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OJAANK IAS ACADEMY

6 August 2022 – Current Affairs

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Pharmacopoeia Commission for Indian Medicine

Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?
Recently the Minister of Ayush Shri Sarbananda Sonowal gave information about Pharmacopoeia Commission for Indian Medicine, in a written reply in Loksabha.
In details –
  • The Government of India has established Pharmacopoeia Commission for Indian Medicine & Homoeopathy (PCIM&H), as a subordinate office under Ministry of Ayush by merging Pharmacopoeia Commission of Indian Medicine & Homoeopathy (PCIM&H) and the two central laboratories namely Pharmacopoeia Laboratory for Indian Medicine (PLIM), Ghaziabad and Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Laboratory (HPL) vide gazette dated 6th July, 2020).
  • The Commission is engaged in development of Pharmacopoial Standards for Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha & Homoeopathic drugs.  Further, PCIM&H is also acting as Central Drug Testing cum Appellate Laboratory for Indian systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy.
  • As prescribed in Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945 made thereunder, enforcement of the legal provisions pertaining to Quality Control and issuance of drug license of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, is vested with the State drug Controllers/ State Licensing Authorities appointed by the concerned State/ Union Territory Government.
  • Rule 158-B in the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 provides the regulatory guidelines for issue of license to manufacture Ayurvedic, Siddha, Unani medicines.
  • It is mandatory for the manufacturers to adhere to the prescribed requirements for licensing of manufacturing units & medicines including proof of safety & effectiveness, compliance with the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) as per Schedule T of Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 and quality standards of drugs given in the respective pharmacopoeia.
  • As prescribed in Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945 made there under, enforcement of the legal provisions pertaining to Quality Control and issuance of drug license of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, is vested with the State drug Controllers/ State Licensing Authorities appointed by the concerned State/ Union Territory Government. As per the information received from States/ UTs, action taken by State drug Controllers/ State Licensing Authorities regarding production/sale of sub-standard Ayurvedic medicines
What is Pharmacopoeia?
  • A pharmacopoeia, pharmacopeia, or pharmacopoea (from the obsolete typography pharmacopœia, meaning “drug-making”), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society.
  • Descriptions of preparations are called monographs. In a broader sense it is a reference work for pharmaceutical drug specifications.
AYUSH Oushadhi Gunvatta Evam Uttpadan Samvardhan Yojana (AOGUSY) –
Ministry of Ayush has implemented Central Sector Scheme AYUSH Oushadhi Gunvatta Evam Uttpadan Samvardhan Yojana (AOGUSY).
Objectives –

The objectives of the Scheme are as under;

  • To enhance India’s manufacturing capabilities and exports of traditional medicines and health promotion products under the initiative of Atmanirbhar Bharat.
  • To facilitate adequate infrastructural & technological upgradation and institutional activities in public and private sector for standardization, quality manufacturing and analytical testing of Ayush drugs & materials.
  • To strengthen regulatory frameworks at Central and State level for effective quality control, safety monitoring and surveillance of misleading advertisements of Ayush drugs.
  • To encourage building up synergies, collaborations and convergent approaches for promoting standards and quality of Ayush drugs & materials.
Components –
  • The components of the AYUSH Oushadhi Gunvatta Evam Uttpadan Samvardhan Yojana (AOGUSY) Scheme are as under;
  • Strengthening and up-gradation of Ayush Pharmacies and Drug Testing Laboratories to achieve higher standards.
  • Pharmaco vigilance of ASU&H drugs including surveillance of misleading advertisements.
  • Strengthening of Central and State regulatory frameworks including Technical Human Resource & Capacity Building programs for Ayush drugs.
  • Support for development of standards and accreditation/ certification of Ayush products & materials in collaboration with Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Quality Control of India (QCI) and other relevant scientific institutions and industrial R&D centres.

