Ojaank IAS Academy




3 November 2022 – Current Affairs

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One Nation, One ITR Form

Paper 3 – Economics

Why You Should Know?

The central government has taken a big step towards providing relief to all taxpayers. In this regard, the Finance Ministry has recently proposed  to bring out a uniform Income Tax Return (ITR) form for taxpayers.

In detail –
  • Now taxpayers  will get rid of the hassle of filling different ITR forms.
  • Also, there will be a provision to record the income from digital assets separately.
  • Except trusts and non-profit organisations, all taxpayers can submit their returns through this proposed new ITR form.
  • Comments have been sought from stakeholders on this new form by December 15.
Current Form

At present, taxpayers have to fill 7 different types of forms which are as follows:

  • At present, income tax returns are filed through ITR Form 1 (Sahaj) and ITR Form 4 (Sugam) for small and medium taxpayers.
  • Sahaj form can be used by individuals with annual salary income up to Rs 50 lakh, while Sugam form is prescribed for individuals with income up to Rs 50 lakh, Hindu undivided families and firms.
  • ITR-2 form can be used by people earning income from residential property
  • The ITR-3 form is for people earning profit from business and profession.
  • Forms 5 and 6 are specified for Limited Liability Partnerships  (LLPs)  and businesses
  • Trusts can use the ITR-7 form.
What will change?
  • The CBDT, the regulatory body of the Income Tax Department, said that ITR-1 and ITR-4 will continue to be soared but individual taxpayers will also have the option to submit returns through this common ITR form.
  • “It is proposed to bring a common ITR form by combining all return forms except ITR-7 form,” the CBDT said.
  • The new ITR is aimed at making it easier for individuals and non-business taxpayers to file returns and reduce the time taken. ’
  • Based on the suggestions received from all stakeholders, this common ITR will be notified and the Income Tax Department will also inform about its online use.
  • In such a situation, after the arrival of the new form,  taxpayers who have submitted returns through ITR-2, 3, 5 and 6 forms will no longer have the option of the old form.
Central Board of Direct Taxation
  • On January 1, 1964, the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) was formed.
  • This has given the right to various direct taxes of India
  • It derives its powers from the Central Board of Revenue Act, 1963.
  • The CBDT is a part of the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance.
  • On the one hand, CBDT provides an essential investment to the policy and planning of direct taxes in India, on the other hand it is also responsible for the administration of direct tax law through the Income Tax Department.
  • The Central Board of Direct Taxes in a  statutory authority is functioning under the Central Board of Revenue Act, 1963.
Structure and Function
  • The CBDT is headed by the Chairman, who is also a former ex-officio Special Secretary to the Government of India.
  • In addition, the CBDT consists of six members, who are ex-officio additional secretaries to the Government of India.
  • The chairman and member of the CBDT are elected by the Indian Revenue Service (IRS), India’s premier civil service, whose members constitute the top management of the Income Tax Department.
  • The support staff for CBDT is selected from irs as well as other major citizen services of the country and assisted by several affiliated offices.

Source – IE



Rhino Horn

Paper 3 – Biodiversity

Why You Should Know?

Recently, researchers reported in a study that due to the effect of hunting, the horns of rhinos may have become smaller over time.

In detail –
  • Scientists analyse artwork and photographs to assess changes in horn length and human attitudes toward animals
  • The scientists analysed animal artwork and photographs spanning more than five centuries.
  • Rhinos have long been hunted for their horns, which are highly valued in some cultures.
  • Five living rhino species are still threatened by habitat loss and hunting.
  • The study found that the rate of horn length decline was highest in the severely endangered Sumatran rhino and lowest in Africa’s white rhino, the most commonly found species in both wild and in captivity.
  • The observation follows the pattern observed in other animals, such as tooth size in elephants and horn length in wild sheep, which has gone below directional selection due to trophy hunting, the study said.
  • Rhinoceros-There is an animal whose five species are found. Two of these species are found in Africa and three in South Asia.
  • White and black rhinos in Africa, greater one-horned, Javan and Sumatran rhinos  in Asia.
Indian rhinoceros
  • The Indian rhinoceros, also known as the one-horned rhinoceros, is the fourth largest aquatic animal in the world. Today, this creature has become endangered due to the decrease in its residential area.
  • It is found in some protected areas of Assam in northeast India and terai of Nepal where its number is limited to riverine forest areas in the foothills of the Himalayas
  • In history, the Indian rhinoceros was found in the entire northern part of the Indian subcontinent, which is called the Indo-Gangetic-Brahmaputra plain.
  • It was found in the plains of the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, from Pakistan to the Indo-Burma border and its residential area also included Nepal, today’s Bangladesh and Bhutan.
  • It is also believed to have circulated in Burma, southern China and Indochina, but this has not been proven.
  • This species  could be easily seen in northwestern India and Pakistan until 1600, but soon after became extinct from this area.
  • In its other residential areas, it declined  rapidly from 1600 to 1900, and in the early twentieth century it was on the verge of extinction.
Status of conservation
  • IUCN’s Red List: Vulnerable
  • CITES: Appendix I (‘Endangered’ species, which may be more threatened by being traded.)
  • Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: Schedule-I

