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OJAANK IAS ACADEMY

8 August 2022 – Current Affairs

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SSLV-D1-EOS 02 Mission

Paper 3 – Science & Technology
Why Should You Know?
Recently ISRO launched its small satellites from SSLV, but they could not succeed.
In details –
  • In its maiden SSLV mission, the launch vehicle carried The Earth Observation Satellite EOS-02 and the co-passenger student satellites AzaadiSAT.
  • SSLV had suffered ‘data loss’ in its terminal stage, after performing “as expected” in all stages. It had earlier after lifted off from the spaceport here on Sunday(August 7, 2022) morning.
  • The Indian Space Research Organisation Chairman S Somanath has said that the maiden launch of the Small Satellite Launch Vehicle, SSLV failed to place the satellites in the intended orbit due to sensor anomaly.
  • SSLV-D1-EOS 02 launched from Sriharikota launch pad had placed the satellites into 356kmX76 kms elliptical orbit instead of 356 km circular orbit. Due to which the two satellites remained unstable and are no longer usable.
  • The ISRO Chairman has said the launch vehicle took off majestically at the intended time from the launch pad in Sriharikota. Its propulsion stages, overall hardware, aerodynamic design and new generation electronics, the separation system used for the first time performed very well.
  • However after reaching an altitude of 356 kms there was a failure of logic to identify sensor failure and go for the salvage motion. Hence the launch vehicle developed an anomaly.
  • The ISRO Chairman has said that a team of experts will go deeper to find out the reason for this isolation. He emphasised that after a small correction and revalidation, SSLV-D2 will be launched very soon.
EOS-02 and AzaadiSAT
  • The Earth Observation Satellite EOS-02 and the co-passenger student satellites AzaadiSAT are the major payloads for the SSLV.
  • The EOS-02 is an experimental optical remote sensing satellite with a high spatial resolution. It is to realise and fly an experimental imaging satellite with a short turnaround time and to demonstrate launch-on-demand capability. EOS-02 belongs to the microsatellite series of spacecraft.
  • The AzaadiSAT is a 8U CubeSat weighing around 8 kilograms. It carries 75 different payloads each weighing around 50 grams. Girl students from rural regions across the country were provided guidance to build these payloads.
  • The payloads are integrated by the student team of ‘Space Kidz India’. The ground system developed by ‘Space Kidz India’ will be utilised for receiving the data from this satellite, ISRO said.

Operation Yatri Suraksha

Paper 2 – Social Issues
Why Should You Know?
RPF undertakes month long Pan India Drive under ‘Operation Yatri Suraksha’ to enhance security of passengers.
In details –
  • Railway Protection Force (RPF) is an Armed Force of the Union under Ministry of Railways entrusted with the responsibility of security of railway property, passenger area and passengers.
  • With the aim of improving the security of passengers travelling by Indian Railways, RPF has launched a Pan-India Operation under the code name “Operation Yatri Suraksha”.
  • As part of this initiative, several steps are being taken to provide foolproof security to passengers i.e. Train Escorting, visible presence on stations, Surveillance through CCTV, Surveillance on active criminals, collection of intelligence about the criminals and action thereupon, identifying black spots and crime prone trains/sections and enhancing security thereat among others to formulate an actionable strategy to reduce crime against passengers.
  • Regular coordination is being made with all the stake holders and joint action is planned to improve passenger security regularly.
  • In order to give an impetus to Operation Yatri Suraksha, a month long pan India drive was launched against criminals targeting passengers in July 2022 by RPF.
  • During the drive, 365 suspects were nabbed by RPF personnel and were handed over to the concerned GRPs for legal action based on which 322 cases of Passenger Crime i.e. theft of Passenger Belongings, Drugging, Robbery, Chain Snatching etc. were detected.  \
  • Stolen property of passengers worth more than Rs. 1 Crore was recovered either from the possession of these criminals or in course of investigation of these offences.
  • RPF will continue its efforts to enhance security of passengers over Indian Railways in future too by launching drives, improving response, infusing technology and innovation in its working to enhance its response, effectiveness and reach and to realize its objective of SEWA HI SANKALP.
About Railway Protection Force –
  • Railway Protection Force is a security force under the ownership of Indian Railways, Ministry of Railways, Government of India established by the Railway Protection Force Act, 1957;enacted by the Indian Parliament for “the better protection and security of railway property and passenger area”.
  • It has the power to search, arrest, investigate, and prosecute offenses committed under Railway Property (Unlawful Possession) Act 1966, The Railways Act, 1989 (amended from time to time).
  • However the power of arrests under other penal laws rests in the hands of the Government Railway Police (GRP) of state police.The force is under the authority of the Indian Ministry of Railways.

