Changes in IT rules
Paper 2 – Governance
Why You Should Know?
Recently, the government notified amendments to the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021 for open, secure and reliable and accountable internet.
In detail –
- Emphasising on open, secure and reliable and accountable internet, the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has notified these amendments with an aim to protect the rights of digital citizens.
- The Internet is open, secure, reliable and accountable to our digital citizens. These amendments have been notified after the Ministry followed a detailed public consultation process involving all stakeholders.
- It also enhances the requirements of due diligence and ensures accountability of social media and other intermediaries.
- These amendments have been notified regarding the background of complaints regarding action/inaction of intermediaries regarding objectionable content made by the user or complaints related to suspension of their accounts.
- Intermediaries will now be expected to ensure that no content is being uploaded that intentionally disseminates any misinformation or information that is completely false or untrue, so intermediaries have been entrusted with an important responsibility.
- The rules also make it clear that intermediaries should respect the rights guaranteed to Indian citizens under Articles 14, 19 and 21 of the Indian Constitution.
What changes were made?
The major changes made in the rules are as follows:
- Currently, intermediaries only have to inform users about not uploading certain categories of harmful/unlawful content.
- These amendments entrust intermediaries with the legal obligation to make reasonable efforts to prevent users from uploading such content.
- The new provision will ensure that the liability of the intermediary is not merely a formality.
- In order to give effective information regarding the rules and regulations of intermediates, it is important that the information is also given in regional Indian languages.
- The basis of Rule 3(1)(b)(ii) has been rationalised by removing the words ‘defamatory’ and ‘defamatory’.
- Whether any content is defamatory or defamatory will be determined through judicial review.
- Rule 3(1)(b) specifically expresses certain content categories to deal with misinformation, and content that may incite violence between different religious/caste groups.
- The amendment calls for intermediaries to respect the rights guaranteed to users under the Constitution, including due diligence, privacy and fair expectation of transparency.
- Complaints Appeal Committee(s) will be set up to appeal against the inaction of intermediaries or decisions taken by them on users’ complaints.
- However, users will have the right to approach the court for any solution.
Resolution of complaints
- The government has added obscene content, trademark infringement, fake information and threat to the sovereignty of the nation as well as objectionable religious content (intended to incite violence) to the new rules, which users can flag on social media platforms.
- The amendments provide for social media platforms to accept user complaints within 24 hours and resolve them within 15 days thereafter.
- According to the new rules, social media platforms will also have to remove controversial content within 72 hours.
- These appellate committees will be able to review content moderation and other decisions of social media companies like Meta and Twitter.
- “The central government shall constitute complaint appellate committees within three months from the date of commencement of the Information Technology Amendment Rules, 2022,” the notification said.
- Each committee will have a chairperson and two full-time members appointed by the central government. One of them will be an ex-officio member and two will be independent members.
- Any person who disagrees with the decision of the Grievance Officer can complain to the Appellate Committee within 30 days of receiving the information from the Grievance Officer.
Source – PIB
Paper 3 – Environment
Why You Should Know?
Recently, Prime Minister Narendra Modi today inaugurated a Maze garden and Miyawaki forest in the premises of the iconic Statue of Unity in Gujarat.
In detail –
- The Maze garden is spread over three acres of land and is the largest garden in the country.
- The maze garden is designed in the shape of a ‘Shri Yantra’, which is believed to bring positive energy into the place.
- Developed by Japanese botanist Akira Miyawaki using pioneering technology the Miyawaki forest has been developed over an area of about two acres.
- The maze garden and Miyawaki forest will add to the tourism value of the iconic Statue of Unity.
What is Miyawaki technology?
- In 2014, botanist Akira Miyawaki erected a wall of trees along Hiroshima’s coastline, which not only protected the city from tsunami damage, but also presented a sample of community and dense plantation to the world.
- In this technique, plants are planted at a distance of just half to one feet. In this, animal nectar and dung manure are used.
Benefits of technology
- Through the Miyawaki technique, the forest can be developed in just two to three years, while with the traditional technique it takes at least 20 to 30 years.
- In this technique , more than 100 plants can be planted in 2 feet wide and 30 feet strip.
- By planting the plant nearby, the weather does not affect and the leaves of the plant remain green even during the summer days. Plant growth occurs at twice the speed.
- Where plantations that take place far and wide have to be given up to five years of care. Plants planted by the Miyawaki technique grow in three years.
