Ojaank IAS Academy




5 November 2022 – Current Affairs

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India Infrastructure Project Development Fund Scheme (IIPDF)

Paper 3 – Infrastructure

Why You Should Know?

Recently, the Department of Economic Affairs (DEA), Ministry of Finance, Government of India notified the Financial Assistance Scheme for Project Development Expenditure of PPP Projects – India Infrastructure Project Development Fund Scheme (IIPDF Scheme) on 03 November 2022.

In detail –
  • The Department of Economic Affairs (DEA) is laying great emphasis on improving the quality and pace of infrastructure development in the country by encouraging private sector participation in the infrastructure sector.
  • DEA actively engages in developing appropriate policy frameworks for private investment in infrastructure development.
  • Public Private Partnership (PPP) is being encouraged to bring in private capital and efficiency in the implementation and operation of infrastructure projects.
  • In addition, new schemes and initiatives are being launched to provide financial and technical support to the private sector wherever necessary.
  • Now, IFS has  come up with a scheme of financial assistance for project development expenditure of PPP projects – ‘IIPDF Scheme’ (  India Infrastructure Project Development Fund Scheme) – with a view to provide necessary support to PSA both at  central and state governments level by providing financial assistance to meet the cost of transaction consultants and consultants engaged in development of PPP projects.
What is IIPDF Scheme?
  • The India Infrastructure Project Development Fund Scheme (IIPDF Scheme) is  a central sector scheme.
  • It will help in development of quality PPP projects by providing necessary financial assistance to project sponsoring authorities at both central and state governments to create a shelf of relevant PPP projects available with banking facilities to realise the dream of modern infrastructure in the country.
  • The funding under the IIPDF scheme is in addition to the scheme already operationalised for financial assistance to PPPs in infrastructure (Viability Gap Financing Scheme).
  • Infrastructure Finance Secretariat (IFS), DEA has taken several important initiatives to promote PPP ecosystem in the country covering the entire set of PPP life-cycles.
  • An important step in structuring quality PPP projects is to provide quality consultancy/consultancy services to project sponsoring authorities (PSAs).
  • However, securing such services is a time-consuming and difficult process that often results in delays in incorporating a proper transaction advisory (TA) or extra-optimal structure of PPP projects.
  • To address these problems,  the Department of Economic Affairs has notified a panel of pre-qualified TAs on July 1, 2022 and developed a manual for the use of this panel.

Source – PIB



 Supreme Court order on pension scheme

Paper 2 – Polity

Why You Should Know?

Recently, the Supreme Court has said in its decision that the provisions of the Employees’ Pension (Amendment) Scheme, 2014 are legal and valid.

In detail –
  • The Supreme Court has given its important decision in the EPF pension case. A bench of Chief Justice UU Lilit, Justice Aniruddha Bose and Justice Sudhanshu Dhulia has said many important things in their judgment.
  • The court has said in its decision that the provisions of the Employees’ Pension (Amendment) Scheme, 2014 are legal and valid.
  • Most important, the court used its extraordinary powers under Article 142 of the Constitution to allow eligible employees who had not opted for enhanced pension coverage before the 2014 amendments.
  • But the court has struck down the monthly salary limit of Rs 15,000 to join the pension fund.
  • The 2014 amendment had capped the maximum pensionable pay (basic pay plus dearness allowance) at Rs 15,000 per month. The maximum pensionable salary before the revision was Rs 6,500 per month.
  • The bench also struck down the condition of the 2014 scheme under which employees were required to make an additional contribution of 1.16 per cent on salaries above Rs 15,000.
  • The bench also said that the condition of making additional contributions on salaries beyond the limit would be voluntary, but added that this part of the judgment would be kept suspended for six months to enable officials to generate funds.
  • The bench said employees who have not exercised the option of joining the pension scheme will have to do so within six months.
  • The Supreme Court has said that eligible employees who could not join the scheme by the cut-off date should be given an additional chance as there was a lack of clarity on the issue in view of the judgments passed by the High Courts of Kerala, Rajasthan and Delhi.
  • The Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation and the Centre had challenged in the Supreme Court the decision of the high courts of Kerala, Rajasthan and Delhi, which had scrapped the 2014 EPF scheme.
What was the matter?
  • The dispute mainly relates to the controversial amendments made to Article 11 of the EPS-1995.
  • Before the amendment was introduced,  every employee who became a member of the Employees’ Provident Fund Scheme 1952 on November 16, 1995, could avail EPS.
  • In the pre-revised version of EPS-1995,  the maximum pensionable salary limit was Rs 6,500.However, members whose salary exceeds this limit can choose to contribute 8.33% of their actual salary along with their employers.
  • The EPS, amended in 2014, which included changes in paragraph 11(3) and a new paragraph 11(4), had increased the cap from Rs 6,500 to Rs 15,000.
  • Paragraph 11(4) states that only those employees who were existing EPS members as on September 1,  2014 can continue to contribute to the pension fund as per their actual salary.
  • He was given six months to choose the new pension system.
  • Further, 11(4) created an additional obligation for members whose salary exceeded the limit of Rs 15,000. They had to contribute at the rate of 1.16% of the salary.
 Provisions of  Article 142
  • (1) The Supreme Court may, in exercise of its jurisdiction,  pass such decree or make such order as may be necessary to do complete justice in any suit or matter pending before it and the decree or order so passed shall be prescribed in the territory of India in such manner as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament;  and unless provision is made in this behalf,  in such manner as the President may by order prescribe, shall be enforceable.
  • (2) Subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament in this behalf,  the Supreme Court shall have all and every power to make any order for the purpose of producing any person in relation to the entire territory of India, disclosure or production of any documents or for the purpose of investigating or punishing any of its contempts.

