threat to the tiger population nowadays is the loss of their natural habitat. Tigers around the world have lost about 93 percent of their natural habitat. These habitats have mostly been destroyed by human activities.
  • Due to the small natural habitat and hunting grounds of tigers, tigers sometimes prey on domestic animals and when they do so, farmers often retaliate and kill the tigers.
  • Earlier in India many forest dwelling groups lived side by side with the wildlife. Take for example the Idu-Mishmi of Arunachal Pradesh. They still respect the tiger as their ‘brother’. They consider the killing of a tiger tantamount to killing a family member and this bond has protected the tigers and their habitat in that corner of the country.
  • Where possible, partnerships with local community-based organizations should be strengthened to reduce conflict situations as well as increase participation in conservation planning and efforts.
Project Tiger –
  • A project was started by the Government of India in 1973 to save tigers from extinction, which was named Project Tiger. Under this, Tiger Reserves were created.
  • Where there were 9 tiger reserves in 1973-74, now their number has increased to 53.
  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) was formed in 2005 by the Environment Ministry, which was given the responsibility of implementing Project Tiger.
  • Madhya Pradesh (526), ​​Karnataka (524), Uttarakhand (442) tigers have the highest number of tigers in India. If these three states are merged, then 50 percent tigers are in these states.

44th Chess Olympiad

Paper 2 – Games
Why Should You Know?
On July 28, 2022 The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi declared open the 44th Chess Olympiad.
In details –
  • The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi declared open the 44th Chess Olympiad at JLN Indoor Stadium, Chennai.
  • Addressing the gathering, the Prime Minister welcomed all the players and chess lovers from all over the world to India.
  • The Prime Minister noted that the 44th Chess Olympiad has been a tournament of many firsts and records. This is the first time the Chess Olympiad is being held in the place of origin of chess, India. It is coming to Asia for the first time in 3 decades. It has the highest ever number of countries participating. It has the highest ever number of teams participating. It has the highest number of entries in the women’s section. The first ever Torch Relay of the Chess Olympiad started this time, he said.
About the Olympiad –
  • The 44th Chess Olympiad (also known as the Chennai Chess Olympiad), organised by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) and comprising open and women’s tournaments, as well as several events designed to promote the game of chess, is being held in Chennai, India from 28 July to 10 August 2022.
  • This is the first Chess Olympiad to take place in India.
  • It is noteworthy that the event was initially supposed to take place in Khanty-Mansiysk(Russia), along with the Chess World Cup 2019, but was moved to Moscow and scheduled for the period from 5 to 17 August 2020.
  • However, it was postponed as a result of the growing concerns around the COVID-19 pandemic and finally relocated to Chennai following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
  • The total number of participants is 1,736, with 937 in the Open and 799 in the Women’s event.
  • The number of registered teams is 188 from 186 nations in the Open section and 162 from 160 nations in the Women’s section.Both sections set team participation records.
  • The main venue of the Chess Olympiad is the convention centre at the Four Points by Sheraton, while the opening and closing ceremonies will be held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium.
  • The Chief Arbiter of the event is France’s International Arbiter Laurent Freyd.
  • The venue of the Chess Olympiad is the convention centre at the Four Points by Sheraton in Mahabalipuram near Chennai.The opening ceremony was held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium.
Torch relay –
  • For the first time, a torch relay ceremony was conducted for the Chess Olympiads. FIDE President Arkady Dvorkovich handed over the torch to Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India, who in turn handed it over to Grandmaster Viswanathan Anand.
  • The torch was taken to 75 cities in 40 days before reaching Chennai.