- Plants in less space act as an oxygen bank and are also helpful in attracting rain.
- This technique can be used not only in the forest area but also in the garden of houses.
- Through this technology, the goal of planting man-made forests can be fulfilled.
How is this technique used?
- It is noteworthy that there is a rule to plant saplings at a distance of at least two feet for plantation by the Forest Department.
- In this, trees like banyan and peepal are planted at a distance of five feet each. But in the Miyawaki technique, you can plant the plant with a maximum interval of one foot.
- In this technique, plants going to low heights are planted with plants like peepal and banyan.
- Jeevamrit and organic manure are used at the time of planting. After planting the soil is covered with old leaves.
- After planting the saplings, they are irrigated at least till the next rainy season
- After taking care of this forest for 2 to 3 years, this forest becomes self-sufficient.
Monetary Policy Committee (MPC)
Paper 3 – ECONOMY
Why You Should Know?
For the first time since the formation of the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC), the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) will prepare a report on not being able to keep inflation in the prescribed range for nine consecutive months and submit it to the central government.
In detail –
- The MPC was set up in 2016 as a systematic framework for monetary policy making. Since then, the MPC has remained the highest decision-making body on policy interest rates.
- Under the MPC framework, the government had entrusted the RBI with the responsibility to ensure that inflation remains below 4% (with 2% fluctuations).
- However, inflation has consistently remained above 6% since January this year. Retail inflation based on consumer price index (CPI) was also recorded at 7.4% in September.
- This means that inflation has remained above the satisfactory level of 6% for 9 consecutive months. This level of inflation shows that the RBI has failed to fulfill its specified obligation.
- Section 45ZN of the RBI Act provides that the central bank will have to submit a review report to the government about its failure if inflation remains above the prescribed level for three consecutive quarters i.e. nine consecutive months.
- In this report, the RBI has to explain what was the reason for its failure to control inflation. Along with this, the RBI also has to tell what kind of steps it is taking to control the situation.
About Monetary Policy Committee
- The Monetary Policy Committee is a committee constituted by the Government of India which was constituted on June 27, 2016 to make interest rate determination more useful and transparent.
- The Governor of the Reserve Bank is the ex-officio Chairman of this Committee.
- As per the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, three of the six members of the Monetary Policy Committee are from the RBI and the other three members are appointed by the central bank.
- Decisions in this committee are taken on the basis of majority and in the event of equal votes, the Governor of the Reserve Bank gives his decisive vote.
How does monetary policy work?
- The MPC meets every two months — that is, six times a year — in February, April, June, August, October and December — to evaluate the current situation and outlook for inflation and economic growth.
- Based on that assessment, it changes the repo rate, which is the interest rate at which the RBI lends money to the banking system.
- This same repo rate fluctuation affects the overall interest rates in the economy.
Sources – IE
Tuberculosis disease in closed tea gardens
Paper 2 – Health
Why You Should Know?
In West Bengal, tea gardens in lowlands and dooars (Himalayan foothills) have been closed for a long time, meanwhile, tuberculosis disease has spread.
In detail –
- Deaths due to malnutrition, disease and hunger have been in the news in long-closed tea gardens in West Bengal .
- The era of migration of laborers from the tea industry of North Bengal, which is going through a period of misery, has also started.
- Hundreds of labourers from these gardens, who are on the verge of closure or closure, have now started going to remote states like Tamil Nadu and Kerala in search of livelihood.
- Several acres of tea plants have either turned brown or dried up in the garden, indicating years of neglect. For workers, the shutdown means poverty, malnutrition and an unexpected malaise — tuberculosis.
- Massive malnutrition has led to an increase in TB among workers, many of whom are already struggling with loss of livelihood.
- Although the state government gives free ration to the workers, but this is also not the right solution to the problem.
- Due to the increase in the problem of livelihood and malnutrition in closed tea gardens, the cases of trafficking of children and young women have increased rapidly.
About Tuberculosis (TB) Disease –
- TB or tuberculosis is caused by a bacterium called ‘Mycobacterium tuberculosis’, which belongs to the ‘Mycobacteriaceae family’ of about 200 members.
- Some mycobacteria cause TB and leprosy in humans and others infect animals on a much wider scale.
- TB affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) most commonly in humans, but it can also affect other organs (extra-pulmonary TB).
- TB is a very ancient disease and its existence was documented in Egypt around 3000 BC.
