Paper 2 – Health
Why You Should Know?
In October 2021 WHO approved for RTS,S/AS01 (Mosquirix) vaccine developed by GlaxoSmithKline for immunising children.
In detail –
- Malaria kills nearly 600,000 people every year, the majority of whom are children under the age of five in sub-Saharan Africa.
- The need to develop an effective vaccine against the disease has long been a top priority — but given the highly complex life cycle of the parasite, characterisation of key elements that correlate with protective immunity has been very difficult.
- WHO approval in October 2021 for RTS,S/AS01 (Mosquirix) developed by GlaxoSmithKline for immunising children was a major milestone.
- Although RTS,S/AS01 has modest efficacy and reduces severe malaria cases by only about 30 per cent after four doses given to children under age 5, it still provides significant public health benefits, and could save thousands of lives every year.
- It took more than 30 years and approximately $700 million for this breakthrough, which underscores the scientific and logistic challenges in developing a vaccine against a parasitic disease like malaria.
- GSK has granted Bharat Biotech licence to manufacture Mosquirix, and by 2029, the Hyderabad-based company is expected to be the sole global manufacturer of this vaccine.
- RTS,S/AS01 fails to meet the WHO’s own benchmark for malaria vaccine efficacy of 75 per cent set in 2015.
- In September 2021, another malaria vaccine, R21/Matrix M, developed by the University of Oxford in the UK, demonstrated an efficacy of 77 per cent in phase 1 and 2 trials among 450 children in Burkina Faso.
- In early September 2022, this vaccine once again made headlines after publication of results of a booster dose of R21/Matrix-M in the journal Lancet Infectious Diseases showed a high efficacy of 80 per cent was maintained after two years.
How it works
- RTS,S and R21 are similar in that they both contain the same part of a major protein that is found on the surface of the liver stage parasite, called sporozoite.
- Both also contain hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), a protein that has an ability to self-assemble and that helps as the formation of virus-like particles of the CSP antigen fused with it.
- The important difference between the two vaccines is in the amount of the HBsAg.
- RTS,S has about 20 per cent of the fusion protein, with the remaining 80 per cent made up of HBsAg antigen, produced separately.
- R21, on the other hand, is made up entirely of the CSP fusion protein moieties, resulting in much higher proportion of CSP antigen displayed on the virus-like particle surface, which significantly raises its exposure to the immune system of the host.
- To boost immune responses, all protein based recombinant vaccines rely heavily on a strong adjuvant.
- RTS,S is formulated with an adjuvant called AS01 developed at GSK; R21 employs an adjuvant called Matrix-M developed by Novavax (Sweden).
- Matrix M contains saponin-plant based material and stimulates both antibody and cellular immune responses to vaccines.
- Both adjuvants have shown high levels of efficacy and safety. Matrix-M has been used in a variety of vaccine formulations against influenza, and more recently in the Novovax Covid-19 vaccine.
- Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals.
- Malaria is caused by single-celled microorganisms of the Plasmodium group.
- It is spread exclusively through bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes.
- The mosquito bite introduces the parasites from the mosquito’s saliva into a person’s blood.
- The parasites travel to the liver where they mature and reproduce.
- Malaria is typically diagnosed by the microscopic examination of blood using blood films, or with antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests.
- Methods that use the polymerase chain reaction to detect the parasite’s DNA have been developed, but are not widely used in areas where malaria is common due to their cost and complexity.
- The disease is widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions that exist in a broad band around the equator.
- Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, tiredness, vomiting, and headaches.
- In severe cases, it can cause jaundice, seizures, coma, or death.
- Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten by an infected mosquito.
Source – IE
Tribal Hut Replicas
Paper 1 – Culture
Why You Should Know?
In a first-of-its-kind bid to showcase the heritage of tribal communities, especially those of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs), the Anthropological Survey of India (AnSI) has recreated the huts of several communities at its different regional centres.
In detail –
- From a distinctive beehive-shaped hut of the Jarawa tribe, to a Shompen hut crafted with leaves of junglee supari with a cage for wild pigs built beneath it,
- and a Nicobarese hut made using the thin stems of local cane covered by thick dry grasses — each offers a peek into the lives of tribal communities that most Indians will never see.
- this initiative would help promote “cultural heritage and optimise unused spaces”.