Paper 3 – Economy
Why Should You Know?
Union Minister Dr Jitendra Singh says, India has a target of 300 billion US Dollars in Bioeconomy by 2030.
In details –
  • Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Science & Technology; Minister of State (Independent Charge) Earth Sciences; MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances, Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr Jitendra Singh said, India has a target of 300 billion US Dollars in Bioeconomy by 2030.
  • In a written reply to a question in the Rajya Sabha, Dr Jitendra Singh said, India registered a sustained growth in Bioeconomy from $44 Bn US in 2019 to 80.1 Bn in 2021.
  • Bioeconomy is the production, utilization and conservation of biological resources, including related knowledge, science, technology, and innovation, to provide information, products, processes and services across all economic sectors.
  • The Indian biotech industry is aligned around five major segments: BioPharma, BioAgriculture, BioIndustrial, Bio-energy and combined segment of BioServices comprising of BioIT, CROs, and Research Services.
  • Bioeconomy is seen as a means to address societal challenges. For example, use of bio-mass or renewable resources in energy production processes, use of green chemicals and materials; biofertilizers, waste reduction etc. may impact and have cascading effect on carbon footprint, food and nutrition, health, energy independence, and environmental sustainability.
  • New Innovative solutions are expected from Biotech Industry, Research Institutes and growing Biotech Startup ecosystem.
What is Bioeconomy?
  • Biobased economy, bioeconomy or biotechonomy is economic activity involving the use of biotechnology and biomass in the production of goods, services, or energy.
  • The terms are widely used by regional development agencies, national and international organizations, and biotechnology companies.
  • They are closely linked to the evolution of the biotechnology industry and the capacity to study, understand, and manipulate genetic material that has been possible due to scientific research and technological development. This includes the application of scientific and technological developments to agriculture, health, chemical, and energy industries
  • The terms bioeconomy (BE) and bio-based economy (BBE) are sometimes used interchangeably. However, it is worth to distinguish them: the biobased economy takes into consideration the production of non-food goods, whilst bioeconomy covers both bio-based economy and the production and use of food and feed.
Aims –
  • Global population growth and over consumption of many resources are causing increasing environmental pressure and climate change. Bioeconomy tackles with these challenges.
  • It aims to ensure food security and to promote more sustainable natural resource use as well as to reduce the dependence on non-renewable resources, e.g. fossil natural resources and minerals.
  • In some extent bioeconomy also helps economy to reduces greenhouse gas emissions and assists in mitigating and adapting to climate change.

Intelligent Transport System

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?
Recently the Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways, Shri Nitin Gadkari gave information about Intelligent Transport System in india, in a written reply in the Lok Sabha.
In details –
  • GSR notification 575(E) dated 11th August, 2022 provides for Electronic Monitoring and Enforcement of Road Safety which mandates that State Government shall ensure that appropriate electronic enforcement devices are placed at high risk and high density corridors on National Highways and State Highways.
  • Provision of Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS) is envisaged in high traffic density corridors which has provisions for close circuit Television (CCTV)/Pan, tilt and zoom (PTZ) cameras, Variable message signs, Vehicle Actuated Speed Display System, Automatic Traffic Counter cum Classifier, and Video Incident Detection System.
  • Implementation of the above will improve the response time of the on site assistance and help in disseminating of important information to road users thereby making them more aware.
  • The expenditure on implementation of the technology would vary from project to project. Advanced Traffic management System (ATMS) is implemented on Eastern Peripheral Expressway with an expenditure of Rs. 187.00 crores.
  • A standing Committee has been constituted for vetting of specifications pertaining to Intelligent Transport System (ITS) which includes Industry Experts, Technical Experts, authority Representatives. The mandate of the committee is to review and vet specifications of a project.
What is Intelligent Transport System?
  • An intelligent transportation system (ITS) is an advanced application which aims to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and ‘smarter’ use of transport networks.
  • Some of these technologies include calling for emergency services when an accident occurs, using cameras to enforce traffic laws or signs that mark speed limit changes depending on conditions.
  • Thus Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is a combination of leading-edge information and communication technologies used in transportation and traffic management systems to improve the safety, efficiency, and sustainability of transportation networks, to reduce traffic congestion and to enhance drivers’ experiences.
Technologies –
  • Intelligent transport systems vary in technologies applied, from basic management systems such as car navigation; traffic signal control systems; container management systems; variable message signs; automatic number plate recognition or speed cameras to monitor applications, such as security CCTV systems, and automatic incident detection or stopped vehicle detection systems; to more advanced applications that integrate live data and feedback from a number of other sources, such as parking guidance and information systems; weather information; bridge de-icing (US deicing) systems; and the like.
  • Additionally, predictive techniques are being developed to allow advanced modelling and comparison with historical baseline data. Some of these technologies are described in the following sections.
What is Advanced Traffic Management System?
  • Advanced Traffic Management system is an integrated solution to manage highway traffic through real time information collection, processing, analysis and finally dissemination to the users, concerned agencies and stake holders.
  • To ensure round the clock safety, it is of prime importance to provide real time and precise information to users about the road condition, traffic situations, incidents and weather conditions on the highway.
  • It is also important to make interventions for smooth, safe and efficient traffic movement by providing rescue and relief to the users to avoid distress.