Sources – TH

Pahari community of Kashmir

Paper 2 – Governance

Why You Should Know?

Recently, the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) supported the proposal to include the Pahari community in the ST list of Jammu and Kashmir

In detail –
  • “Paddari tribe” in the proposal flagged off by the Commission, “There was also a call for inclusion of “Koli” and “Gadda Brahmin” communities in the ST list of J&K.
  • Home Minister Amit Shah had announced the inclusion of the Pahari community of Jammu and Kashmir in the Scheduled Tribe i.e. ST  on October 4 in  Rajouri.
  • On October 7, the Union Ministry of Tribal Affairs sent a letter to the ST Commission, In which his opinion on the proposal to include these four communities in the ST list of Jammu and Kashmir And ideas were sought.
  • After several meetings of the commission, the panel approved the proposal to include them in its meeting on October 20.
  • The inclusion suggestion came from the commission set up for socially and educationally backward classes in the Union Territory, headed by Justice (retd) G D Sharma.
  • The newly formed Union Territory has been delimited and the Election Commission of India is thinking of holding elections there soon
  • The Delimitation Commission has reserved six of the nine assembly constituencies in Pir Panjal valley for STs.
  • Pir Panjal Valley is also home to Gujjars and Bakarwals, who are already classified as STs
 About the Pahari Community
  • The Pahari community accounts for 40 per cent of the state’s population.
  • Paharis are a linguistic minority. Their population lives in the mountains of Rajouri and Poonch of Jammu and Kupwara and Baramulla districts of Kashmir.
  • The Pahari communities have   long been struggling for ST status as gujjars and Bakarwals, the other communities living with them, were granted Scheduled Tribe status in 1991, getting 10 per cent reservation in jobs and educational institutions.
  • Currently,  there are 12 communities in Jammu and Kashmir that have been notified as STs.
What are Scheduled Tribes?
  • Scheduled Tribes (STs) are groups  that are usually isolated from mainstream society.
  • These people have a different society of their own and their customs are different. These people follow it by making their own rules and regulations.
  • Such people usually live in forests and mountains.
  • Their primitiveness, geographical isolation, social, educational and economic backwardness distinguish them from other ethnic groups. In common parlance, they are called tribals.
  • Scheduled Tribes are also counted every 10 years.
  • According to the 2011 census, their population  is close to 10.43 crore. It is more than 8% of the total population of  the country.
How is a caste included in SC and ST?
  • Under Article 342 of the Constitution,  only Parliament has the right to include any caste in the list of SC or ST.
  • If a caste is to be included in the SC or ST , then the state government first sends a proposal related to it to the central government.
  • The central government sends the proposal to the Registrar General of India. After getting the clearance of the Registrar General, it is sent to the SC or ST Commission.
  • After getting approval here, it goes to the cabinet. After the approval of the Cabinet, it comes to Parliament and after getting approval in Parliament, the President issues an order related to it. Then it becomes law.

Source –TH

2022 AP7 – Killer Asteroid

Paper 1 – Geography

Why You Should Know?

Astronomers have discovered  a massive meteorite that was hidden in the sun’s bright light, which could one day hit earth.