- These huts have come up outside five regional centres of AnSI in consultation with the local communities
Authentic design and materials
- The huts are not only authentic in design, and built using the same materials used by the tribal people, but also contains artefacts which they use, thus offering a rare glimpse into the lives of these communities who reside in locations which are not easily accessible to others.
- For instance, the traditional Jarawa hut, called a chadda, has traditional baskets, bows and arrows, and other artefacts used by the community.
- The Shompen hut contains a store of a paste made using the pandamus fruit which members of the tribe eat when there is shortage of food.
- Both the Jarawa and Shompen communities are are PVTGs living in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
- While the population of Shompen people is said to be less than 300, there are about 500 members of the Jarawa tribe.
Reviving traditional craftsmanship
- Many huts of the Nicobarese tribe built in the traditional beehive shape were submerged by the tsunami that hit the islands in 2004.
- Building these huts is also an attempt to revive such traditional craftsmanship and maintain the cultural heritage of the tribe.
- Other huts at the regional centers include the replica of a Dorla tribal community’s home at Jagdalpur in Chhattisgarh.
- Members of the community participated in plastering mud over the bamboo wattle or slender twigs used for the side walls, while using date palm leaves to thatch the hut.
- At the regional Centre in Mysore, anthropologists had invited the people from the Betta Kuruba tribal community to construct their traditional hut.
- In an attempt to bring out the beauty of the Khasi culture, the AnSI regional office at Shillong erected traditional monoliths in the office premises, including the Mawbynna or Mawnam’ which consists of three upright stones with a flat table stone in front, and the Maw Shongthait which are flat table stones, accompanied by vertical stones which serve as seats for weary travellers.
- The zonal anthropological museums of AnSI are important tourist destinations and the construction of these tribal huts and a monolith within the museum premises will help to increase the interest of visitors and bring out the essence of indigenous traditional tribal culture.
Tribes of Andaman and Nicobar
- The Andamanese and Nicobarese can be split into two broad tribal groups mainly based on their place of origin.
- The Andaman Islands are home to four ‘Negrito’ tribes were as – the Great Andamanese, Onge, Jarawa, and Sentinelese.
- Whereas the Nicobar Islands are home to two ‘Mongoloid’ tribes – the Shompen and Nicobarese.
- The ‘Negrito’ tribes are believed to have arrived in the islands from Africa up to 60,000 years ago.
- All are nomadic hunter-gatherers, hunting wild pig and monitor lizard, and catching fish with bows and arrows.
- They also collect honey, roots, and berries from the forest.
- The ‘Mongoloid’ tribes probably came to the islands from the Malay-Burma coast several thousand years ago.
Sources – TH
Paper 3 –Environment
Why You Should Know?
Air pollution related stubble burning cases have risen by 160% in Rajasthan and 20% in Punjab in October, 2022 compared to October, 2021
In detail –
- Delhi’s air quality remains in ‘severe’ category for fifth consecutive day, leading to closure of primary schools
- Union Minister Dr. Jitendra Singh said that the governments of both the states of Rajasthan and Punjab are not doing enough to stop stubble burning, which is deteriorating the air quality of Delhi-NCR.
- on the other hand, States like Haryana and Uttar Pradesh have recorded progressive decline in the incidents of stubble fire burning.
- since 2018-19Centre has provided Rs.3,138 crore to States for stubble management, out of which nearly 1,500 Crore was provided to Punjab alone.
- Farm Fires in Punjab rose from 13269 to 16004 from October 2021 to October 2022 recording a rise of 20%, while in Rajasthan, it rose from 124 to 318 from October 2021 to October 2022 recording a rise of 160%.
- Delhi recorded 7 “Very Poor” Air Quality Days in October this year compared to nil such cases in October, 2021.
- Haryana and Uttar Pradesh witnessed decline of farm fires incidents by 30% and 38% respectively during the same period.
- Haryana witnessed 1995 fire counts in October 2022 as compared to 2914 in October 2021. Similarly, UP registered 768 fire counts this October, compared to 1060 cases in October, 2021.
- In the first five days of the current month of November ending last evening, the number of fire counts was much higher in Punjab than Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
- For example, yesterday i.e. on 5 November, the number of fire counts in Punjab was 2817 and in Rajasthan 91 respectively compared to 90 in Haryana and 24 in Uttar Pradesh respectively.