National Road Safety Board

Paper 3- Infrastructure
Why Should You Know?
Recently the Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways, Shri Nitin Gadkari gave information about National Road Safety Board in a written reply in the Lok Sabha.
In details –
Section 215B of the Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Act, 2019 provides for constitution of National Road Safety Board to advice the Central Government or State Government, as the case may be, on all aspects pertaining to road safety and traffic management including, but not limited to,
(i)      the standards of design, weight, construction, manufacturing process, operation and maintenance of motor vehicles and of safety equipment;
(ii)     the registration and licensing of motor vehicles;
(iii)    the formulation of standards for road safety, road infrastructure and control of traffic;
(iv)    the facilitation of safe and sustainable utilisation of road transport ecosystem;
(v)     the promotion of new vehicle technology;
(vi)    the safety of vulnerable road users;
(vii)   programmes for educating and sensitising drivers and other road users; and
(viii) such other functions as may be prescribed by the Central Government from time to time.
Accordingly, the Ministry has notified constitution of the National Road Safety Board along with Rules thereof on 3rd September, 2021.
The rules empowers the board to constitute as many Technical Working Groups as it may consider necessary for the efficient discharge of its functions.
e-Detailed Accident Report (e-DAR) –
  • Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH), has initiated a World Bank funded project namely e-Detailed Accident Report (e-DAR) (erstwhile Integrated Road Accident Database (iRAD)) with support of Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Madras and National Informatics Centre Services Incorporated (NICSI) to establish a uniform accident data collection mechanism in the Country.
  • The purpose of this project is to establish a central repository for reporting, management and analysis of road accidents data across the Country to understand the causal factors of the accident and formulate interventions and policies to facilitate reduction in road accidents.
About the National Road Safety Board –
  • National Road Safety Board is established under the Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Act, 2019.
  • It is an advisory role and recommends measures for road safety to the central government.
  • The Board is responsible for promoting road safety, innovation and adoption of new technology and for regulating traffic and motor vehicles.
  • It is aimed at integrating efforts in collaboration with states to reduce road accidents and improve all aspects of safety.

Seekho aur Kamao Scheme

Paper 3 – Economy
Why Should You Know?
Recently the Union Minister for Minority Affairs Smt. Smriti Zubin Irani  gave information about Seekho aur Kamao Scheme, in a written reply in the Lok Sabha.
In details –
  • The ‘Seekho Aur Kamao’ scheme has met its target of earmarking thirty three percent of the total trained beneficiaries for female beneficiaries.
  • It is relevant to mention that the aforementioned scheme has not only met but surpassed the prescribed norm of 33% reservation for female beneficiaries. The overall percentage of females trained under the scheme since its inception is 56.59%.
  • Seekho Aur Kamao is a skill development scheme for youth of 14 – 35 years age group and aiming at providing employment and employment opportunities, improving the employability of existing workers, school dropouts etc.
  • It is noteworthy that “Seekho aur Kamao (Learn & Earn)” is a scheme implemented since 2013-14 for skill development of minorities.
  • The scheme aims at upgrading the skills of minority youth in various modern/traditional skills depending upon their qualification, present economic trends and market potential, which can earn them suitable employment or make them suitably skilled to go for self-employment.
  • The scheme is implemented through selected expert Project Implementing Agencies (PIAs).The scheme ensures placements of minimum 75% trainees, out of which at least 50% placement is in organized sector.
  • Post placement support of Rs. 2000/- per month is provided to placed trainees for two months as placement assistance.
Other Schemes –
  • This Ministry during the pandemic year i.e., 2020-21, allocated 20,000 trainees for health related job roles, to align with the national requirements for trained persons in health sector due to Covid. Further, as per the directions of DoE, the skills and livelihood schemes of the Ministry, viz, Seekho aur Kamao, USTTAD, Hamari Dharaohar, Nai Manzil and Nai Roshni have been combined into a new Scheme named PM VIKAS, which has been approved by the Cabinet and is in the process of being implemented by the Ministry.