- Currently TB is a treatable disease.
- TB disease spreads from person to person through the air.
- When a person suffering from ‘pulmonary TB’ coughs, sneezes or spits, he spreads tb germs in the air.
- Common symptoms of ‘pulmonary TB’ include coughing with mucus and frequent bleeding, chest pain, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.
- If anti-TB medication is taken for a full duration, the disease is completely cured.
- Direct observer treatment is a policy followed for the treatment of short-course (DOTS) TB.
- Treatment of tuberculosis requires at least six months of treatment.
What are dots?
DOTS (Directly Observed Short Course) is a short-term treatment for the treatment of tuberculosis. It is the name of a holistic strategy adopted by primary health centres across the world for the detection and treatment of TB. It includes 5 things:
- Political Commitment to National TB Control Programme.
- To provide microscopic services to identify infections in patients with symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis, especially those whose cough is three weeks or more old.
- Regular and uninterrupted supply of TB drugs. Reliable and high quality supply of TB drugs to all health centres is an important factor for seamless treatment of TB patients under DOTS strategy.
- Direct observation of treatment at least in the initial intensive care phase. As part of the DOTS policy, healthcare workers will counsel and observe their patients by administering them doses with a strong blend of the drug.
- Provision of inspection and accountability for evaluation and program supervision of treatment of each patient under diagnosis.
Efforts for eradication –
- The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a joint initiative “research” with the Global Fund and the Stop TB Partnership. Medical treatment. All. #EndTB” (Find. Treat. All. #EndTB”) is introduced.
- The WHO also releases the World Tuberculosis Report.
- Talking about India’s efforts, India has launched the National Strategic Plan for Tuberculosis Elimination Year 2017-2025, Nikshay Ecosystem (National TB Information System), Nikshay Poshan Yojana (financial assistance by NPY), TB Harega Desh Jeetega Campaign etc.
- In addition, two vaccines for TB have currently been developed under phase 3 of clinical trials – Vaccine Project Management 1002 (VPM1002) and Mycobacterium indicus animal (MIP).
- The Government of India’s National TB Elimination Programme (NTEP) is running at full speed to make India ‘ TB free’ by the year 2025.
- Under this program run under the National Health Mission, the central government has prepared a complete system of identifying and notifying every TB patient to completely eliminate TB from India. Arrangements have also been made that TB patients get medicines on time.
Source – TH
Jangi Thopan Powari Hydroelectric Project
Paper 3 – Energy Resources
Why You Should Know?
Jangi Thopan Powari is a hydropower project proposed in Himachal Pradesh , which is being opposed by the residents there.
In detail –
- A “No Means No” campaign has been launched by a group of youths against setting up of new hydropower projects in Himachal Pradesh’s Kinnaur.
- Residents of Himachal Pradesh are opposing the proposed 804 MW Jangi Thopan Powari Hydroelectric Project (JTP HEP ).
- It is a proposed project on river Sutlej.
- The project involves construction of a concrete gravity dam above the deepest foundation level across the Sutlej river and an underground power station on the right bank of the tehsil boundary.
- Due to this power project, thousands of people will be affected mainly in Jangi, Rarang, Spelo, Akpa Moorang and Kanam panchayats.
- Sangharsh committees have been formed against the power project on behalf of these panchayats.
- Himachal Pradesh has over 930 hydropower projects, including mini, small, big and big projects. Most of these projects are in Kinnaur, Chamba and Shimla districts.
- As part of the “No Means No” campaign against power projects, the youth have demanded the government and political parties to scrap the proposed 960 MW project at Jangi Thopan.
About the Dam
- To meet the requirement of water, water harvesting is done by creating huge barriers on the rivers. These large water storage areas are called dams.
- It is built for flood prevention and the accumulated water is also helpful in irrigation, hydropower, drinking water supply, shipping etc.
- It is also constructed from concrete, rocks, wood or clay.
- There are three types-
- gravity dam,
- arc dam
- embankment dam.
- Bhakra Dam is a concrete gravity dam.
- The Idduki dam is the only arc dam in India.
- Tehri Dam is an example of Rockfill Dam or Embankment Dam.
Benefits from the Dam
1. Irrigation facility
- Water is supplied to drought-prone areas through canals by constructing dams on rivers.
- So that farmers get enough water for farming. So that crops are not ruined in heat or water crisis situation.
- The water of the dams is provided by canals, many miles away.