- The highest fire count on any single day was recorded on 2nd November, when Punjab topped with 3,634 farm fire incidents and the number in Rajasthan recorded up to 63.
- The abnormal rise in cases of stubble burning in Punjab in the first five days of November is solely responsible for plunging the air quality in severe category.
- Punjab registered 13, 396 fire counts from 1st to 5th November, 2022, while it was 16,004 for the entire month of October, 2022.
- Crop residues or stubble are those parts of the plant that areleft in the field after harvesting and threshing of the crop, for example straw, stem, stalk, leaves and peels etc. China, India and the United States top crop residue burning.
- In India, it is most burnt in Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh. If we talk about statistics, at present, even in agriculturally developed states like Haryana and Punjab, only 10 percent of the farmers are managing crop residue.
- Our country produces 154.59 MT/year, paddy residue annually. Burning it is causing a loss of 0.236 tonnes of nitrogen, 0.009 tonnes of phosphorus and 0.200 tonnes/year of potash.
- If we talk about the reasons for this, then the crop residue is being burnt by ignorant even after lack of proper technology and some farmers are aware. Due to lack of proper crop management, it is becoming a serious problem in our country.
- In the absence of information, farmers do not use it as organic matter in the soil, but most of the part is burnt and destroyed or used in other household purposes.
- According to a study, only 22 per cent of crop residue is used, the rest is burnt.
- Crop residue is an important part of the diet of livestock in India. A considerable amount of crop residue is burnt in the fields due to time constraints and cost burden at the farmers’ level.
- Burning crop residue increases the organization of gaseous pollutants such as carbon monoxide, methane, nitrosoxide and hydrocarbons in the troposphere.
- By burning one ton of straw, 3 kg. Particulate matter (PM), 60 kg. Carbon monoxide, 1,460 kg. Carbon dioxide, 199 kg. ash and 2 kg. Sulfur dioxide is released. Due to these gases, the general air quality decreases.
- Crop residue burning of paddy is an important source of aerosol particles especially coarse particles such as coarse particles (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5).
- Various studies have found that fine particles released due to burning of agricultural residue easily enter the lungs, causing heart problems.
- By setting the crop residue on fire in the field, there is a decrease in soil moisture and an increase in soil temperature, which reduces the fertility of the field as well as adversely affects the physical, chemical and biological condition of the soil.
- In the field where the stubble is burnt, the animals and insects which called friends of the farmers also die in the grip of the fire.
- When the residues of crops are burnt, the beneficial nutrients stored in their roots, stems and leaves are destroyed by burning.
- Burning paddy straw in the field causes a loss of almost all the amount of nitrogen present in the straw, about 25 percent of phosphorus, 20 percent of potassium, and 5 to 50 percent of sulfur.
- After harvesting, there is a possibility of fire in the surrounding fields, barns and populated areas if the paddy crop residue is burnt.
- Along with this, due to increasing pollution in India, there is fear in the minds of foreign tourists. In such a situation, he comes to India and starts avoiding playing with his health.
Efforts of GOI for crop residue management
- The Government of India is implementing various schemes for the management of crop residue in view of the damage caused by burning of crop residue and environmental protection.
- Under this, along with the availability of agricultural machinery for farmers by including Krishi Vigyan Kendras, Indian Council of Agricultural Research Institutes, State Agricultural Institutions, Agricultural Universities etc., work is being done to organize knowledge sharing, awareness campaigns and various dimensions of capacity development.
- Central Sector Scheme on ‘Promotion of Agricultural Mechanization for In-Situ Management of Crop Residue in the State of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh & NCT of Delhi ‘ is being operated in select states of the country.
- Efforts are also being made to benefit farmers, especially small and marginal farmers, by promoting agricultural mechanization through CHCs, private entrepreneurs and farmers’ organisations.
- Farmers are also being provided grants on crop residue management agricultural machinery individually.
- Subsidy up to 50 and 80 percent is being provided on agricultural machinery at individual farmers and custom hiring centers for crop residue management.
- This is a small capsule made by scientists of ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, which converts crop residue into profitable agricultural waste manure.
- A capsule costs Sirpf Rs 4-5 and only 4 capsules are required to convert the residue of an acre of farm into useful manure.
Anti-Doping rule violation
Paper 2 – International Issues
Why You Should Know?
The National Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panel (ADDP) recently imposed a four-year ban and a fine of Rs. 50,000 on Mumbai-based athletics coach Mickey Menzes for an Anti-Doping Rule Violation.
