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OJAANK IAS ACADEMY

30 July 2022 – Current Affairs

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All India District Legal Services Authorities Meet

Paper 2 – Polity
Why Should You Know?
On 30th July PM modi to address inaugural session of First All India District Legal Services Authorities Meet.
In details –
  • Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi will address the inaugural session of First All India District Legal Services Authorities Meet at Vigyan Bhawan on 30th July 2022.
  • The first ever national level meet of District Legal Services Authorities (DLSAs) is being organised from 30-31 July 2022 at Vigyan Bhawan by National Legal Services Authority (NALSA).
  • The meet will deliberate on creation of an integrated procedure in order to bring homogeneity and synchronisation across DLSAs.
About DLSAs –
  • There are a total 676 District Legal Services Authorities (DLSAs) in the country.
  • They are headed by the District Judge who acts as Chairman of the authority.
  • Through DLSAs and State Legal Services Authorities (SLSAs), various legal aid and awareness programmes are implemented by NALSA.
  • The DLSAs also contribute towards reducing the burden on courts by regulating the Lok Adalats conducted by NALSA.
What is NALSA?
  • National Legal Services Authority of India (NALSA) was formed on 9 November 1995 under the authority of the Legal Services Authorities Act 1987.
  • Its purpose is to provide free legal services to eligible candidates (defined in Sec. 12 of the Act), and to organize Lok Adalats for speedy resolution of cases.
  • The Chief Justice of India is patron-in-chief of NALSA while the second senior-most Judge of the Supreme Court of India is the Executive-Chairman.
  • There is a provision for similar mechanism at state and district level also headed by Chief Justice of High Courts and Chief Judges of District courts respectively.
  • The prime objective of NALSA is speedy disposal of cases and reducing the burden of judiciary.

“Combating Child Trafficking” Campaign

Paper 2 – Social Issues
Why Should You Know?
Campaign on ‘Fight Against Child Trafficking’- “Freedom from Child Trafficking” is being run by the Central Government.
In details –
  • Child trafficking is a serious crime and worst form of human rights violations prevalent in many parts of our country; thereby causing a deterrence in achieving the goal of a New India, a Progressive India.
  • Combating Child Trafficking requires interventions and attention of a cross section of stakeholders.
  • The porous international borders shared by several districts of our country amplify the conditions that enable and attract traffickers.
  • Children become soft targets who fall prey to the clutches of these predators constantly in search of their prey. The victim children encounter severe forms of exploitation, such as physical, sexual and emotional violence, abuse, torture, and trauma, forced and bonded labour, forced marriages and practices like slavery etc.
  • The cruelty and injustice faced by the victims of child trafficking often go beyond comprehension; their lives scarred and beyond repair; deprived of rights.
  • To combat the menace of child trafficking, the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR), an apex statutory body constituted under the Commission for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005, an Act of Parliament of India has been taking ongoing steps under its mandate and jurisdiction. In this connection, NCPCR is commemorating “World day against Human Trafficking” observed on 30th July, 2022.
  • On this occasion, NCPCR with support of State Commission for Protection of Child Rights (SCPCRs) and District Administration is driving 25 days campaign i.e. “बाल तस्करी से आज़ादी” on “Combating Child Trafficking” from (1st August, 2022 to 25th August, 2022) in 75 bordering Districts of India (List attached) as a part of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav (AKAM), to celebrate and commemorate 75 years of progressive India.
  • In this regard, District level Sensitization programme in selected 75 Districts shall be participated by representatives from Special Juvenile Police Units (SJPUs), Anti Human Trafficking Units (AHTUs), Child Welfare Police Officers (CWPOs) of Thanas, Child Welfare Committee (CWCs), Juvenile Justice Boards (JJBs), Special Forces active in the district on Human Trafficking issues, in the identified 75 Bordering Districts of our country.
  • During this campaign, NCPCR officials will be visit bordering villages and celebrate its 75th independence day with the children of bordering districts.
  • The main objective of this campaign is to sensitize the key stakeholders on basic indicators to identify children at risk, vulnerable children, and prevention for combating child trafficking in bordering districts of India.
  • Expert Resource Persons from the Commission, Chairperson/Member of the State Commissions and subject experts shall be making a presentation on the subject matter and after interactive session shall plan a road map for combating child trafficking in bordering districts.
  • Under the campaign 75 bordering districts of our country will be witnessing the awareness & sensitization programme for multi stakeholders on combating this menace of child trafficking and preventing children from this serious crime.