Smart Farming

Paper 3 – Agriculture
Why Should You Know?
Recently the Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Shri Narendra Singh Tomar gave information about the various schemes run by Indian government for smart farming.
In details –
  • Government is promoting adoption of smart farming methods through the use of technology and innovation in the agriculture sector in the country.
  • Government is implementing a Digital Agriculture Mission (DAM) which includes India Digital Ecosystem of Agriculture (IDEA), Farmers Database, Unified Farmers Service Interface (UFSI), Funding to the States on the new Technology (NeGPA), Revamping Mahalanobis National Crop Forecast Centre (MNCFC), Soil Health, Fertility and profile mapping.
  • Under the NeGPA programme funding is given to State Governments for Digital Agriculture projects using emerging technologies like Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML), Internet of Things (IOT), Block chain etc. Adoption of drone technologies is being done.
  • To promote smart farming, the Government promotes Startups in the Agriculture sector and nurtures agri-entrepreneurs.
  • The Per Drop More Crop component of the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sichai Yojana (PMKSY-PDMC) aims to increase water use efficiency at the farm level through micro irrigation technologies, i.e., drip and sprinkler irrigation systems.
  • The GoI started eNAM (National Agriculture Market), an electronic trading portal which creates networks between the existing Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) mandis for the farmers.
  • A total of 1575 field crop varieties were released for different agricultural crops during 2014-21. During 2014-21, 91.43 crore agro-advisories were provided to farmers through mobiles.
  • ICAR developed 187 mobiles apps on different farm and farmer related services during 2014-21. These ICAR apps are now integrated on one common platform called KISAAN.
  • The Farmer FIRST (Farm, Innovations, Resources, Science and Technology) initiative was launched during this period by ICAR with enhanced farmers-scientists interface to move beyond production and productivity.
About Indian Council of Agricultural Research –
  • is an autonomous body under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education in the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India.
  • , in pursuance of the Report on Agriculture of the Royal Commission, it was established on 16 July 1929.
  • It is headquartered in New Delhi. The first name of this society was the Imperial Council of Agricultural Research.
  • The objective is to promote and educate science and technology programmes in the field of agricultural research |
  • The Council is directly involved in the research activities in the traditional and marginal area to address the problems related to conservation and management of resources in the agricultural sector, crops, animals and fish and related areas etc. It plays an important role in developing new technology in the agriculture sector
  • The Council is the apex body for coordination,  guidance and research management and education in the field of agriculture including horticulture, fisheries and animal sciences in the country.
  • Under this, 103 ICAR institutes and 73 agricultural universities are spread all over the country and thus it is one of the largest national agricultural systems of the world. 
  • Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has played a leading role in the development of the agriculture sector of the country through its R&T development by bringing about a green revolution in the country. 5 times the country’s foodgrain production from 1951 to 2014, 9.5 times in horticulture crops, 12.5 times in the field of fisheries , Milk production has been able to increase by 7.8 times and egg production by 39 times and thus has a clear impact on national food and nutritional security.
  • The Council has played a major role in promoting excellence in higher education in agriculture. The Council has been engaged in working in innovative areas of science and technology development and its scientists are internationally known in their disciplines.

Digital version of ODOP

Paper 3 – Economy
Why Should You Know?
Union Minister Shri Piyush Goyal unveils digital version of ODOP gift catalogue
In details –
  • Union Minister of Commerce and Industry; Consumer Affairs; Food and Public Distribution and Textiles, Shri. Piyush Goyal unveiled the digital version of the ODOP gift catalogue.
  • The digital launch took place during the meeting with Export Promotion Councils and Industry Associations at Vanijya Bhawan on 5th August 2022.
  • The ODOP gift catalogue includes a wide range of products like Fragrances and Oils, Indian Spirits, Home Décor products, Fabrics, and Silks and Shawls.  HCIM highlighted the ways in which the ODOP gift catalogue is a step towards realizing the potential of all districts in India and will give global recognition to the country’s diverse indigenous products. Further, he urged all the line ministries, Industry Association, and Export Promotion Councils to utilize products from the catalogue for encouragement to designs and branding.
  • He also recommended a conscious effort to be taken to include these treasures of India for corporate gifting. This will provide a tremendous boost to the local economy and will help promote the livelihood and sustenance of many farmers and artisans.
  • Minister highlighted that utilizing products from the catalogue will promote a brand image for local products in the international market, consequently boosting the Prime Minister’s vision of “Make in India” and “Make for World”.
  • He also requested all the associations to share their feedback on each of these products to ensure continuous improvement so that the products can compete at a global level.
ODOP Background:
  • ODOP stands for “One District One Product”.
  • The ODOP Initiative is aimed at achieving the vision of the Hon’ble Prime Minister to foster balanced regional development across all districts of the country.
  • The idea is to select, brand, and promote One Product from each District (One District – One Product) of the country for enabling holistic socio-economic growth across all regions.
  • The one district one product launch date is January 24, 2018, by the Uttar Pradesh Government, and due to its success, was later adopted by the Central Government.
  • The range of chosen products under ODOP, from all 761 districts of the country, spans multiple sectors, Ministries and Departments.