In detail –
What was the matter?
- Mickey Menzes had injected a prohibited substance, Drostanolone, into his trainee, Kirti Bhoite, who is now serving a two-year ban.
- In 2020, Kirti Bhoite tested positive for an anabolic-androgenic steroid, Drostanolone, which on the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited substances.
- She was awarded a four-year ineligibility period by an ADDP on June 29, 2021.
- The athlete filed an appeal and, on April 18 this year, an Anti-Doping Appeal Panel (ADAP) reduced her ban to two years.
- During the hearing by the ADAP, Kirti Bhoite pointed out that her coach had given her and another athlete the said injection besides supplements.
- She also revealed that on her complaint, the Maharashtra Athletics Association had investigated the coach and decided to ban him for four years.
- Acting on this information, NADA laid an Anti-Doping Rule Violation charge against the coach, Mickey Menezes on May 12 this year.
- He sought to defend himself by stating that the supplier had misled him to believe that the injection he gave the athlete was free of a prohibited substance.
- On September 30, an ADAP held the coach guilty of administering a steroid to Kirti Bhoite through an injection and of his complicity in the doping of the young athlete to gain undue advantage from her performances.
- Since May 2009, ADDPs have adjudicated more than 1270 cases. Mickey Menezes is the first athlete support personnel to have charges laid against him and to be sanctioned.
- It is an indication that NADA will no longer consider cases only against athletes whose samples test positive for banned substances.
- NADA encourages everyone to report potential anti-doping rule violations. It has a secure link on the website to report activity that may go against anti-doping rules. Everything shared with NADA remains strictly confidential.
What is doping?
- A strength-boosting substance that increases the stamina of any player by eating it. Through this shortcut, he can leave behind his opponents in the field of play.
- This makes him perform better than his potential. Five types of drugs have been banned under doping.
- The most common of these are stimulants and hormones. By consuming them, there are many side effects in aperson’s body. They are therefore banned by the sports governing bodies.
- There are 5 types of drugs in doping. These are – steroids, peptide hormones, narcotics, diuretics and blood doping, blood doping in which players offer blood of young people themselves. This is called blood doping.
- IfCaught: There is a provision of punishment ranging from 2 years or 4 years to life imprisonment for its culprits.
- If the ‘A’ test is positive, the player can be banned.
- If the player wants, he can appeal to the Anti-Doping Panel for the ‘B’ test. After this, the sample is examined again.
- If the ‘B’ test also comes positive, then the player can be banned.
World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) –
- The World Anti-Doping Agency is a world-class independent body created to curb the growing trend of drugs in international sports.
- It was founded on November 10, 1999 in the city of Lucen, Switzerland. WADA is currently headquartered in Montreal, Canada.
- This organization keeps its eye on scientific research around the world, increasing the ability to develop antidoping and the World Anti-Doping Code around the world.
- Wada releases a list of banned drugs every year, whose use is banned during the Games in all countries of the world.
National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA)
- The National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA) is the national organization responsible for promoting, coordinating and monitoring the doping control programme in sports in all its forms in India.
- NADA is constituted by the Central Government on November 24, 2005 under the Societies Registration Act. NADA comprises scientists and representatives of the Indian Olympic Association (IOA).
- Nada’s job is to adopt and implement anti-doping rules and policies that are in line with the World Anti-Doping Code.
- Collaborating with other sports-related organizations and other anti-doping organizations.
- Encourage mutual testing between national anti-doping organizations and emphasize anti-doping research and education.
Sources – HT
World Travel Market 2022
Paper 3 – Security
Why You Should Know?
Ministry of Tourism to participate in World Travel Market 2022 from 7th to 9th November in London.
In detail –
- World Travel Market (WTM) is one of the largest international travel exhibitions.
- The theme of this year`s exhibition is ‘The Future of Travel Starts Now’.
- With the reopening of the country to foreign tourists, after a gap of almost 2 years, this year`s participation of India is particularly significant.
- After world’s largest vaccination drive, the country is ready for international tourists. India is participating in WTM 2022 to showcase itself as a preferred destination for tourism.
- A total of 16 stakeholders, including from State Governments, other Central Ministries, Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) as the industry partner, DMCs, tour operators, hoteliers, travel agents, online travel agents, facilitators of medical value travel are participating as co-exhibitors in the India Pavilion.