Menstrual Hygiene Schemes

Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?
Recently The Union Minister of Women and Child Development, Smt. Smriti Zubin Irani, told about Menstrual Hygiene Schemes, in a written reply in Lok Sabha.
In details –
  • The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare implements the Scheme for Promotion of Menstrual Hygiene among adolescent girls in the age group of 10-19 years since 2011.
  • The scheme is supported by the National Health Mission through State Programme Implementation Plan (PIP) route based on the proposals received from the States / UTs.
  • The major objectives of the scheme are
  • to increase awareness among adolescent girls on menstrual hygiene;
  • to increase access to and use of high quality sanitary napkins by adolescent girls, and
  • to ensure safe disposal of sanitary napkins in an environment friendly manner.
  • Under the scheme, a pack of sanitary napkins are provided to adolescent girls by the Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) at subsidized rate of Rs. 6 per pack.
  • In addition, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation under Swachh Bharat Abhiyan has developed National Guidelines on Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) for creating awareness on Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) in rural areas as part of its overall interventions related to behaviour change on sanitation hygiene aspect.
  • Further, to ensure access to sanitary napkins and good quality medicines at affordable price, Department of Pharmaceuticals under Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers implements the Pradhan Mantri Bharatiya Janausadhi Pariyojna (PMBJP), an important step in ensuring the health security for women.
  • Under the project, over 8700 Janaushidhi Kendras have been set up across the country that provides Oxo-biodegradable sanitary napkins named Suvidha at Rs. 1/- per pad only.

Mission Vatsalya Scheme

Paper 2 – Social Issues
Why Should You Know?
Recently the Union Minister of Women and Child Development, Smt. Smriti Zubin Irani gave information about Mission Vatsalya, in a written reply in the Lok Sabha.
In details –
·The Ministry of Women & Child Development is implementing a centrally sponsored scheme through State/UT Governments namely Mission Vatsalya.
·Under which, a monthly grant of Rs. 4000/- per child is provided for family based non-institutional care including Sponsorship (kinship) or Foster Care or After Care.
·The Mission Vatsalya in partnership with States and Districts provides support to a 24×7 helpline service for children as defined under the JJ Act, 2015.
·The Mission Vatsalya Scheme envisages setting up Cradle Baby Reception Centres in at least one Specialized Adoption Agency (SAA), preferably government run, in each District, to save the abandoned children and look after them with due care and affection till he/she is given in adoption.
·Under Mission Vatsalya Scheme, States/UTs need to focus on special need children in Child Care Institutions (CCIs), who are not able to go to school due to physical/mental disabilities.
·Special provisions are required to be made in the CCIs to provide services including Special Educators/therapist and Nurse required for such children in CCIs for occupational therapy, speech therapy, verbal therapy and other remedial classes as per the children’s need.
·The capacity building of the Special Unit staff in sign language, Braille etc. are undertaken with help of resource institutions by States/UTs for such Homes.
·Mission Vatsalya Scheme is implemented in partnership with States/UTs as per prescribed norms in the guidelines.

Background –

  • Prior to 2009, the Ministry of women and child development Implemented three schemes for children in need of protection,
  • The juvenile justice programme for children in need of care and protection as well as children in conflict with the law,
  • The integrated programme for street children,
  • The scheme for assistance to children’s homes.
  • In 2010, these were merged into a single plan known as the Integrated Child Protection Scheme.
  • In 2017, it was renamed “Child Protection Services Scheme,” and again in 2021-22 as Mission Vatsalya.