Sources – TH


Paper 1 – Geography

Why You Should Know?

Recently, ISRO’s radar-imaging satellite RISAT-2 has finally  landed on Earth after completing its ‘task’ for over 13 years.

In detail –
  • The RISAT-2 satellite, launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in 2009, re-entered the Earth’s atmosphere uncontrollably after 13-and-a-half years at a potential impact point.
  • The satellite, weighing 300 kg, re-entered the Earth’s atmosphere at a potential impact point in the Indian Ocean near Jakarta on October 30 after being uncontrolled
  • Isro said there was no fuel left in the satellite after it re-entered the atmosphere. Therefore no contamination or explosion from the fuel is expected.
  • Studies by scientists have confirmed that fragments generated by aero-thermal fission will burn when they re-enter the atmosphere and no piece of it will cause any harm to Earth.
  • “RISAT-2 is a clear example of ISRO’s ability to conduct spacecraft orbital operations in an efficient and superior manner.
  • As RISAT-2 re-entered the Earth’s atmosphere within 13-and-a-half years, it has complied with all necessary international mitigation guidelines for space debris, reflecting ISRO’s commitment towards long-term sustainability of outer space as well.
About RISAT-2
  • RISAT-2 is an artificial satellite of India. ‘RISAT’ is a short form of radar imaging satellite.
  • It is an all-weather surveillance satellite.
  • It  was launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation from Sriharikota on April 20, 2009.
  • It is capable of photographing the earth in any weather and is also useful in detecting natural disasters like floods and landslides.
  • It has a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) which is different from India’s remote sensing satellites launched in the past.
  • It is equipped with multiple antennae for signal, allowing clear pictures to be taken.
  • The SAR has been built by Israel’s Aerospace Industries, which has defense capabilities. SAR can photograph day and night in any weather and cloudy weather as well. Earlier, Indian satellites did not have such capability.
  • RISAT-2 (Radar Imaging Satellite-2) satellite was initially designed for four years and only 30 kg of fuel was filled for it.
  • RISAT-2 provided very useful payload data for 13 years with proper orbit maintenance and economical use of fuel with mission planning by the spacecraft operations team at ISRO.
  • Since its entry into the atmosphere, RADAR payload services of RISAT-2 have been provided for various space applications.

Source –TH

Joint Military Training (JMT)

Paper 2 – International Relations

Why You Should Know?

Recently, the 11th edition of the annual Joint Military Training (JMT) between the Indian Air Force (IAF) and the Royal Singapore Air Force (RSAF) began on 3 November 2022 at the Air Force Station at Kalaikunda.