- The objective is to showcase the diverse tourism products and services including Medical Value travel, luxury trains and the gamut of tourism products to the international business community.
- The Indian Government is cognizant of the country’s potential in the tourism industry and has taken several steps to make India a global tourism hub.
- During the visit to WTM 2022, the Indian delegation led by Sh. Arvind Singh, Secretary Tourism, Government of India will showcase the varied tourism offerings of India to the global tourism industry stakeholders such as tour operators, travel agents, media etc.
- As India is poised for massive growth in the tourism sector in the future, this visit shall also offer opportunity to the Indian Government delegation to showcase the investment opportunities and potential which India offers to the global investors.
Tourism in India
- During 2019, the contribution of travel & tourism to India`s GDP was 5.19% of the total economy.
- In 2019, the Indian tourism sector accounted for 79.86 million jobs (direct and indirect employment).
- The consistent efforts of the Central and the State Governments has helped the tourism industry to gradually recover from the Covid-19 pandemic shock to the pre pandemiclevels.
- India is also gearing up for the G20 Presidency which is scheduled to start from 01st December, 2022.
- Under its Presidency, the country is expected to host over 200 meetings across 55 cities in the country.
- The G-20 Presidency will give India’s tourism sector an unparalleled opportunity to highlight India’s tourism offerings and share India’s tourism success stories on a global stage.
- The Ministry of Tourism is aiming to develop the tourism sector especially in the aftermath of COVID Pandemic to new heights and accelerating the transition to achieve sustainable development targets of 2030.
Sources – HT
Central Consumer Protection Authority
Paper 3 –Economy
Why You Should Know?
The Central Consumer Protection Authority passes Order against Cloudtail for selling domestic pressure cookers in violation of mandatory BIS standards
In detail –
- An order has been passed against Cloudtail India Private Limited for violation of consumer rights and unfair trade practice by selling domestic pressure cookers in contravention of the mandatory standards laid down in accordance with the Domestic Pressure Cookers (Quality Control) Order, 2020.
- CCPA initiated suo-moto action against e-commerce platforms for sale of domestic pressure cookers in violation to compulsory standards on its e-commerce platforms.
- CCPA had issued notice to major e-commerce platforms including Amazon, Flipkart, Paytm Mall, Shopclues and Snapdeal as well as to the sellers registered on these platforms.
- In the order, CCPA directed Cloudtail to recall the 1,033 units of pressure cookers sold by it and reimburse the prices of the recalled pressure cookers to the consumers and submit a compliance report within 45 days.
- The company was also directed to pay a penalty of ₹1,00,000 for selling domestic pressure cookers to consumers in violation to mandatory standards prescribed under the QCO and violating the rights of consumers.
- Violation of standards mandated by the QCOs not only endanger public safety, but can make consumers vulnerable to severe injuries including loss of life.
- This is a critical cause for concern especially in case of domestic pressure cooker, which is a household good, present in most homes in the immediate vicinity of family members.
- CCPA has also issued Safety Notices under Section 18(2)(j) of the Act to alert and caution consumers against buying goods which do not hold valid ISI Mark and violate compulsory BIS standards.
- While the first Safety Notice was issued with regard to Helmets, Pressure Cookers and Cooking gas cylinders, the second Safety Notice was issued with regard to household goods including electric immersion water heaters, sewing machines, microwave ovens, domestic gas stoves with LPG etc.
Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani drugs
- CCPA is continuously monitoring the consumer protection landscape in the country.
- Recently, CCPA issued an advisory to all e-commerce platforms with regard to the sale of Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani drugs containing ingredients as listed in Schedule E(1) of Drugs and Cosmetics Rules
- Highlighting that sale or facilitation of the sale of such drugs shall be done only after a valid prescription of a registered medical practitioner is uploaded by the user on the platform.
What is Central Consumer Protection Authority?
- The Consumer Protection Act, 2019 has come into force from 20th July, 2020.
- As provided in section 10 of the Act, the Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) has been established w.e.f. 24th July, 2020.
- The objective of the Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) is to promote, protect and enforce the rights of consumers as a class.
- It will be empowered to conduct investigations into violation of consumer rights and institute complaints / prosecution, order recall of unsafe goods and services, order discontinuation of unfair trade practices and misleading advertisements, impose penalties on manufacturers/endorsers/publishers of misleading advertisements.