The Centre for Trade and Investment Law (CTIL)

Paper 3 – Economy
Why Should You Know?
Recently The Centre for Trade and Investment Law (CTIL) celebrated its 5th Anniversary, Lets know about it.
In details –
  • The Centre for Trade and Investment Law (CTIL), Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT), New Delhi celebrated its 5th Anniversary and released the Fifth Anniversary issue of CTIL Magazine on August 2, 2022 at New Delhi.
  • The event marked five years of inception of CTIL providing sound and rigorous analysis of legal issues pertaining to international trade and investment law.
  • CTIL was established by Department of Commerce, Government of India with the objective of developing international trade and investment law capacity in India and as a repository of information on trade and investment law.
  • CTIL has over the years emerged as a leader in engaging in and influencing the evolving discourse on global economic law issues.
  • CTIL has also organised numerous conferences, stakeholder consultations, seminars and training programmes.
About CTIL –
  • The Centre for Trade and Investment Law (CTIL) was established in the year 2016 by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India, at the Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT).
  • The Centre’s primary objective is to provide sound and rigorous analysis of legal issues pertaining to international trade and investment law to the Government of India and other governmental agencies.
  • The Centre is aiming to create a dedicated pool of legal experts who could provide technical inputs for enhancing India’s participation in international trade and investment negotiations and dispute settlement.
  • The Centre also aims to be a thought leader in the various domains of international economic law such as WTO law, international investment law and legal issues relating to economic integration.

 “Grand Onion Challenge”

Paper 2 – Government Policies
Why Should You Know?
Recently Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution launched “Grand Onion Challenge” for young entrepreneurs.
In details –
  • On July 5, 2022 The Department of Consumer Affairs conducted a Video Conference regarding “Grand Onion Challenge” with Heads of Educational Institutions, Vice Chancellors, Professors, Deans of eminent institutions, Senior Academicians, executives of the startups, scientists from BARC, officers of the Department of Atomic Energy, Ministry of Education, DPIIT and professionals working in the field of Agriculture, Horticulture and Food Processing.
  • This challenge seeks ideas from young professionals, professors, scientists in product designs and prototypes for improving pre-harvesting techniques, primary processing, storage, and transportation of post harvested onions in the country.
  • The challenge also seeks ideas for modernization of technology in dehydration, valorization of onions and onion food processing domain.
  • The Grand Onion Challenge instituted by Department of Consumer Affairs has been thrown open from 20.7.2022-15.10.2022 seeking ideas in all the above domains from the best brains in the country. 
  • The grand onion challenge registration webpage has received 122 registrations so far and some of the participants have submitted their ideas.  The Department will select 40 good ideas in the four verticals wherein improvements and technology innovations are sought and therefore, departments and organizations concerned in the country are urged to submit ideas so that cost effective solutions in saving losses in pre-harvesting, primary processing, storage and transportation of onions can be developed and Atma Nirbhar Bharat programme is supported in the process.
  • During the VC, Shri Shri Yogesh Patil, IAS, Assistant Secretary, Department of Consumer Affairs made a brief presentation on current challenges faced by the country in storage, processing and transportation of onions. It is expected that post the challenge, the losses in onion storage can be reduced by 5-10% due to innovative ideas.
  • Dr. Abhay Jere, Chief Innovation Officer, Innovation Cell, Ministry of Education explained in detail the three stages of participation in the challenge and urged everyone to participate in the said challenge.
  • Dr. S. Gautam, Scientist, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Department of Atomic Energy explained the effect of irradiation in increasing the shelf life of stored onions based on studies undertaken, which brought to light the benefits of technology in reducing losses drastically.
  • Scientists and professors from various organizations/universities presented many unique ideas to reduce the losses occurring during storage and transportation of onions.
  • More than 282 participants from different institutions, universities, research organizations and private sector startups participated in the virtual meeting from across the country.
  • The Secretary, DoCA, Shri Rohit Kumar Singh urged everyone to participate in the challenge so that low cost and easily replicable technology solutions to reduce post harvested onion losses could be developed for farmers and sustainably used in the country.