In detail –
  • These two air forces have resumed this training after a gap of two years. Training could not be imparted during the last two years due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  •  This edition of JMT will be held over a period of six weeks.
  • The bilateral phase of the exercise will be held from November 9 to 18, 2022 and both the air forces will join the advanced air warfare exercise.
  • JMT-2022 is participating with RSAF F-16 aircraft. At the same time, the IAF will land Su-30 MKI, Jaguar, MiG-29 and LCA Tejas aircraft in this exercise.
  • The exercise underlines the strong and long-standing ties between India and Singapore in the field of defence cooperation.
  • It aims to provide an opportunity to the participating contingent to share valuable operational knowledge, experience and best practices while strengthening the professional relationship between the two Air Forces.
  • JMT gives members of both air forces a chance to enhance their operational skills and training. This includes air warfare and mission-focused training.
  • The first joint military exercise between the air forces of the two countries was held in 2008. Its scope grew in later years.
India-Singapore relations
  • India and Singapore share cultural, commercial and strategic ties for a long time, Singapore is part of the “Greater India” cultural and commercial zone.
Historical Relationship:
  • India-Singapore  relations were maintained under trade  relations with the Chola dynasty.
  • More than 300,000 people of Indian origin live in Singapore.
  • After its independence in 1965, Singapore was concerned about china-backed communist threats as well as the dominance of Malaysia and Indonesia, which led to it developing closer  ties  with India.
Political relations:
  • India is the first country to establish relations with Singapore after independence.
  • Former Singapore PM M Goh Chok Tong was awarded the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for understanding in international relations.
  • Singapore supports India’s UN security bid.
Economic Relations:
  • Singapore overtook Mauritius to become the largest source of FDI in 2013-2014
  • Singapore has India’s largest flight connection
  • The Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (Free Trade Agreement) was signed in 2005. Singapore became the first country with which India signed such an agreement.
Cultural relation:
  • Tamil is one of the official languages.
  • Most of the Indian population is in white collar jobs.
Military Cooperation:
  • In 1994, India and Singapore began their annual naval combat exercise, now called “Simbex”, with several warships from India and Singapore taking part in this interoperable combat exercise.
  • In 2003, India and Singapore signed a Defence Cooperation Agreement, allowing the Singapore Army and Air Force to conduct training on Indian soil.
  • In 2016, India and Singapore signed  agreements for “strategic ties” across the board,  including defence and military, security and intelligence cooperation, political exchanges, increased trade and investment, improving financial ties, improving air connectivity and cooperation in multilateral fora.

Sources – TH


Make-II Projects

Paper 3 – Security

Why You Should Know?

Recently, the Indian Army has approved five Make-II projects promoting Impetus to  “Atma Nirbhaarta”

In detail –
  • The Indian Army is working to provide impetus to “make projects” bringing specific technologies through indigenous development.
  • In order to further boost the ongoing projects, the Indian Army has now  approved project sanction orders (PSOs) of five Make II projects.
  • Make II projects are essentially industry funded projects including innovative solutions designed and developed by Indian vendors for the development of prototypes.
  • The Indian Army  is already pursuing 43 ongoing projects under the Make II process of capital acquisition.
  • As many as 17 of the 43 projects have been taken up through self-motivation proposals received from the industry, which has instilled enthusiasm and confidence in the Indian defence industry to participate in the “make process”.
  • The   Make II Procurement Scheme has  given impetus to enhance design and development in the defence industry to achieve indigenisation of high level technology systems in various types of weapon systems, ammunition and modern training systems which are not currently available in the country.
  • Several measures to expedite the ongoing Make II projects have yielded tangible results.
  • Of the total 43 Make II projects, 22 are now in prototype development stage, accounting for 66% of the projects by cost (Rs 18,000 crore out of Rs 27,000 crore).