2. Fisheries and Employment
- The benefits of the dam are many. This will provide employment opportunities to the people living on the banks of the river.
- Fish farming like rehu, katla and shrimp will strengthen the surrounding rural economy.
3. Power Generation
- The main purpose of building dams on large rivers is power generation.
- In this power generation process, the fast velocity of water is converted into electrical energy, by a turbine.
- This energy generation process is environmentally friendly. It does not emit harmful substances.
4. Water Supply in Cities
- In metros, it is not possible to meet the demand through traditional water sources to meet the need for population pressure.
- Industrial factories and human water supply are possible only through dams. Because water harvesting can be done more in dams.
5. Promotion of tourism
- The dam also promotes several tourism industries.
- Many recreational things like water park, sailing, jet skiing, surfing, fishing, will attract tourists.
6. Reduction in soil erosion
- Soil erosion is continuous along the rivers due to strong flow.
- Due to which the rivers are constantly widening and deep. But with the construction of dams on the rivers, the fast flow will be reduced.
Problems caused by the dam
1. Interruption of natural flow
- Due to the construction of dams, the natural flow of rivers flows. Due to which the migration and reproduction rules of aquatic organisms are interrupted.
- Silt deposition takes place layer by layer on the river bed. Due to dams, silt gradually accumulates on the river bed, which causes the river bed to rise.
2. Reduction in forest cover
- The importance of forests is the same for everyone. But the rural residents are completely dependent on forests for their livelihood. It controls the atmospheric temperature.
- Make the contaminated air clean. In such a situation, the construction of dams on the rivers passing through the forest areas makes the entire area forestless.
- The shelter of wild animals, firewood, fruits and flowers, cattle feed etc. are lost.
3. Risk of floods
- Continuous rainfall during the monsoon seasons increases the water level in the dam, sometimes even when a sudden cloudburst occurs.
- This increases the pressure on the dam gate to collect more water than the capacity, so if those gates are not opened on time, conditions like dam breaking are created.
- It causes excessive drainage from dams, flooding of low-lying areas. Cities, fields, barns, etc. are all submerged. On the other hand, natural disasters like earthquakes are also serious challenges for dams.
4. Inter-State Water Disputes
- A river passes through many states, countries from its origin to its merger with salamander, such as river Ganga, Narmada river, Brahmaputra river are some examples of inter-state or inland rivers.
- Rivers always flow downwards from the origin due to the force of gravity. When there is more water consumption by the people of the upper areas, due to which the people of the lower areas start facing water shortage, then there are differences over inter-state water sharing.
5. Displacement problem
- Local people are displaced when dams are constructed on the banks of rivers where dense population resides.
- Displaced villages are settled in new places. This takes away the fields and barns of the agricultural people. Displacement does not cause much trouble to the employed people.
- At the same time, farming, animal husbandry, daily wage laborers get less employment opportunities.
Sources – TH
Uniform Civil Code
Paper 2 – Polity
Why You Should Know?
Recently, Gujarat Chief Minister Bhupendra Patel has decided to set up a committee to implement the Uniform Civil Code in the state.
In detail –
- The committee will be formed under the chairmanship of a retired high court judge.
- This committee will explore the possibility of uniform civil code. For this, various aspects will be evaluated.
- Uniform Civil Code means a uniform law for every citizen living in India.
- Significantly, before Gujarat, the government of Uttarakhand has also decided to implement it.
- On March 27 , 2022 , Uttarakhand Chief Minister Pushkar Singh Dhami constituted a five-member committee on uniform civil code under the chairmanship of former Supreme Court judge Ranjana Prakash Desai.
What is Uniform Civil Code?
- In the eyes of the law, everyone is equal. Be it caste or religion. Whether you are a man or a woman, the law is equal for everyone.
- Marriage, divorce, adoption, succession, inheritance. But above all “gender equality” is the reason why the need for uniform civil code has been felt.
- The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) means the same rules for all citizens in subjects such as marriage, divorce, child adoption and division of property.
- It means a uniform law for every citizen living in India, irrespective of religion or caste.
- In the state where the Uniform Civil Code will be implemented, the same law will apply to all religions in marriage, divorce and division of land and property.
- In our country, people of every religion deal with such cases under their personal law. At present, Muslim, Christian and Parsi communities have separate personal laws, while Hindu civil law includes Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists besides Hindus .
Why the need?
- Due to different laws of different religions, the burden on the country’s judiciary is constantly increasing.