New Vice President of India

Paper 2 – Constitution
Why Should You Know?
Jagdeep Dhankhar Elected as new vice president of India.
In details –
  • NDA candidate Jagdeep Dhankhar has won the election for the post of Vice President. He defeated Congress leader Margaret Alva, the candidate of the opposition. The new Vice President will take the oath of office on August 11.
  • The elections to the 14th Vice President of India was held on 6 August 2022. The announcement was made by the Election Commission of India.
  • Article 56(1) of the Constitution of India provides that the Vice President of India shall remain in office for a period of five years and held on 6 August 2022.
  • The winner of this election is Jagdeep Dhankhar who will replace Venkaiah Naidu as Vice President on 11 August 2022.
  • On 16 July 2022, Jagdeep Dhankhar the then serving Governor of West Bengal was nominated as a vice-presidential candidate by the BJP. On 17 July 2022, Margaret Alva was announced as the vice-presidential candidate by the United Progressive Alliance and some non-UPA Parties.
  • Hence, Jagdeep Dhankhar won the election by 528 votes defeating the United Opposition candidate Margaret Alva.
About Jagdeep Dhankhar –
  • Jagdeep Dhankhar, was born in 1951 into a farmer’s family in Kithana, a small village in Rajasthan.
  • Mr Dhankhar started as a lawyer and has practised in the Supreme Court and the Rajasthan High Court. He was designated a senior advocate in 1990, a year after he entered active politics.
  • He was closely associated with former deputy prime minister of India Chaudhary Devi Lal and followed his mentor when the latter walked out of the VP Singh government and became a union minister in 1990 in the minority government led by Chandra Shekhar.
  • Mr Dhankhar was appointed as the Governor of West Bengal in July 2019.
About Vice President of India –
  • The vice president of India is the deputy to the head of state of the Republic of India, i.e. the president of India.
  • The office of vice president is the second-highest constitutional office after the president and ranks second in the order of precedence and first in the line of succession to the presidency.
  • The vice president is also a member of the Parliament of India as the ex officio chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
  • Article 66 of the Constitution of India states the manner of election of the vice president. The vice president is elected indirectly by members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament and not the members of state legislative assembly by the system of proportional representation using single transferable votes and the voting is conducted by Election Commission of India via secret ballot.
  • The vice president also acts as the chancellor of the central universities of India.
Qualifications –
As in the case of the president, to be qualified to be elected as vice president, a person must –
  • Be a citizen of India
  • Be at least 35 years of age
  • Not hold any office of profit
Unlike in the case of the president, where a person must be qualified for election as a member of the Lok Sabha, the vice president must be qualified for election as a member of the Rajya Sabha.This difference is because the vice president is to act as the ex officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