Development of Minority Communities

Paper 2 – Social Issues
Why Should You Know?
Recently the Union Minister for Minority Affairs Smt. Smriti Zubin Irani gave information about Development of Minority Communities in india, in a written reply in Lok Sabha.
In details –
  • The details of schemes being implemented by Ministry of Minority Affairs for socio-economic and educational empowerment of the centrally notified minority communities are in Annexure.
  • Schemes being implemented by Ministry of Minority Affairs are evaluated from time to time to assess the impact of the schemes and amendments made as and when required.
  • An amount of Rs. 21946.45 crores (Revised Estimate) has been allocated during the last five financial years for the various welfare schemes of the Ministry of Minority Affairs i.e. 2017-18 to 2021-22.
Various schemes –
Details of schemes being implemented by Ministry of Minority Affairs:-
(A): Educational Empowerment Schemes:
  • (1) Pre-Matric Scholarship Scheme- Scholarship is provided to minority students from Class I to X, out of which 30% scholarship are earmarked for girls.
  • (2) Post-Matric Scholarship Scheme- Scholarship is provided to minority students from Class XI to PhD., out of which 30% scholarship are earmarked for girls.
  • (3) Merit-cum-Means based Scholarship Scheme- Scholarship is provided to minority students for Professional and Technical courses, at Under Graduate and Post Graduate level, out of which 30% scholarship are earmarked for girls.
  • All the three Scholarship schemes are on boarded on the National Scholarship Portal (NSP) and the scholarship amount is disbursed through Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) mode.
  • (4) Maulana Azad National Fellowship Scheme – Under the scheme fellowship in the form of financial assistance is provided to minority candidates who clear the UGC-NET or Joint CSIRUGC-NET examination.
  • (5) Naya Savera – Free Coaching and Allied Scheme – The Scheme aims to provide free coaching to students/candidates belonging to minority communities for qualifying in entrance examinations of technical/ medical professional courses and various Competitive examinations.
  • (6) Padho Pardesh – Under the scheme interest subsidy is provided to students of minority communities on educational loans, for overseas higher studies.
  • (7) Nai Udaan – Support is provided to minority candidates clearing Preliminary examination conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), State Public Service Commission (PSC), Staff Selection Commission (SSC) etc.
(B): Employment Oriented Schemes:
  • (8) Pradhan Mantri Virasat Ka Samvardhan (PM VIKAS) (w.e.f. 2022-23) – The 5 existing schemes of the Ministry namely Seekho aur Kamao (w.e.f. 2013-14), USTTAD (w.e.f. 2014-15), Hamari Dharohar (w.e.f. 2014-15), Nai Roshni (w.e.f. 2012-13) and Nai Manzil (w.e.f. 2016-17) have now been converged into a single scheme known as PM VIKAS. The scheme aims to improve livelihoods of minorities particularly artisan communities through skill development, education, leadership, training support, entrepreneurship interventions, supporting their business by facilitating credit and market linkages and providing new opportunities to brand and sell produce in a widened market base, created by leveraging tourism and trade circuits in the country.
(C): Infrastructure Development Scheme:
  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram (PMJVK) – A Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS), is being implemented with the objective to develop infrastructure projects in identified area.
(D): Special Schemes:         
  • (10) Jiyo Parsi – Scheme for containing population decline of Parsis in India.
  • (11). i. Qaumi Waqf Board Taraqqiati Scheme (QWBTS) –The scheme is intended to help streamlining record keeping, introduce transparency, and to computerize the various functions/processes of the Waqf Boards.
  • ii. Shahari Waqf Sampatti Vikas Yojana (SWSVY)- Under this scheme, interest free loan to Waqf Boards (WBs)/Waqf Institutions is granted for construction of economically viable buildings on the waqf land.
  • (12) Scheme for Providing Education to Madrasas/Minorities (SPEMM) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme, which has been transferred from the Department of School Education & Literacy (DoSEL), M/o Education to Ministry of Minority Affairs w.e.f. 1st April, 2021. The SPEMM comprises of two schemes namely (i) Scheme for Providing Quality Education in Madrasas (SPQEM) and (ii) Infrastructure Development in Minority Institutions (IDMI). The objective of the SPQEM scheme is inter alia, to encourage traditional institutions like Madrasas and Maktabs by giving financial assistance to introduce science, mathematics, social studies, Hindi and English in their curriculum so that academic proficiency for classes I-XII is attainable for children studying in these institutions. The process of modernization of traditional Madrasas and Maktabs is voluntary. Under IDMI, financial assistance is provided to Minority educational institutions (elementary/ secondary/senior secondary schools) as per Samagra Siksha norms to facilitate education of minorities by augmenting and strengthening school infrastructure in Minority Institutions.
  • (13) Maulana Azad Education Foundation (MAEF) implements education and skill related schemes as follows:- (a) Begum Hazrat Mahal National Scholarship for Meritorious Girls belonging to the economically weaker sections of Minorities (b) Grant-in-aid to NGOs for infrastructure development of Educational institutions.
  • (14) Equity to National Minorities Development and Finance Corporation (NMDFC) for providing concessional loans to minorities for education, self-employment, income generating ventures and micro financing.