Scheme for Adolescent Girls

Paper 3- Infrastructure
Why Should You Know?
Recently the Union Minister of Women and Child Development, Smt. Smriti Zubin Irani gave information about various Scheme for Adolescent Girls, in a written reply in the Lok Sabha.
In details –
  • To ensure well-being of adolescent girls, Government is administering the Scheme for Adolescent Girls (SAG) under which nutritional and non-nutritional support is being provided to adolescent girls (AGs).
  • Earlier the Scheme covered out-of-school AGs in the age group of 11-14 years.
  • Under the said Scheme, Kishori Health Cards for AGs were maintained at the Anganwadi Centre (AWC) to record the information about the weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI), along with the services provided to the AG under the scheme.
  • The details of achievements/success made under the scheme were marked on Kishori Card and the card also carried important milestones of AGs life.
  • However, the earlier Scheme has been discontinued since 31.03.2022 and the revised SAG Scheme has been introduced and subsumed under Saksham Anganwadi & Poshan 2.0.
  • The targeted beneficiaries under the revised scheme are AGs in the age group of 14-18 years in Aspirational Districts of States including Assam and NE States.
Menstrual Hygiene –
  • Government is administering the Scheme for Promotion of Menstrual Hygiene among Adolescent Girls(AGs) in the age group of 10-19 years since 2011 with specific objective of ensuring health for adolescent girls.
  • The major objectives of the Scheme are:
  • To increase awareness among adolescent girls on menstrual hygiene;
  • To increase access to and use of high quality sanitary napkins to adolescent girl;
  • To ensure safe disposal of sanitary napkins in an environmentally friendly manner.
  • Since 2015-16, the Menstrual Hygiene Scheme is supported by National Health Mission through State Programme Implementation Plan (PIP) route based on the proposals received from the States.
  • States/UTs have decentralized procurement of sanitary napkins for ensuring quality standards. The sanitary napkins are sold to the adolescent girls at subsidized rates by the Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA). Community awareness is carried out through mass media activities and ASHA outreach.
Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation (WIFS) –
  • Further, to break the inter generational cycle of anaemia, the Government is implementing Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation (WIFS) which entails provision of weekly supervised IFA tablets to the in-school adolescent boys and girls and out of-school adolescent girls along with biannual albendazole tablets for helminthic control for prevention of iron and folic acid deficiency anaemia.
  • The programme is implemented across the country both in rural and urban areas, covering government, government aided and municipal schools and Anganwadi Centres.
  • Screening of targeted adolescent population for moderate/ severe anaemia and referral of these cases to an appropriate health facility and information and counselling for prevention of nutritional anaemia are also included in the programme.

The Family Courts (Amendment) Bill, 2022

Paper 2 – Polity
Why Should You Know?
On July 26, 2022 Lok Sabha passed the Family Courts (Amendment) Bill, 2022.
In details –
  • Recently the Lok Sabha passed the Family Courts (Amendment) Bill, 2022, which seeks to amend the Family Courts Act, 1984 to establish family courts in Himachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
  • It is noteworthy that The Family Courts Act, 1984 was enacted to establish Family Courts to promote conciliation and ensure speedy settlement of marriage and family matters and related disputes. The State Government may, with the concurrence of the High Court, appoint one or more persons as Judges of the Family Court.
About the Bill –
  • The Family Courts (Amendment) Bill was introduced in Lok Sabha on July 18, 2022.  The Bill amends the Family Courts Act, 1984. 
  • The Act allows state governments to establish Family Courts.   The central government is empowered to notify dates for the Act to come into force in different states. 
  • The governments of Himachal Pradesh and Nagaland have set up Family Courts in their states under the Act.  However, the central government has not extended the application of the Act to these states.
Application of Act in Himachal Pradesh and Nagaland:
  • The Bill seeks to extend the application of the Act to the state of Himachal Pradesh, with effect from February 15, 2019, and to the state of Nagaland, with effect from September 12, 2008. 
  • The establishment of Family Courts in both the states will be retrospectively valid from these dates.
  •  All actions taken under the Act in both the states, including the appointment of judges, and orders and judgments passed by the Family Courts, will also be deemed to be valid from these dates retrospectively.