The following are the projects whose PSOs have been sanctioned:-

High Frequency Man Packed Software Defined Radio (HFSDR)
  • Project Sanction Order (PSO) has been issued to 14 developing agencies (DAs) for development of prototypes of Frequency Man Packed Software Design Radio (HFSDR) under Make II  scheme.
  • There are plans to procure 300 HFSDRs by the Indian Army on successful development  of prototypes.
  • The state-of-the-art, light-weight HFSDR will provide long-range radio communication through enhanced data capacity and band width along with enhanced security.
  • It will facilitate Blue Force tracking with map based navigation using GIS, thereby increasing situational awareness in real time.
  • These radio sets will replace the existing HF radio sets in the inventory for the time being, which have limited data handling capacity and outdated technology.
Drone Kill System
  • The Drone Kill  System is a hard kill anti-drone system against low radio cross section (RCS) drones/Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), which is being developed to operate in all types of terrains both day and night.
  • RPAS/s (remotely operated aircraft systems) has greatly influenced the modern battlefield, even though drone-related technologies are constantly evolving. The indigenous industry has sufficient expertise to develop world class products in this field.
  • As part of efforts to further encourage indigenous anti-drone ecosystem, The Indian Army has  approved Project SanctionIng Orders (PSOs) to 18 Developing Agencies (DAs) for procurement of 35 sets of Drone Kill Systems under Make II scheme after successful development of prototypes.
  • The project is reserved for MSMEs/start-ups.
Infantry Training Weapon Simulator (IWTS)
  • Project   Sanction Order (PSO) has been issued to four Developing Agencies (DAs) to develop prototypes for procurement of 125 sets of IWTS under Make II process  .
  • IWTS is the first tri-service Make II project with the Indian Army as a major service  . The project is reserved for MSMEs/start-ups.
  • IWTS will be used to enhance the marksmanship skills of young soldiers on a variety of weapons, it provides user-friendly graphics to suit combat situations.
  • IWTS is a modern training facility, which, apart from reducing repeated expenditure on ammunition, will also relieve the challenges of availability of firing range and bad weather.
  • Each IWTS will facilitate the training of 10 personnel at any given time.
155mm Terminally Guided Mission (TGM)
  • Project Sanction Order has been issued to six Developing Agencies (DAs) for development of 155 mm Terminally Guided Mission (TGM) under Make II  scheme.
  • Variants of ammunition were placed in the Indian Army’s list without accurate strike capability.
  • The Indian Army therefore plans to procure around 2000 rounds of 155 mm TGM against high value targets with assured accuracy and lethality for mission achievement and minimum collateral damage  .
Medium Range Precision Kill System (MRPKS)
  • Project Sanction Order has been issued to 15 Developing Agencies (DAs) to develop a prototype of MRPKS under Make-II category  of DAP 2020  .
  • After the successful development of this prototype, the Indian Army will buy 10 sets of MRPKS .
  • The Medium Range Precision Kill System (MRPKS), once launched,  can ‘loiter’ in the air for two hours and can detect and target high value targets up to a distance of up to 40 km in real time.
  • In the coming time, we see that our country is transforming into a “self-reliant” country in loitering munition technology.

Sources – BS

Committee Constituted for Higher Educational Institutions

Paper 2 – Education

Why You Should Know?

The central government constituted a committee to empower the evaluation and accreditation process of higher educational institutions

In detail –
  • In order to strengthen the evaluation and accreditation process of higher educational institutions, the Government of India has constituted a High Level Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. K. Radhakrishnan, Chairman, Board of Governors of IIT Kanpur and Chairman, Standing Committee, IIT Council.
  • The working orders of the Committee  include strengthening the evaluation and accreditation processes and preparing a road map for the National Accreditation Council in line with the vision of the National Policy on Education, 2020.
 Need for evaluation
  • India’s education system is one of the largest and most diverse education systems in the world. The concerted efforts of the government have led to wide expansion in the field of higher education.
  • Recognition plays an important role in making quality assurance an integral part of the functioning of higher educational institutions.
  • Accreditation helps higher education institutions to understand their strengths and weaknesses through a review process and thus facilitates them to identify internal areas that require planning and resource allocation.
  • The  accreditation of any higher educational institution serves as a source of reliable information for students,  employers and society regarding the quality of education being imparted at the institution.
  • The other members of the committee are Prof. Mridul Hazarika, Vice-Chancellor, Mahapurush Srimanta Sankardeva University, Assam;  Prof. Bharat Bhaskar, Professor, IIM, Lucknow and Joint Secretary, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Government of India.

Source – PIB



National SC/ST Hub Scheme

Paper 2 – Social Justice

Why You Should Know?

Recently,  The Union Minister for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, Shri Narayan Rane chaired the 5th meeting of the High Powered Monitoring Committee (HPMC) under the National SC/ST Hub Scheme in New Delhi on November 3, 2022.