Central Consumer Protection Authority shall consist of following members appointed by Central Government.
1. Chief Commissioner
2. Two Commissioners. One commissioner each will represent for goods and services.
Central Consumer Protection Authority has the following powers:
- If the commission finds violations of rights of consumers or in notice of trade practices which is unfair it can inquire or cause an inquiry, either on receipt of complaint or suo moto or as directed by Central Government.
- If the commission finds after preliminary inquiry of an existence of a prima facie case of consumer rights violation or it is in notice of any unfair trade practice or any wrong or inaccurate advertisement which is prejudicial to public interest or to the interests of the consumers,it can order an investigation by the District Collector or by Director General.
- If the commission finds prima facie of a person involved in violation of consumer rights or following any unfair trade practice or making any false or inaccurate advertisement as described above, it can call upon the person involved and can direct him to produce any document or record in his possession relating to it. In addition, the District Collector or Director General under the Code of Criminal Procedure,1973 has powers of search and seizure , and authority to ask submission of any record or document.
- The commission can direct recalling of any dangerous, hazardous or unsafe goods or withdrawal of similar services and order refunding of the proceeds collected towards sale of goods or offering of services so recalled or order stoppage of any unfair practices after giving the person directed to do so, an opportunity of being heard.
- The commission can involve in and engage in services relating to consumer advocacy by offering services of registering complaints before the National Commission, the State Commission,or the District Commission, formed as per the Act, involving in the proceedings before them, suggesting remedial actions, involving itself in related research, creating awareness and guiding consumers on safety precautions.
- The commission can direct to a trader or manufacturer or endorser or advertiser or publisher after investigation to discontinue advertisements which are wrong or misleading or prejudicial to consumers, and in such case impose penalties upto Rs 10 lakhs payable in cash.
- The commission can also prevent the endorser of advertisement which is wrong or misleading from making the same in relation to any product or service for a time period ranging upto one year, and three years in case of subsequent contravention.
Source – TH
Eclipse of the Moon
Paper 1 –Geography
Why You Should Know?
A total lunar eclipse will occur on 8 November, 2022.
In detail –
- The eclipse is visible from all places of India at the time of Moonrise.
- However, the beginning of the partial and total phases of the eclipse is not visible from any places of India as the phenomena will be in progress before Moonrise.
- Ending of both the total and the partial phases is visible from the eastern parts of the country.
- Only the ending of the partial phase is visible from the rest parts of the country.
- This eclipse will be visible in the region covering South America, North America, Australia, Asia, the North Atlantic Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean.
- The eclipse will begin at 14 hr 39 min IST. The total eclipse will start at 15 hr 46 min IST. The ending time of totality is 17h 12m IST and the ending time of partial phase is 18h 19m IST.
- For the cities in eastern parts of the country, like Kolkata and Guwahati, at the time of Moonrise, the total phase of the eclipse will be in progress.
- For Kolkata, the duration of totality from Moonrise time upto the end is 20 min and the duration from Moonrise time upto end of partial eclipse is 1 hr 27 min.
- For Guwahati, the duration of totality from Moonrise time upto end is 38 min and the duration from Moonrise time upto end of partial eclipse is 1 hr 45 min.
- For the other cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai & Bengaluru, at the time of Moonrise, the partial eclipse after the end of totality will be in progress and for the above cities, the duration from the Moonrise time upto the end of partial eclipse will be 50 min, 18 min, 40 min and 29 min respectively.
Next lunar eclipse
- The next lunar eclipse which will be visible from India is on 28th October, 2023 and the same is a partial eclipse.
- Last lunar eclipse which was visible from India was on 19 November, 2021 and it was a partial eclipse.
What isLunar Eclipses
- Lunar eclipses occur at the full moon phase.
- When Earth is positioned precisely between the Moon and Sun, Earth’s shadow falls upon the surface of the Moon, dimming it and sometimes turning the lunar surface a striking red over the course of a few hours.
- Each lunar eclipse is visible from half of Earth.
Types of lunar eclipses
Total lunar eclipse
- The Moon moves into the inner part of Earth’s shadow, or the umbra.
- Some of the sunlight passing through Earth’s atmosphere reaches the Moon’s surface, lighting it dimly.
- Colors with shorter wavelengths ― the blues and violets ― scatter more easily than colors with longer wavelengths, like red and orange.