Hariyali Mahotsav

Paper 3- Environment
Why Should You Know?
Recently The Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change organized “Hariyali Mahotsav”.
In details –
  • The Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change had organized “Hariyali Mahotsav”, the  Tree Festival, at Talkatora Stadium, New Delhi, on 8th July,2022 forcelebrating tree plantation and commemorating 75 years of Independence as ‘Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav’.
  • The event was organised in collaboration with the State Governments, Police Institutions of NCT Government of Delhi and Schools of Delhi for undertaking plantation drives and awareness generation to protect environment.
  • More than 2500 people participated in person including School Students from Delhi, Members of Eco-Task Force, and Members of Non-Government Organisation along with officials from various Ministries participated in the programme.
  • On the occasion of ‘Hariyali Mahotsav’ ceremonial plantations like 75 Nagar Vans, 75 degraded forest sites, along 75 km of road, around 75 Police establishments in Delhi and in 75 schools of Delhi were undertaken across the country through people’s participation involving School Children, NGOs, Civil Societies, officials of Police and other Govt. departments. 
  • The Ministry has issued several advisories for involvement of people encouraging their participation in various tree plantation programmes on occasions like Van/ Haryali Mahotsav, World Environment Day(5 june), and World Forestry Day(21 march) etc.
  • States and UT Governments carry out various afforestation drives to achieve their afforestation targets including mass plantation drive involving public participation.

Samudrayaan Mission

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?
Recently the Minister of State (I/C) for M/o Earth Sciences and M/o Science & Technology, Dr. Jitendra Singh gave information about Samudrayaan Mission, in Lok Sabha.
In details –
  • Samudrayaan Mission is aimed to develop a self propelled manned submersible to carry 3 human beings to a water depth of 6000 meters in the ocean with a suite of scientific sensors and tools for deep ocean exploration.
  • It has an endurance of 12 hours of operational period and 96 hours in case of emergency.
  • The manned submersible will allow scientific personnel to observe and understand unexplored deep sea areas by direct interventions. Further, it will enhance the capability for deep sea man rated vehicle development.
  • The projected timeline is five years for the period 2020-2021 to 2025-2026.
  • National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), Chennai, an autonomous institute under MoES, has developed 6000m depth rated Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and various other underwater instruments such as Autonomous Coring System (ACS), Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) and Deep Sea Mining System (DSM) for the exploration of deep sea.
  • It is noteworthy that With this Unique Ocean Mission, India joined the elite club of nations such as the US, Russia, France, Japan, and China to have niche technology and vehicles to carry out subsea activities.