REVAMPED DISTRIBUTION SECTOR SCHEME (RDSS)

Paper 3 – Energy Resources
Why Should You Know?
On July 30, 2022, PM Modi will launch the ministry of power’s flagship Revamped Distribution Sector Scheme (RDSS).
In details –
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi will launch the ministry of power’s flagship Revamped Distribution Sector Scheme (RDSS), which is aimed at improving the operational efficiencies and financial sustainability of the power distribution companies (discoms).
  • The scheme, with an outlay of over Rs 3.03 trillion in five years to FY26, will enable discoms to modernise and strengthen the distribution infrastructure and improve the reliability and quality of supply of power to end consumers.
  • It also aims to reduce the AT&C (aggregate technical and commercial) losses to pan-India levels of 12-15% and ACS-ARR (average cost of supply-average revenue realised) gap to zero by 2024-25.
  • REC and PFC have been nominated as nodal agencies for the scheme.
  • RDSS mandates compulsory installation of smart meters across the country. The Centre has set an ambitious target of installing 250 million smart meters by 2025.
  • Given the fact that discoms suffer massive losses due to power theft, AT&C losses, meter tampering and inaccurate billing, RDSS is being touted as a lifeline that can help discoms turn around their fortunes and also help in strengthening the power sector.
  • The scheme offers discoms conditional finance linked to the achievement of milestones. These include advance payments of tariff subsidies, clearance of government department dues, and liquidation of regulatory assets.
  • Half of the scheme’s outlay is for better feeder and transformer metering and pre-paid smart consumer metering. The remaining half, 60% of which will be funded by central government grants, will be spent on power loss reduction and strengthening networks.
  • With this new scheme coming into force, all other previous schemes such as Integrated Power Development Scheme, Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana and Ujjwal Discom Assurance Yojana (UDAY) would stand subsumed.
Other Projects –
  • The Prime Minister will also dedicate and lay the foundation stone of various green energy projects of NTPC worth over Rs 5,200 crore.
  • He will also inaugurate the 100 MW Ramagundam floating solar project in Telangana and the 92 MW Kayamkulam floating solar project in Kerala.
  • He will also lay the foundation stone of 735 MW Nokh solar project in Rajasthan, green hydrogen mobility project in Leh and Kawas green hydrogen blending with natural gas project in Gujarat.
  • The Prime Minister will also launch national solar rooftop portal, which will enable online tracking of the process of installation of rooftop solar plants, starting from registering the applications to release of subsidy in residential consumers’ bank accounts after installation and inspection of the plant.

UN Report On HIV/AIDS

Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?
Recently, the United Nations Program on HIV / AIDS (UNAIDS) said in a report that 4,000 new cases of HIV / AIDS are being reported daily in the whole world and every minute one is dying. In details –
  • Do you know that somewhere in the world one person is dying every minute due to HIV/AIDS. This information has been revealed in the new report ‘In Danger: Global AIDS Update 2022’ by the United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), which was released Recently.
  • According to the data shared in the report, 1.5 million new patients of HIV infection were reported in 2021 alone. At the same time, 6.5 lakh people had to lose their lives due to AIDS. This means that 4,000 new cases of this disease are being reported every day, while 1,800 people are losing their lives every day.
  • In this regard, Mary Mahi, director of UNAIDS, says that these 4,000 people are those who need to start testing and treatment every day so that they do not infect colleagues. This means that these people will need treatment for the rest of their lives.