In detail –
  • The National SC/ST Hub aims to develop a supportive ecosystem for SC/ST entrepreneurs with an aim to meet the mandatory 4 per cent procurement by CPSEs from SC/ST entrepreneurs as laid down in the Public Procurement Policy of the Central Government for micro and small enterprises.
What is SC-ST Hub Scheme?
  • For the inclusive growth of the Indian economy, the Ministry of MSME, Government of India has launched the National Scheduled Caste Scheduled Tribe Hub (NSSH) Scheme.
  • It aims to promote capacity addition and “entrepreneurship culture” among the SC-ST population to increase their participation in public sectors.
  • It is being implemented by The National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC), a CPSE under the Ministry of MSME.
  • Given the impact of MSMEs on our economy, it is imperative that focused efforts are made to promote entrepreneurship among the youth and create a conducive ecosystem where they  can play an integral role in the growth of the Indian economy to realise a USD 5 trillion economy.
  • The development of msme sector is important for the economic well-being of the nation. The Ministry of MSME is constantly working to empower micro, small and medium enterprises for sustainable development and prepare them in line with the global value chain.
  • The state-level conference will help SC-ST MSMEs expand their entrepreneurship by adopting new ideas as these events provide information about various steps taken by the government and several schemes launched.
  • The hub helps the existing SC/ST entrepreneurs in technology upgradation and capacity building to enable them to participate effectively in the government procurement process.
  • This will include active participation by Central Public Sector Enterprises/Central Ministries, States, Industry Associations such as DICCI and others.
  • Selected entrepreneurs will be assisted and mentored by industry experts, central public sector enterprises and incubators.
  • There has been a partial increase in the number of entrepreneurs owned by SC/ST and it should be increased strongly so that SC/ST candidates are not eligible for social security. Socio-economic empowerment of tribal communities can be done.
  • Therefore, sc/st In an effort to bring tribal groups into the mainstream of entrepreneurship ecosystem, several schemes have been launched by the Ministry of MSME.
  • In addition,  the Government of India has also launched the Start Up India initiative, which will facilitate bank loans with an aim to promote entrepreneurship at the grassroots level, enabling economic empowerment and consequently creating employment opportunities.

Sources –PIB

Aibawk Cluster of Aizawl

Paper 3 – Infrastructure

Why You Should Know?

Aibawk cluster in Mizoram’s Aizawl becomes first cluster to be completed under Shyama Prasad Mookerjee Rurban Mission

In detail –
  • The Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission (SPMRM) was launched by the Prime Minister in February 2016 with a vision to provide facilities to rural areas
  • The Aibak Rurban cluster completed all the 48 projects planned under SPMRM. Spread over an area of 522 sq km in 11 villages and covering a population of 10,963, the Aibawk cluster also has a local advantage due to its proximity to Aizawl city.
  • Under the mission, focused efforts have been made to improve the value chain and develop market access.
  • The works undertaken to improve market access include construction of agri-link road, pedestrian footpaths and road projects connecting one village to another, etc.
  • Other activities include promotion of agriculture and allied activities and eco-tourism. Special efforts were made to conserve the local environment and sites of historical importance to promote tourism.
  • The activities undertaken to improve livelihoods are having a positive impact on the economic interests of the local population.
  • Some of these include dragon fruit cultivation, piggery and poultry activities, nature trail project, Rurban Eco Estate Phoolpui and Nature Park.
  • The Wholesale Market Satek project has helped locals within and around the cluster market their agricultural products.
  • In addition, the plan was prepared with a holistic development approach to provide infrastructure such as roads, footpaths, drains, water supply,  and car parking and social infrastructure, including upgradation of facilities in a conference centre, sports infrastructure, and educational institutions.
  • Sports infrastructure like badminton courts and futsal grounds have helped economically weaker players represent district and state-level tournaments.
  • The joint efforts made by the Centre and the state with the participation of the local community have proved to be a solid foundation for the second phase of rural development, which goes beyond poverty alleviation and seeks to fulfil the aspirations of the people.
About Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission
  • It is a centrally sponsored scheme launched by the Ministry of Rural Development in the year 2016
  • The purpose of  which is the development of economic activities and skill development.
  • Under the scheme, all the villages near the cities are classified into clusters. Each cluster will be given an amount of Rs 10 crore every year which will be spent on basic amenities of the villages.
  • The ‘Provision of Urban Amenities to Rural Areas’ (PURA)  was implemented in the year 2003 before the implementation of ‘Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission’.
Features of the scheme
  • Under this scheme, every village will be provided with city-like facilities.
  • The facility of electricity, water, roads, health centers etc. will be given to the villagers.
  • Apart from this, skill development will be arranged there.
  • The villages will be developed on the lines of clusters.
  • The population of a cluster will be kept from 25 to 50 thousand.
  • The Centre will pay 30 per cent of the total expenditure on gap funding from its budget.