- With the implementation of the Uniform Civil Code, this problem will be overcome and the cases pending in the courts for years will be decided soon.
- When there is a uniform law for everyone in marriage, divorce, adoption and property distribution, then the number of cases in the court will decrease unnecessarily .
- Uniform Civil Code is mentioned in Article 44 of Part IV of the Indian Constitution . It has been policy-directed that implementing uniform civil law will be our goal.
- The Supreme Court has also taken the initiative to know the views of the Central Government towards implementing the Uniform Civil Code several times.
- The word ‘secularism’ was inserted in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution through the 42nd Amendment.
- It is clear from this that the purpose of the Indian Constitution is to end any discrimination on the basis of religion with all the citizens of India, but due to the non-implementation of the Uniform Civil Code till the present time, a large section in India is still deprived of their rights due to religious laws.
- The concept of ‘rule of law’ exists in the fundamental rights, according to which, there should be a uniform law for all citizens. But even after so many years of independence, a large section of the population is struggling for their fundamental rights.
- Thus, the non-implementation of uniform civil code is in a way a violation of the rule of law and the Preamble of the Constitution.
- Article 25-28 of the Indian Constitution guarantees religious freedom to Indian citizens and allows religious groups to maintain their own affairs, Article 44 of the Constitution requires the Indian state to apply directive principles and common law to all Indian citizens while formulating national policies.
Source – TH
Paper 3 – कृषि
Why You Should Know?
Recently, the Indian Agricultural Research Institute has successfully tested two new dwarf varieties Pusa Narendra Kalanamak 1638 and Pusa Narendra Kalanamak 1652 in Uttar Pradesh, which give double yield.
In detail –
- Kalanamak, a traditional variety of paddy with black husk and sharp aroma,which Lord Buddha considered a gift to the people of Shravasti after visiting the region after Enlightenment, is all set to get a new look and name.
- This traditional variety grown in 11 districts of the Terai region of northeastern Uttar Pradesh and in Nepal has been affected due to the problem of “loding” .
- Loding is a condition in which the top of the plant becomes heavy due to the formation of a rash, the stem becomes weak and the plant falls to the ground.
- Addressing the problem, the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) has successfully developed two dwarf varieties of kalanamak rice.
- They have been named Pusa Narendra Kalanamak 1638 and Pusa Narendra Kalanamak 1652.
- The new name is named after the institute along with Acharya Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology in Ayodhya, where the two varieties were tested.
- The yield of the new varieties is twice that of the traditional variety, and IARI and the Uttar Pradesh Agriculture Council are working together to make seeds available to farmers at the earliest.
- Traditional kalanamak rice is protected under the Geographical Indication (GI) tag system.
- It is recorded in the GI application that Lord Buddha gifted kalanamak paddy to the people of Shravasti so that they remember it by its aroma.
What is Kalanamak rice?
- ‘Kalanamak’ rice is a very high quality rice variety. Due to the black husk, it got the name ‘Kalanamak’ rice.
- Its importance can be gauged from the fact that this rice is considered to be directly related to Lord Buddha and hence it is also called ‘Mahaprasad of Mahatma Buddha’ .
- The history of this rice dates back to at least 600 BC or the Buddha period.
- In ancient times, this rice was originally grown in the Terai region of Uttar Pradesh and Nepal.
- Today’s Siddharthnagar, Sant Kabir Nagar, Maharajganj, Basti, Gonda, Gorakhpur and Kushinagar districts are included in it.
Beneficial for farmers
- The specialty of ‘Kalanamak’ rice is that it is usually grown through organic farming.
- That is, this particular variety of paddy is grown without the help of fertilizers and pesticides and it is a very ancient variety completely suitable for organic farming.
- When fertilizers and pesticides are not used in its cultivation, the burden of farmers’ pocket is also reduced and the cost of their crop is also reduced significantly.
- But, as far as yield is concerned, in the same area, it gives 40 to 50 per cent more yield than other varieties of paddy.
- Another feature of this is that it does not complain of stem rotting or brown spot disease, which sometimes becomes a big headache for farmers in other paddy crops.
Beneficial for health
- This rice contains antioxidants like anthocyanins, which are helpful in the prevention of heart disease.
- It also takes good care of skin health. This rice is rich in iron and zinc and does not allow vitamin deficiency.
- It has been found to be helpful in controlling blood pressure and curing blood-related problems. Apart from this, protein is also found in it.