The speed of treatment and prevention has slowed down

  • How big is the burden of this disease globally, it can be gauged from the fact that in 2021, more than 38 million people are forced to live with this disease. Of which 70 percent are being treated.
  • According to UNAIDS, new cases of HIV worldwide declined by only 3.6% during 2020-2021, the lowest annual decline in new HIV infections since 2016. In such a situation, the UN agency has warned that the pace of its prevention and treatment has slowed down around the world, due to which the lives of millions of people are at risk.
  • The report has revealed that new cases of HIV infection are increasing even in places where they were declining earlier, which is a matter of concern. These regions also include regions such as Asia and the Pacific, which are the most densely populated regions in the world. Similarly in the eastern and southern regions of Africa, rapid progress in prevention in earlier years has slowed in 2021.
  • Similarly in the eastern and southern regions of Africa, rapid progress in prevention in earlier years has slowed in 2021. Unfortunately, despite being an effective tool for the detection, prevention and treatment of HIV infection, this epidemic has flourished during the period of COVID-19.
  • Another report released by the United Nations showed that in 2020, about 1.2 lakh children lost their lives due to HIV infection. Not only this, in 2020, at least 300,000 children were infected with HIV, which means that every two minutes a child gets infected with this disease.
  • It is a matter of concern that two out of five HIV-infected children in the world do not know that they are suffering from this disease. At the same time, only half of these children are getting antiretroviral treatment (ART). For a long time these children have not been getting adequate services to combat HIV. It also includes discrimination and gender inequality being meted out to them.

Rising treatment costs and prices –

  • In this regard, Mary Mahi says that if this continues, then by 2025 the number of new cases of HIV infection in just one year will be 1.2 million. In this regard, Mary Mahi says that if this continues, then by 2025 the number of new cases of HIV infection in just one year will be 1.2 million. Meaning this figure will almost triple in 2025 from the estimated 3.7 lakh cases.
  • According to the report, treatment is available for almost twice as many patients during 2020-21 in South African countries as compared to before. Meaning that the number of patients getting treatment has reached from 8.2 lakh to 16 lakh.
  • However, despite this, the number of people receiving treatment is still far behind the target of 10 million set by UNAIDS for 2025. If seen, treatment is becoming out of reach for many people due to rising costs and prices around the world since Covid-19.
  • According to the report, the progress of HIV prevention efforts has also declined due to the disparities that exist within and between countries. This disease itself has also widened the scope of weakness.
  • Significantly, in 2021, a new case of infection has been reported in young women and adolescent girls every two minutes. This clearly shows the inequality that exists.
  • Its impact has become more apparent than ever during COVID-19, particularly in Africa. If seen, millions of girls in Africa are deprived of education. Not only this, there has also been an increase in the cases of pregnancies of adolescent girls. Along with this, cases of violence against them have also increased.
  • HIV treatment and prevention services have also been disrupted there due to the pandemic. In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls are three times more likely to be infected with HIV than boys.
  • According to the report, increasing debt on the world’s most vulnerable countries is a big challenge. In 2021, the amount repaid against the loan reached 171 percent of the total expenditure on health, education and social security combined. In such a situation, it has affected the ability of countries to deal with AIDS.

What is AIDS?

  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a post-infection condition in which humans lose their natural immunity.
  • AIDS itself is not a disease, but the human body suffering from AIDS loses its natural resistance to infectious diseases, which are caused by bacteria and viruses, because HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) The resistant substance present in the blood attacks the lymph cells.
  • Due to the gradual loss of immunity in the body of AIDS sufferers, any opportunistic infection, ie, from common cold to diseases like tuberculosis, becomes easy and difficult to treat.
  • HIV. It may take 8 to 10 years or more for the infection to reach AIDS status. People with HIV can live for many years without any specific symptoms.