Mou between Indian Navy and ISRO

Paper 3- Security
Why Should You Know?
Recently Indian Navy on 05 Aug 22 signed a MoU with the Space Applications Centre (ISRO), lets know about it.
In details –
  • Indian Navy on 05 Aug 22 signed a MoU with the Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad on data sharing and cooperation on Satellite based Naval Applications in Oceanology and Meteorology.
  • With this initiative, both the organisations will have a common platform of mutual cooperation, wherein the scientific advancements by SAC would be synergised into the Indian Naval efforts to keep the nation’s defence in step with rapid development in the field of Satellite Data retrieval and applications.
  • This MoU is an extension of previous MoU signed in 2017 and will further the collaboration between two organisations.
  • The broad area of cooperation includes sharing of non-confidential observational data, operation exploitation of SAC generated weather products and provisioning of Subject Matter Experts (SME) towards processing of satellite data towards development of new tools, calibration and validation of ocean models.
  • The Memorandum of Understanding was signed by SAC and Indian Navy to further meaningful interactions and professional exchanges in future.
About Space Applications Centre –
  • It is one of the major centres of ISRO that is engaged in the research, development and demonstration of applications of space technology in the field of telecommunications, remote sensing, meteorology and satellite navigation (Sat Nav).
  • This includes research and development of on-board systems, ground systems and end user equipment hardware and software.

‘Badhe Chalo’Movement

Paper 1 – Art & Culture
Why Should You Know?
‘Badhe Chalo’Movement under Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav begins.
In details –
  • With the objective of connecting with the youth of the nation, and to instil a deeper sense of patriotism among them, the Ministry of Culture, has decided to create a youth centric activation for greater outreach of Amrit Mahotsav named ‘Badhe Chalo’.
  • It is designed to involve the youth of the country encouraging them to come forward and imbibe the true spirit of our democracy and celebrate 75 years of India’s independence with youthful fervour.
  • ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’ is an initiative of the Government to celebrate and commemorate 75 years of progressive India and the glorious history of its people, culture and achievements.
  • Ministry of Culture is responsible for promoting art and cultural heritage in India and it has taken many initiatives under the aegis of ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’.
  • Through this mass movement or ‘Jan Bhagidari’ initiative,the Ministry of Culture also intends to amplify and support the ‘Har Ghar Tiranga’ movement. This movement has been initiated by the Honourable Prime Minister and Home Minister and it calls upon every Indian to hoist a Tiranga in their homes between August 13th– 15th, 2022.
  • To connect and to bring the youth and people together from across the country on one platform,Badhe Chalo will feature Flash Dances, where dancers will perform on a specially created ‘Youth Anthem’.
  • The energetic foot-tapping anthem has been specially written and composed on the theme of ‘Badhe Chalo’ and it encourages everyone to come forward and hoist a Tiranga in their homes.
  • This trendy and youthful activation will feature Flash Dances happening across 75 cities,at prime locationsall over India. Through these Flash Dances the Ministry aims to spread the message and spirit of the Amrit Mahotsav in an entertaining and enthusiastic manner.
  • Badhe Chalo is being held across 10 cities every day from 5th August to 11th August, 2022. These events will culminate with a Grand Finale on 12th August, 2022at Talkatora Stadium in New Delhi. This spectacularstar-studded eventwill feature performances by the Indian Idol stars Pawandeep Rajan and Arunita Kanjilal.
  • On July 5, 2022 Badhe Chalo took off at national level starting with ten locations that include Lal Chowk in Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, Ashtley Hall in Dehra Dun, Uttarakhand, Akashdeep Market in Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, Central Mall in Patna, Bihar, Telibandha Talab in Raipur, Chhattisgarh, CMR Mall in Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, Gaurav Tower in Jaipur, Rajasthan, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Gujarat, Keshav Vatika in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, & Alpha One Mall in Ahmedabad, Gujarat,  energising the youth of our nation and creating connect with them on a patriotic plane.
  • Badhe Chalo is sure to rekindle the fire of patriotism in one and all, while encouraging us to hoist a Tiranga in our homes with swelling national pride in our hearts, and our heads held high.

INS Sumedha

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?
Recently INS Sumedha visited Bali, Indonesia
In details –
  • As part of the Indian Navy’s Long Range Deployment in the South Eastern Indian Ocean, INS Sumedha, is on a visit to Port Tanjung Benoa, Bali, from 04 Aug to 06 Aug 2022.
  • The ship is en route to Perth, Australia, to coincide with India’s Independence Day and celebrations of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav.
  • The visit to Bali is aimed at strengthening bilateral ties, enhancing military cooperation and improving interoperability with the Indonesian Navy.
  • During her stay at Bali, the ship’s crew will engage in professional interactions, cross-deck visits and sports fixtures with their Indonesian Navy counterparts.
  • Prior to entering Bali, the ship undertook a Maritime Partnership Exercise with KRI Sultan Hasanuddin, a Sigma class corvette of the Indonesian Navy on 02 August 2022.
  • The exercise which included seamanship evolutions, tactical manoeuvres and communication procedures provided an opportunity for sharing professional experiences and strengthening maritime cooperation between the two navies.
  • INS Sumedha is an indigenously built Naval Offshore Patrol Vessel and is deployed for multiple roles independently and in support of fleet operations. She is part of the Indian Navy’s Eastern Fleet based at Visakhapatnam and functions under the operational command of the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Eastern Naval Command.
About INS Sumedha –
  • INS Sumedha (P58) is the third Saryu class patrol vessel of the Indian Navy, designed and constructed indigenously by the Goa Shipyard Limited.
  • It is designed to undertake fleet support operations, coastal and offshore patrolling, ocean surveillance and monitoring of sea lines of communications and offshore assets and escort duties.
  • INS Sumedha was launched at Goa Shipyard on 21 May 2011and was handed over to the Indian Navy on 11 March 2014.