- Because these longer wavelengths make it through Earth’s atmosphere, and the shorter wavelengths have scattered away, the Moon appears orangish or reddish during a lunar eclipse.
- The more dust or clouds in Earth’s atmosphere during the eclipse, the redder the Moon appears.
Partial lunar eclipse
- An imperfect alignment of Sun, Earth and Moon results in the Moon passing through only part of Earth’s umbra.
- The shadow grows and then recedes without ever entirely covering the Moon.
- The Moon travels through Earth’s penumbra, or the faint outer part of its shadow.
- The Moon dims so slightly that it can be difficult to notice.
- A selenelion or selenehelion, also called a horizontal eclipse, occurs where and when both the Sun and an eclipsed Moon can be observed at the same time.
- The event can only be observed just before sunset or just after sunrise, when both bodies will appear just above opposite horizons at nearly opposite points in the sky.
- A selenelion occurs during every total lunar eclipse– it is an experience of the observer, not a planetary event separate from the lunar eclipse itself.
- Typically, observers on Earth located on high mountain ridges undergoing false sunrise or false sunset at the same moment of a total lunar eclipse will be able to experience it.
- Although during selenelion the Moon is completely within the Earth’s umbra, both it and the Sun can be observed in the sky because atmospheric refraction causes each body to appear higher (i.e., more central) in the sky than its true geometric planetary position.
Janjatiya Gaurav Diwas
Paper 1 – History
Why You Should Know?
The Ministry of Education to celebrate ‘Janjatiya Gaurav Diwas’ in a grand manner in the schools and higher educational institutions across the country
In detail –
- To commemorate the contribution of the tribal freedom fighters, the Ministry of Education in association with the AICTE, UGC, Central Universities, Private Universities, other HEIs, CBSE, KVS, NVS and Skilling institutions is celebrating ‘JanjatiyaGaurav Divas’.
- The nationwide celebrations of JanjatiyaGaurav Divas will witness a large number of programmes such as debate competition on the theme ‘Contribution of Janjati Heroes in freedom struggle’, social activities, etcin the educational institutions across the country.
- The contributions of brave tribal leaders like Bhagwan Birsa Munda and others will be highlighted during these celebrations.The students will also be felicitated for the good work.
- These celebrations will inspire the future generations acknowledge their sacrifices of the tribal freedom fighters for the country, take forward their legacy and the conservation of tribal culture, art and rich tribal heritage.
About ‘Janjatiya Gaurav Diwas’
- Last year, the Government had declared 15th November as ‘Janjatiya Gaurav Divas’ dedicated to the memory of brave tribal freedom fighters.
- 15th November is the birth anniversary of Birsa Munda who is revered as Bhagwan by tribal communities across the country.
- Birsa Munda was an iconic freedom fighter, social reformer and revered tribal leader of the country, who fought bravely against the exploitative system of the British colonial government, and became a legendary figure in his lifetime, often referred to as ‘Bhagwan’.
- He organized and led the tribal movement, giving a call for “Ulgulan” (Revolt) to the tribals. He encouraged tribals to understand their cultural roots and observe unity.
Sources – PIB
India Pavilion in COP 27
Paper 3 – Environment
Why You Should Know?
On November 6, 2022 the Union Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Shri Bhupender Yadav, inaugurated India Pavilion at the 27th Session of Conference of Parties of the UNFCCC (COP 27) Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt.
In detail –
- The Conference of Parties (COP27) is scheduled from 6-18 November, 2022.
- India is hosting a pavilion with the theme of LiFE- Lifestyle for Environment at COP 27.
- The Pavilion has been designed to send out the message of LiFE through various audio-visuals, Logo, 3D models, set up, décor and side events.
- The guiding thought in the design of the pavilion is that for centuries, Indian civilizations have practised and led sustainable lifestyles.
- Eco-friendly habits are encoded in the Indian culture. Several practices are rooted in the daily life showing respect for the natural environment. They can prove to be invaluable in our fight against climate change.
- This deep-seated knowledge on sustainability passed through generations over a thousand years has led the Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi into giving the World a Mantra of LiFE – that aim to have a substantial impact on the health and wellbeing of the planet.
- LiFE movement is India’s contribution to handling global climate crisis. The LiFE movement seeks to transform persons into ‘pro-planet people’, who would adopt sustainable lifestyles in the modern world.