In detail –
  • This asteroid is 1.5 kilometers wide, which is the largest and most dangerous of the asteroids seen in the last eight years.
  • Scientists have classified it as the most dangerous i.e. potentially hazardous asteroid .
  • If this asteroid hits the Earth, its effects will be felt in many continents, that is why it is being called ‘Planet Killer’.
2022 AP7 Asteroids
  • The asteroid, named 2022 AP7, could not be discovered for so long because it orbits in the region between Earth and Venus.
  • To find asteroids in this area, astronomers have to look in the direction of the Sun.
  • Major telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope never look at the sun, as the sun’s brightness will affect their sensitive lenses and optics.
  • For this reason, astronomers know less about hidden asteroids in this area. In such a situation, sometimes suddenly an asteroid can come and cause damage.
Will cause damage when  hit
  • In 2013, a very small asteroid, which was only 66 feet wide, came to Earth from the direction of the Sun without warning.
  • The asteroid exploded over the city of Chelyabinsk in southeastern Russia, shattering the windows of thousands of buildings.
  • According to scientists, if 2022 AP7 hits the Earth, it will be much more harmful than Chelyabinsk.
  • Although scientists have not yet calculated when it will hit the Earth, but it is definitely that this asteroid can hit the Earth in the future.
Supercentive Dark Energy Camera
  • The supercentive dark energy camera (DEC)  at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile discovered this asteroid.
  • This camera scans the entire sky in the evening or twilight. During this time, these steroids can be seen in a time frame of 10 minutes daily.

Sources – IE


Ballistic Missile Defense Interceptor

Paper 2 –  Health

Why You Should Know?

Recently, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) conducted the first successful flight test of Phase-II  Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) Interceptor AD-1 missile with Large Kill Altitude bracket from APJ Abdul Kalam Island off the coast of Odisha on November 02, 2022.

In detail –
  • The flight test was conducted with the participation of all parts of the BMD weapon system located at different locations.
  • During this flight test,  all the sub-systems performed as per expectations and were verified by data captured by several range sensors including radar, telemetry and electro optical tracking stations deployed to capture flight data.
About AD-1 Missile
  • AD-1 is a long-range interceptor missile
  • It has been designed to stop long-range ballistic missiles as well as fighter planes.
  • It is powered by a two-stage solid motor. It is also equipped with an indigenously developed advanced control system to accurately target the target.
  • This missile is capable of completing the mission in the uppermost part of the Earth’s atmosphere.
What is an interceptor missile?
  • Interceptor missile is an anti-ballistic  missile designed to counter medium-range and intercontinental ballistic missiles launched from any country.
How doesit work?
  • An interceptor missile works in three ways- that or so
  • Based on a “hit-to-run” system i.e. the interceptor automatically moves towards the missile coming towards it at a very high speed or
  • based on a device that is filled with explosives required to attack a designated target or
  • Works based on combination of above two systems. 
  • For example the “Aegis” ballistic missile defense system is based entirely on the “hit-to-nail” system,
  • Explosive bombs are used in Israeli missiles,
  • While modern Patriot missiles use a “hit-to-nail” system as well as small explosive bombs for the purpose of causing more damage

Sources – TH

India’s first floating financial literacy camp

Paper 2 – Education

Why You Should Know?

Ministry of Communications, India Post Payments Bank (IPPB), set up under the Department of Posts, Government of India, organised India’s first floating financial literacy camp to enhance financial literacy in Srinagar (J&K).