India’s first International Bullion Exchange (IIBE)

Paper 3 – Economy
Why Should You Know?
Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched India’s first International Bullion Exchange (IIBE) at Gujarat
In details –
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 29 july,2022 launched India’s first international bullion exchange in Gandhinagar. He also laid the foundation stone of the Headquarters Building of the International Financial Services Centres Authority, in Gandhinagar.
  • The India International Bullion Exchange (IIBX) will be based at the Gujarat International Finance Tec-City (GIFTEC) in Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad
  • The event that is being hosted by International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFSCA), under the aegis of the Government of India in collaboration with GIFT City and Bloomberg on 3 and 4, December 2021, also saw the presence of finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman.
  • The opening of the international bullion exchange is aimed to standardize the gold pricing in India. It further seeks to it easier for small bullion dealers and jewellers to trade.
  • According to reports India is the second highest consumer of the precious metal. India imported 1,069 tonnes of gold in 2021, up from 430 tonnes a year ago. China remains the highest consumer of Gold. They run such a bourse, where all domestic production and imported gold has to be bought and sold.
  • The news media house further noted that gold is tightly regulated in India.
  • Currently, there are nominated banks and agencies who have been approved by the central bank to conduct trade or import gold and sell it to dealers.
  • “IIBX with its technology-driven solutions, will facilitate transition of Indian bullion market towards a more organised structure by granting qualified jewellers a direct access to import gold directly through the exchange mechanism,” Reuters quoted the exchange’s statement.

Coastal Security

Paper 3- Security
Why Should You Know?
Recently the Raksha Rajya Mantri Shri Ajay Bhatt gave information about coastal security, in a written rply in Lok Sabha.
In details –
  • Coastal monitoring and surveillance is being carried out on real time basis by Indian Coast Guard around India’s coastline through Chain of Static Sensors (CSS) consisting of 46 radar stations which have been established under Coastal Surveillance Network (CSN).
  • Coastal Surveillance System through Chain of Coastal High Definition Surface Warning Radars is one of the means through which Coastal Security is being implemented.
  • The radars have been installed since 2011 and there is no known harmful effect on environment.
  • Steps taken by the Government to strengthen the coastal security and protect the vulnerable coastal ecosystem from further climatic degradation are as follows:
  • Deployment of ships and aircrafts for surveillance on daily basis to ensure maritime law enforcement, coastal security, pollution response, search & rescue and other charted/mandated duties towards public function.
  • Coordination with major and non-major ports by ships on patrol and surveillance through Coastal Security.
  • Promulgation of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Coastal Security in all Coastal States/UTs by ICG for coordination between all stakeholders.
  • Conduct of Coastal Security exercises and Coastal Security Operations.
  • Integration with coastal community through Community Interaction Programmes (CIPs) to bring awareness amongst fisher folk for strengthening coastal security mechanism.
  • Capacity building and training of Marine Police and Joint Coastal Patrol (JCP) by Indian Coast Guard.
  • Launch of campaign on plastic free seas under the aegis of ‘Puneet Sagar Abhiyan’ and ‘Swachh Sagar Abhiyan’ in collaboration with NGOs and NCC to collect plastics running into oceans through land sources.
  • Deployment of Pollution Response Vessels and teams for oil spill response to protect marine ecosystem.

Coastal Area of India –

  • Coastal India is a geo-cultural region in the Indian subcontinent that spans the entire coastline of India.
  • India has a very long coastline, and it measures about 7,516.6 km bordering the mainland and the islands with the Bay of Bengal in the East, the Indian Ocean on the South and the Arabian Sea on the West.
  • The coastline is distributed among nine states and four union territories (UTs).
  • Among the states, Gujarat has the longest coastline and among the UTs, Andaman and Nicobar Islands has the longest coastline.

Coastal States of India:

  1. Gujarat
  2. Maharashtra
  3. Goa
  4. Karnataka
  5. Kerala
  6. Tamil Nadu
  7. Andhra Pradesh
  8. Odisha
  9. West Bengal

Four Union Territories –

  1. Daman & Diu
  2. Puducherry
  3. Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Bay of Bengal)
  4. Lakshadweep Islands (Arabian Sea)

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