About Pavilion logo
- In respect of the Pavilion logo, the color green which is indicative of Green Earth has been used in gradient shades in the logo.
- The leaf on the periphery represents nature and icons represent how balance and harmony with nature can be achieved through various initiatives of the Government of India.
- The central part of the logo represents a balanced nature with the Sun encompassing trees, mountains, water and biodiversity.
- The slogan has been inspired from the core messaging of Life “सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिना” (May everyone be happy)
About Mission LiFE
- ‘Mission LiFE’ waslaunched by Prime Minister Modi at the COP26 Summit on Climate Change held in Glasgow in November 2021.
- LiFE stands for Lifestyle for Environment (LiFE ).
- Mission LiFEis a global initiative by India to help the world in the fight against climate change and lead a sustainable way of life to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nations.
- “The mantra of Mission LiFE is ‘life-style for environment’. It combines the powers of the people for the protection of this earth and teaches them to use them better.
- Mission LiFE democratizes the fight against climate change in which everyone can contribute to the best of their ability.
- MissionLiFE makes all of us trustees of the environment. A trustee is one who does not allow indiscriminate use of resources. A trustee works as a nurturer and not as an exploiter.
- This mission inspires us to protect the environment. People can save the environment by improving their lifestyle.
- Unity is the most important factor in life against climate change and people have to understand it.
- Mission LiFE will include every lifestyle related to the conservation of nature, which was adopted by our ancestors and which can be made a part of our lifestyle today.
Theory of Mission LiFE
- Mission LiFE works on the principle of strengthening the concept of P-3 model. P-3 i.e. Pro-Planet- People.
- Mission LiFE connects the people of the earth as pro planet people, incorporating everyone into their thoughts, making them one.
- It runs on the basic principle of ‘Lifestyle of the Planet, for the Planet and by the Planet’. It motivates people to make changes in their routine that can secure the environment.
Objective of Mission LiFE
- ‘Mission LiFE ‘ aims to follow a three-tier strategy to change people’s collective attitude towards sustainability.
- The first of all is to motivate people to do environmentally friendly tasks in their daily lives.
- This is followed by enabling industries and markets to respond swiftly to changing demand (supply) and influencing government and industrial policy to support long-term consumption and production (policy).
- ‘Mission LiFE’ will appeal to the world for a new beginning. It will inspire us to take an oath to save the environment and work towards conservation besides becoming a fighter.
- Awareness will also be created about small things in Mission LiFE.
- This includes the use of cloth bags in place of plastic bags, keeping the engine of the vehicle closed at traffic signals and preventing misuse of water and respecting food.
Sources – PIB
New Species of Honey Bee
Paper 3 – Biodiversity
Why You Should Know?
Recently New species of honey bee spotted after 200 years in Western Ghats.
In detail –
- The researchers from the state have discovered a new species of honey bee that is endemic to the Western Ghats.
- This discovery that could open up avenues for large-scale production of high-quality honey.
- The species, discovered after a gap of over 200 years, has been named Apiskarinjodian, with the common name, ‘Indian black honey bee’.
- The honey bee last discovered from India was Apis indica which was identified in 1798 by Fabricius.
- The latest finding has been published in the September issue of the journal ‘Entomon’. The discovery has increased the species of honey bees in the world to 11.
- Cavity nesting honey bees are used in India for commercial honey production. The research has also given a new direction to apiculture in the country by proving that there are three species of cavity-nesting honey bees in India -Apis indica, Apiscerana and the newly discovered Apiskarinjodian.
- The ability of the Indian black honey bee to produce higher quantities of honey which is thicker and consistent.
- Currently, farmers have been complaining of high moisture content of above 25% in the honey produced by bees of the Apis indica species.
- According to Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), moisture content of above 20% in honey is not permissible.
- In order to reduce the water content, the honey is heated which leads to change in the colour, texture and loss of nutrients.
- the thicker honey produced by the newly discovered species, with low water content, does not require such processes and hence, the natural goodness is retained.
- The propagation of the new species could facilitate large-scale production of high-quality honey, he added.
- The distribution of Apiskarinjodian ranges from the central Western Ghats and Nilgiris to the southern Western Ghats, covering the states of Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and parts of Tamil Nadu.
- The species has been classified as Near Threatened (NT) in Kerala based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, an easily and widely understood system for classifying species at high-risk of global extinction.
Sources – TH