In detail –
  • The ‘Investor Didi’ initiative aims to  increase financial literacy with the concept of ‘  for women, by women’.
  • Being a huge and fast growing economy, the spread of financial literacy in India’s demography is challenging as a large proportion of the population lives in rural areas.
  • On the directions of the Government of India, with the help of the world’s largest postal network, IPPB has launched this new initiative of financial inclusion keeping in mind rural India  , where access and communication has always been a hindrance.
  • Since inception, postmen/gramin dak sevaks have been reaching out to the general public in every nook and corner of the country and providing digital banking services at their doorsteps.
‘Investor Didi’ initiative
  • To take forward the financial literacy drive, IPPB has launched an initiative called ‘Investor Didi’ in collaboration with investor education and protection fund authority (IEPFA) under the aegis of Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA  ).
  •  It imbibes the concept ‘by women, for women’.
  • The Investor Didi initiative is based on women’s thinking for women as women in rural areas feel more comfortable sharing the questions raised in their minds with a woman.
  • Three investors from Kashmir Valley to attend Didi representatives in Srinagar, The certificates were presented by Union Minister of State for Corporate Affairs, Shri Rao Inderjit Singh and Member of Parliament (Srinagar) Dr Farooq Abdullah during the recently held IEPFA Conference in Jammu and Kashmir.
Floating financial literacy camp
  • As part of the launch of the ‘Investor Didi’  initiative, IPPB organised India’s first water-floating financial literacy Camp by Didi, a newly appointed investor.
  • The camp was held among local residents around the world famous Dal Lake in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Shikara is an integral part of the lives of these people, in such a situation, people gathered on many shikaras and ‘investor Didi’ organized financial literacy sessions in the local Kashmiri language from Shikara itself. In this way, the entire session was held in the water of Dal Lake.
  • The session discussed topics ranging from banking and financial products to the importance of mainstream financial services offered by institutions and fraud prevention measures as well as protection from various types of risk to investment.
  • India Post Payments Bank is committed to continue such efforts to scale up its campaign of last mile financial empowerment.
  • This is an important step towards bridging the gap of financial inclusion.
  • The first floating financial literacy camp held in India shows the DOP team’s ability to reach far and wide in every household in the country, while geographical areas vary.
  • This has paved the way for rural women to increase understanding of their financial products and services, beware of fraud and get help in their own language with the help of investor Didi.
  • Investor Didi,  a woman postman with a deep social connect with the rural masses, will raise financial awareness especially among women and cooperate in a convenient manner with solving their problems.
About India Post Payments Bank (IPPB)
  • India Post Payments Bank (IPPB) has been set up under the Department of Posts under the Ministry of Communications, which is 100 per cent owned by the Government of India.
  •  The IPPB was launched by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi on September 1, 2018.
  • The bank has been set up with the vision to provide a very accessible, affordable and reliable banking service to the common man of India.
  • The basic function of IPPB  is to use the country’s network of 160,000 post offices (145,000 rural post offices) and 400,000 postal workers for those with little access to banks and those who are not connected to banking services.
  • IPPB’s reach and nature of its operations is based on the key pillars of ‘India Stack’, under which  service is available at the doorstep of the consumer in a paperless,  cashless, unbanked, easy and secure manner.
  • For this, CBS-integrated smartphones and biometric devices were made the medium.
  • With an emphasis on affordable innovation and ease of banking process for the public, IPPB is facilitating easy and affordable banking solutions through interfaces available in 13 languages.
  • IPPB is determined to accelerate the least cash-using economy and contribute to the vision of Digital India.

Source – PIB



Civil Air Navigation Services Organization (CANSO) Asia Pacific Conference

Paper 3 – Basic Structure

Why You Should Know?

Union Minister for Civil Aviation Shri Jyotiraditya Scindia virtually addressed the Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation (CANSO) Asia Pacific Conference in Goa

In detail –
  • A three-day Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation (CANSO) conference is being organised in  Goa from 1st to 3rd November 2022.
  • In these three days, delegates and exhibitors from the Asia Pacific region and beyond will discuss and collaborate on key issues that will help shape the future.
  • The theme of this year’s conference is “Think Global, Collaborate Regional, Imitation Local”.
  • The conference has brought together experts from across Asia Pacific, which according to the report accounts for 35 per cent to 40 per cent of global air traffic.
  • The aviation industry generates about $3.5 trillion, which is about 1.4 percent of the world’s GDP.
  • The Civil Air Navigation Services Organization (CANSO) is a representative body of companies that provides air traffic control.
  • CANSO represents air traffic management (ATM) industry interests.
  • Its members support more than 90 percent of the world’s air traffic.
  • These include air navigation service providers, airspace users and operators, manufacturers and aviation industry suppliers.
  • This organization oversees global air traffic management performance by interconnecting industry to share knowledge, expertise and innovation.
About Airports Authority of India
  • Airports Authority of India is an organization/ Authority, which is functioning under the Ministry of Civil Aviation, Government of India.
  • The Airports Authority of India (AAI) is responsible for the provision of air navigation services over the Indian continental airspace and its surrounding sea airspace, which has been assigned to India by ICAO.
  • AAI also acts as the premier airport operator in India, responsible for managing 133 airports, including 24 international airports, 78 domestic airports, 10 customs airports and 21 civil enclaves.
  • Airports Authority of India’s vision is to become the world’s leading airport developer, operator and air navigation service provider.
  • Its mission is to enhance air connectivity across the country and   become an environment-conscious sustainable organisation using state-of-the-art and indigenous technology for cost-effective, modern, safe airport operations and air navigation services.

Sources –PIB

Donyi Polo

Paper 1 – Art and Culture

Why You Should Know?

Recently, the Union Cabinet has given its approval to rename the new Greenfield Airport located at Hollongi in Itanagar, capital of Arunachal Pradesh, as “Donyi Polo Airport, Itanagar”.