Sources – PIB

Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Paper 1 – History

Why You Should Know?

 A dance theatre based on the life of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the father of modern Indian society, will be held on November 5 and 6, 2022 at Kartavya Path and India Gate (Central Vista) in Delhi.

In detail –
  • The name of this performance is ‘Yugpurush Raja Rammohan Roy’. The event will be based on the theme ‘Nari Samman’,  which will be moderated by Raja Ram Mohan Roy Library Establishment.
  • In the series of Azadi Ke Amrit Mahotsav by the Ministry  of Culture, Government of India,  the entire year-long festival was launched on May 22,  2022 on the occasion of the 250th birth anniversary of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
  • At the same time, this program is now being organized with the aim of making his life messages more comprehensive.
  • Hon’ble Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi ji inaugurated the Central Vista on September 08, 2022,  after which various cultural programs like dance, music,  drama have been organized continuously by the Union Ministry of Culture.
  • During this time,  the life story of many great men like Mahatma Gandhi, Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was highlighted.
  • The next dance theatre based on the life of Raja Ram Mohan Roy will prove to be an important link towards knowing and understanding his great works, high ideals and life philosophy for all audiences very closely.
  • Apart from this, in future,  there   will be many programs related to topics like cyber crime, tribal pride,  etc. under this initiative. Entry to this program is completely free for all.
About Raja Ram Mohan Roy
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born on May 22 , 1772, in Bengal in a Brahmin family.
  • Raja Rammohan Roy is said to be the forerunner of the Indian Renaissance and the father of modern India. His father’s name was Ramakant and mother’s name was Tarini Devi.
  • He has a special place in the field of Indian social and religious renaissance. He was the founder of the Brahmo Samaj, the originator of the Indian linguistic press, the pioneer of the mass awakening and social reform movement and the father of the new awakening era in Bengal.
  • He gave impetus to both the fields with the efficient combination of Indian freedom struggle and journalism. While his movements gave a shine to journalism, his journalism worked to show the right direction to the movements.
  • By the age of 15,  he had knowledge of Bengali, Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian. He travelled a lot as a teenager. He also worked for the East India Company from 1809-1814.
Fight against evils
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy left the job of the East India Company and threw himself into the service of the nation. Apart from India’s independence, they were fighting a double battle.
  • The second battle was with the citizens of his own country. Who were caught up in superstitions and evils. Raja Ram Mohan Roy worked to shake him.
  • He strongly opposed child marriage, sati system, casteism, rituals, purdah system etc. Alexander Duff helped him a lot in the field of preaching.
  • Devendra nath Tagore was his most prominent follower. The creator of modern India, the founder of the biggest socio-religious reform movements, the Brahmo Samaj, has played an important role in the eradication of social evils like raja Ram Mohan Roy sati system.
  • He  advocated various changes in Indian society popularizing the study of English, modern medical technology and science.
  • Raja Rammohan Roy was given the title of king by Mughal emperor Akbar II in 1830 AD and sent him as his emissary to the court of the then British Emperor William IV for talks to increase his pension. Rai was the first Indian to cross the sea and set foot on European soil.
  •  Rai died at Dr. Carpenter’s residence on September 27, 1833, at Bristol in England.
Books published by Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Rai is considered the ‘forerunner of journalism’  in India. Samvad Kaumudi was the first Indian newspaper run, edited and published by an Indian.

1. The Precepts of Jesus, the Guide to Peace and Happiness (1820 AD)

2. Hindu Succession Rules

3. Samvad Kaumudi or Pragyachand (in Bengali)

4. Miratul newspaper or Buddhi Darpan (in Persian)

Sources – PIB

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