Paper 3- Security
Why Should You Know?
Recently Indian Navy received the delivery of Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC) ‘Vikrant’
In details –
  • Indian Navy has created maritime history on July 28, 2022 by taking delivery of the prestigious Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC) ‘Vikrant from her builder Cochin Shipyard Limited (CSL), Kochi.
  • Designed by Indian Navy’s inhouse Directorate of Naval Design (DND) and built by CSL, a Public Sector Shipyard under Ministry of Shipping (MoS), the carrier is christened after her illustrious predecessor, India’s first Aircraft Carrier which played a vital role in the 1971 war.
  • Coinciding with the celebrations to commemorate 75th anniversary of India’s independence ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’, the reincarnation of Vikrant is a true testimony to the country’s zeal and fervor in pursuing capability build up towards enhanced maritime security.
Features –
  • The 262 mtr long carrier has a full displacement of close to 45,000 tonnes which is much larger and advanced than her predecessor.
  • The ship is powered by four Gas Turbines totaling 88 MW power and has a maximum speed of 28 Knots.
  • Built at an overall cost of close to Rs. 20,000 Crs, the project has been progressed in three Phases of contract between MoD and CSL, concluded in May 2007, Dec 2014 and Oct 2019 respectively.
  • The ship’s keel was laid in Feb 2009, followed by launching in Aug 2013. With an overall indigenous content of 76%, IAC is a perfect example of the nation’s quest for “Aatma Nirbhar Bharat” and provides thrust to Government’s ‘Make in India’ initiative.
  • With the delivery of Vikrant, India has joined a select group of nations having the niche capability to indigenously design and build an Aircraft Carrier.
  • Vikrant has been built with high degree of automation for machinery operation, ship navigation and survivability, and has been designed to accommodate an assortment of fixed wing and rotary aircraft.
  • The ship would be capable of operating air wing consisting of 30 aircraft comprising of MIG-29K fighter jets, Kamov-31, MH-60R multi-role helicopters, in addition to indigenously manufactured Advanced Light Helicopters (ALH) and Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) (Navy).
  • Using a novel aircraft-operation mode known as STOBAR (Short Take- Off but Arrested Landing), the IAC is equipped with a ski- jump for launching aircraft, and a set of ‘arrester wires’ for their recovery onboard.
Indigenous equipment –
  • The ship has large number of indigenous equipment and machinery, involving major industrial houses in the country viz. BEL, BHEL, GRSE, Keltron, Kirloskar, Larsen & Toubro, Wartsila India etc. as well as over 100 MSMEs.
  • The indigenisation efforts has also led to development of ancillary industries, besides generation of employment opportunities and bolstering plough back effect on economy, both locally as well as pan-India.
  • A major spin-off of this is the development and production of indigenous warship grade steel for the ship through a partnership between Navy, DRDO and Steel Authority of India (SAIL), which has enabled the country to become self-sufficient with respect to warship steel. Today all the warships being built in the country are being manufactured using indigenous steel.
  • Several design iterations, including use of 3D Virtual Reality models and advanced engineering software were used by the Directorate of Naval Design in shaping the design of the carrier. CSL had also upgraded their shipbuilding infrastructure as well as enhanced productivity skills during the building of the ship.
  • Delivery of Vikrant was marked by signing of acceptance documents on behalf of Indian Navy by the Commanding Officer Designate of Vikrant, representatives of Naval Headquarters and Warship Overseeing Team (Kochi) and by the Chairman and Managing Director on behalf of Cochin Shipyard Ltd., in the presence of Senior officers of Indian Navy and Cochin Shipyard.
Succesful Trials –
  • Vikrant has been delivered to the Indian Navy by CSL following extensive user acceptance trials conducted between Aug 2021 and Jul 2022, during which ship’s performance, including hull, main propulsion, PGD, auxiliary equipment, aviation facilities, weapon & sensors as well as sea keeping & manoeuvring capabilities were proved satisfactory in accordance with trial protocols and system parameters.
  • The delivery of Vikrant today is the culmination of a long design, build and trials phase, during which both Indian Navy and CSL had to overcome multitude of unprecedented technical and logistic challenges including COVID-19 pandemic and changed geo-political scenario.
  • The successful delivery of the indigenous carrier, a major milestone activity and historical event, is testimony to the dedicated efforts of large number of stakeholders within Indian Navy, shipyard, industry, OEMs & MSMEs for over two decades.
  • The Indigenous Aircraft Carrier would soon be commissioned into the Indian Navy as Indian Naval Ship (INS) Vikrant which would bolster India’s position in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) and its quest for a blue water Navy.

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