In detail –
  • The Government of India had in January 2019 accorded ‘in-principle’ approval to the construction of the Hollongi Greenfield Airport.
  • The airport is being developed by the Airports Authority of India (AAI) in collaboration with the Central Government and the State Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
  • A resolution was passed by the state government of Arunachal Pradesh to name this airport as ‘Donyi Polo Airport, Itanagar’,
  • It reflects people’s respect for sun (Donyi) and moon (polo) and symbolically the rich cultural heritage of this state.
Current Airports
  • At present, two airports – Tezu and Pasighat – are operational in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • In line with the central government’s vision of developing the north-eastern region as  India’s growth engine, Doni Polo Airport will be the third airport in Arunachal Pradesh to start operating airlines
  • This will take the total number of airports in the North-Eastern Region to 16.
  • In 2014, there were a total of nine airports operating airlines in the region.
What is Donyi Polo?
  • Donyi-Polo or Donyi-Poloism is a local religion prevalent among Tani and other Tibeto-Burmese people living in Arunachal Pradesh and Assam in northeast India
  • This theory is based on animism and exorcism.
  • The name “Donyi-Polo” means “Sun-Moon” in which Donyi i.e. Sun symbolizes a woman while Polo i.e. Moon symbolizes a man.
  • In the 1970s, in response to the rapidly expanding Christianity in the region and perhaps the possibility of its inclusion in Hinduism, the process of its revival and institutionalization was started and it was also named Donyi-Polo.
  • Donyi-Polo belongs to The Hemfu-Mukrang religion of Karbi and Nyazi-no of Hrso.

Sources – Livemint

India Denmark MoU

Paper 3 – Basic Structure

Why You Should Know?

Recently, the Union Cabinet approved the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between India and Denmark for cooperation in the field of development and management of water resources

In detail –

The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has been apprised of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed between India and Denmark for cooperation in the field of development and management of water resources.

Areas of cooperation

The broad areas of cooperation envisaged in this MoU are as follows:

  • Digitization and ease of getting information
  • Integrated and Smart Water Resources Development and Management
  • Mapping of aquifer, impersonation, monitoring and recharge of ground water
  • Excellent and sustainable water supply to households including reduction in non-revenue water and energy consumption
  • Rejuvenation of rivers and ponds to enhance living, strength and economic growth
  • Monitoring and management of water quality
  • treatment of sewage/wastewater including circular economy for reuse/recycling of wastewater, including comprehensive silt management and optimum utilization of renewable energy in the field of water supply and sanitation;
  • climate change reduction and adaptation, including nature-based solutions
  • River-centric urban planning including flood management in cities
  • Measures for nature-based liquid waste reduction for suburban and rural areas.
  • The MoU will facilitate development and management of water resources through direct collaboration between officials, academicians, water sectors and industry from the areas under cooperation;    water supply in rural areas; And cooperation in the field of treatment of sewage/wastewater will increase widely.
Background –
  • Ms. Mette Frederiksen, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Denmark and The Prime Minister of the Republic of India, Shri Narendra Modi co-chaired a virtual summit between India and Denmark  on 28 September 2020
  • During this time, a joint statement was issued on ‘Establishing Green Strategic Partnership’ between the two countries.
  • The Joint Statement envisaged cooperation in the field of environment/water and circular economy and sustainable urban development including smart cities, among other things.
  • After meeting Ms. Mette Frederiksen, Prime Minister of Denmark during his visit to India on 09 October 2021, the Prime Minister announced, inter alia, the following as further steps on the Joint Statement on Green Strategic Partnership:
    • Setting up of Centre of Excellence for Smart Water Resources Management (COESWARM)
    • Setting up of a lab for clean rivers in Varanasi on the lines of Smart City Lab in Panaji.
  • A Letter of Intent was signed between the Ministry of Jal Shakti, Government of India and the Ministry of Environment, Government of Denmark on May 03, 2022  during the visit of The Prime Minister of the Republic of India,  Shri Narendra Modi to Denmark.
  • So that a comprehensive MoU can be signed which will include these two new initiatives, among other things;
  • a Centre of Excellence for Smart Management of Water Resources in Varanasi and
  • A smart lab on clean rivers water.
  • The basic objective of the proposed cooperation is to ensure safe and protected water to meet current and future demands through a holistic and sustainable approach.
  • A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between the Department of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, Government of India and the Ministry of Environment, Government of Denmark on 12th September,  2022 as a further step on this Letter of Intent during the visit of Hon’ble Minister of Jal Shakti to Denmark.

Sources – PIB

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