- Due to being rich in nutrients, its demand has increased abroad. Last year , 500 quintals of rice was exported to Singapore.
- Whereas, 20 quintals of ‘Kalanamak’ rice was sent to Dubai and one quintal to Germany.
- ‘Kala Namak’ rice gets GI tag ‘Kala Namak’ rice was given the Geographical Indicator (GI tag) tag in 2013, giving its recognition to Siddharthnagar and adjoining districts.
- Grains similar to ‘Kalanamak’ rice were found in Siddharthnagar district of Uttar Pradesh.
- Hn Singh, professor of economics at Govind Ballabh Pant University, had said in a study that if we look at the cost, then basmati has more than double the cost advantage in its production compared to cost.
- So far, Maharajganj, Gorakhpur, Siddharthnagar, Sant Kabirnagar, Balrampur, Bahraich, Basti, Kushinagar, Gonda, Barabanki, Deoria and Gonda of Purvanchal have got GI tag.
Relationship with Gautam Buddha
- When the Chinese traveller Fahian visited India, he found Buddhist literature dating back to the 5th BC, about which he has written a note later.
- He has told in his travelogue that when Mahatma Buddha reached Kapilvastu for the first time after attaining enlightenment, the villagers stopped him and demanded ‘prasad’ from him.
- Lord Buddha blessed the villagers with grains called ‘Kala’ and asked them to sow in a marshy place.
- Along with this, Gautam Buddha said, ‘Rice will have a distinctive aroma, which will always remind people of me. This , it says, is why this paddy loses its quality and aroma when planted elsewhere.
Trilateral Naval Exercise -IMT Trilat
Paper 2 – International Relations
Why You Should Know?
The first edition of trilateral naval exercise (IMT Trilat) between India-Mozambique-Tanzania was held at Dar es Salaam, Tanzania on October 27, 2022.
In detail –
- The navies of India, Mozambique and Tanzania participated in the joint maritime exercise.
- The exercise is being conducted over a period of three days from October 27 to 29, 2022.
- Guided missile frigates, INS Tarkash, a Chetak helicopter and MARCOS (Special Naval Force) from the Indian Navy have participated in the exercise.
- The joint exercise has three broad objectives: to share training and best practices among themselves, enhance interoperability and enhance capacity to overcome common threats through strengthening maritime cooperation.
- The first-of-its-kind joint naval exercise involves coastal and sea stage action at the port.
- Several capacity building activities are being conducted as part of the coastal exercise in the port phase. these include inspection, board, search and seizure; small arms training; joint diving operation; damage control and firefighting exercises; and cross deck tours, etc.
- The sea phase exercises include boat operations, fleet manoeuvres, travel, board, search and seizure operations, helicopter operations, small arms firing, formation anchoring and EEZ patrol operations.
- These exercises reflect the commitment of India and the Indian Navy to enhance maritime security and cooperation with maritime neighbours in the Indian Ocean region and to promote maritime security, security and development for all in the region.
Sources – PIB
Paper 3– Security
Why You Should Know?
Garuda-VII exercise is being conducted at Air Force Station Jodhpur.
In detail –
- The Indian Air Force (IAF) and the French Air and Space Force (FASF) are participating in a bilateral exercise called ‘Garuda VIl’ at Jodhpur Air Force Station from October 26 to November 12, 2022.
- The FASF will participate in the exercise along with four Rafale fighter jets, an A-330 Multi Role Tanker Transport (MRTT) aircraft and a contingent of 220 personnel.
- The IAF is participating with Su-30 MKI, Rafale, LCA Tejas and Jaguar fighter jets as well as Light Combat Helicopters (LCH) and Mi-17 helicopters.
- Flight refuelling aircraft in IAF contingent, Fighter and capable military equipment like AWACS and AEW&C will also be involved.
- This is the seventh edition of the bilateral exercise. The first, third and fifth editions were held in India in 2003, 2006 and 2014 respectively at Air Force Stations Gwalior, Kalaikunda and Jodhpur.
- The second, fourth and sixth editions were held in France in 2005, 2010 and 2019.
- The joint exercise will provide a platform for the two countries to share best practices as well as enhance military operational capability and interoperability.
- The participation of IAF and FASF in the exercise will encourage professional interaction, exchange of experiences and enhancement of operational knowledge besides strengthening bilateral relations between the two countries.
Sources – PIB