National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP)

Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?
Recently The Union Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare, Dr. Bharati Pravin Pawar gave information about National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP), in a written reply in the Lok Sabha.
In details –
  • The Government is implementing the National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP) with the goal of making India leprosy free.
  • NLEP is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme under the umbrella of National Health Mission (NHM). This programme is implemented in all the States/UTs.
  • The major focus of the Programme is to detect the cases of leprosy at an early stage and to provide complete treatment, free of cost, in order to prevent the occurrence of disability.
Major initiatives –
Major initiatives under NLEP are as follows:
  • Leprosy Case Detections Campaign (LCDC) in high endemic districts.
  • Focused Leprosy Campaign (FLC) in low endemic districts for case detection.
  • Special plans for Hard-to-Reach areas for early case detection and treatment.
  • ASHA Based Surveillance for Leprosy Suspects (ABSULS).
  • Sparsh Leprosy Awareness Campaign on 30th January every year.
  • Active Case Detection and Surveillance both in rural and urban areas.
  • Convergence of leprosy screening under Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK) for screening of children (0-18 years) and under Ayushman Bharat for screening of people above 30 years of age.
  • Monitoring of the programme by Joint Monitoring Investigation and Advisory Group (JMIAG).
  • Certificate, award and performance linked financial incentive are given to the districts for achieving leprosy elimination.
  • Contact tracing is done and Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) with Single dose of Rifampicin (SDR) given to the eligible contacts of index case in order to interrupt the chain of transmission.
  • Further, 12 packs of MDT (Multi Drug Therapy) blister packs are given to Multi Bacillary Leprosy cases as per the Standard Treatment Protocol.
India’s Position –
  • India has achieved the elimination of leprosy as a public health problem as per WHO criteria of less than 1 case per 10,000 population at the National level in 2005.
  • However, there are few districts within States where leprosy is still endemic.
  • As per Monthly Progress Report of Central Leprosy Division, Directorate General of Health Services (as on 31st May 2022), 72,914 leprosy patients, as informed by the States/UTs, are under treatment in the country.
About Leprosy –
  • Leprosy, also known as Hansen’s disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
  • Infection can lead to damage of the nerves, respiratory tract, skin, and eyes.This nerve damage may result in a lack of ability to feel pain, which can lead to the loss of parts of a person’s extremities from repeated injuries or infection through unnoticed wounds.
  • An infected person may also experience muscle weakness and poor eyesight. Leprosy symptoms may begin within one year, but, for some people, symptoms may take 20 years or more to occur.
  • Leprosy is curable with multidrug therapy.
how does it spread?
  • Leprosy is spread between people, although extensive contact is necessary.
  • Leprosy has a low pathogenicity, and 95% of people who contract M. leprae do not develop the disease.
  • Spread is thought to occur through a cough or contact with fluid from the nose of a person infected by leprosy.
  • Genetic factors and immune function play a role in how easily a person catches the disease.
  • Leprosy does not spread during pregnancy to the unborn child or through sexual contact.
  • Leprosy occurs more commonly among people living in poverty.

Mission Bhumiputra

Paper 2 – Governance
Why Should You Know?
On 1 August 2022, Assam Chief Minister Dr. Himanta Biswa Sarma unveiled ‘Mission Bhoomiputra’.
In details –
  • On 1 August 2022, Assam Chief Minister Dr. Himanta Biswa Sarma unveiled ‘Mission Bhoomiputra’.
  • Under this mission, digital caste certificates will be issued to the students in a simple and digital manner.
  • It will be implemented by the Department of Tribal Affairs and Social Justice Empowerment.
  • ‘Mission Bhumiputra’ will continue the government’s mission of providing easy public service to the people. Under this, two pillars will be made by the government.
  • This mission will do away with the manual system of issuing caste certificates. It will also solve the problem of people in getting such documents without any hassle.

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