INDIAN NAVY@75

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?
As part of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahostav (AKAM) to celebrate 75 years of India’s Independence, commemorative visits are being undertaken by Indian Navy ships to foreign ports in every continent (except Antarctica).
In details –
  • As part of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahostav (AKAM) to celebrate 75 years of India’s Independence, commemorative visits are being undertaken by Indian Navy ships to foreign ports in every continent (except Antarctica). Details are as follows:-
  • Various activities and events are being planned at each of these ports by Indian Missions on 15 August 2022 during the visit by IN Ships. The most significant amongst these would be the hoisting of our tri colour onboard these ships in the presence of Indian diaspora and distinguished local dignitaries. This event is spread across six Continents, three Oceans and in six different Time Zones.
  • Other activities being planned include official calls by IN crew on senior leadership of host country, participation by IN contingent/ Guard at the Flag Hoisting Ceremony in the respective Embassies, band performance at a prominent public place/ auditorium, ship open to visitors, visit by school children/ Indian diaspora, deck reception and various cultural events as organised by Indian Embassies.
  • At London (UK), the crew of INS Tarangini would be paying homage to the Indian soldiers, who gave the supreme sacrifice during the two World Wars, at the Commonwealth Memorial gates.
  • Similarly, a ceremonial wreath laying by the IN ship crew/ delegation is scheduled at Kranji War Memorial and the INA Marker at Singapore.
  • At Mombassa (Kenya), the IN crew will participate in the inauguration of a commemorative pillar in the Battlefield area of Taita Taveta region where Indian soldier fought and sacrificed their lives whilst serving under East Africa campaign of World War – I.
  • The commemorative events will also include battlefield tours, a mobile exhibition and a Light and Sound show at Fort Jesus highlighting the contribution of the Indian soldiers in WW-I as well as India’s struggle for independence.
  • The 75th year of India’s Independence Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav is an occasion to reinvigorate and reemphasise India’s maritime moorings. Towards this, a large number of activities have been undertaken by the Indian Navy over the last one year both within the country and abroad.
  • Commemorative ship visits to 75 Indian ports in the year 2021-22, President’s Fleet Review aligned with the 75th year of independence, Lokayan 2022 (sail ship expedition), display of monumental national flag at Mumbai, community outreach programs across all coastal districts of India, freedom run at various cities, sailing regattas, mountaineering/ cycling expeditions, blood donation camps, coastal cleanup efforts, seminars/ events on India’s rich maritime heritage, and felicitation of gallantry award winners and war veterans (born in or before 1947) are some of the prominent events undertaken.

Akasa Air

Paper 3- Infrastructure
Why Should You Know?
Shri Jyotiraditya M. Scindia flags off the first flight of Akasa Air from Mumbai to Ahmedabad
In details –
  • On July 7, 2022 the Minister of Civil Aviation Shri Jyotiraditya M. Scindia and Minister of State for Civil Aviation Gen (Retd) V.K Singh inaugurated the First Flight of Akasa Air (QP1101) from Mumbai to Ahmedabad virtually.
  • Speaking at the event, Shri Jyotiraditya M. Scindia said,  “Over the last eight years India’s Civil Aviation industry has been completely transformed.  Under UDAN scheme, we have 425 routes aiming to go up to1000 routes, 68 new airports aiming to touch 100 airports. In next 4 years we are expecting 40 crore travellers through Civil Aviation in India. That day is not far when along with rail transport and road transport Civil Aviation will become the bulwark of the transportation in India.”
About Akasa Air –
  • Akasa Air is the 7th schedule airline with brand name of SNV Aviation having Corporate Headquarters at Mumbai with Boeing Max – 8 aircraft.
  • Akasa Air plans to be a low-cost carrier with single fleet and all economy seats.
  • Akasa Air is planning to expand its activities to 72 aircrafts in next five years which will significantly enhance the domestic aviation services in India.
  • Akasa Air is the first major airline to take to the skies in seven years since Tata Sons- Singapore Airline joint venture Vistara started operations in 2015. Though there have been several new regional carriers, some have shut shop, and a few others have suspended flights due to cash crunch.
  • The airline is founded by billionaire Rakesh Jhunjhunwala along with aviation veterans Vinay Dube, who was the CEO of Jet Airways until it closed down in April 2019, and Aditya Ghosh, who earlier helmed IndiGo.

National Handloom Day

Paper 3 – Economy
Why Should You Know?
National Handloom Day is celebrated every year in India on 7 August.
In details –
  • The National Handloom Day has been observed on August 7 every year since 2015 to commemorate the launch of the Swadeshi Movement in 1905.
  • It is celebrated to honour the handloom-weaving community of India and to recognise the contribution of the handloom sector to the socio-economic development of the country.
  • In 2015, the Indian government decided to celebrate the Handloom Day on August 7, which is also the day on which the Swadeshi Movement was launched in 1905.
  • The Swadeshi Movement aimed to inspire and organise people to take up local goods and boycott the imported goods.
  • The government, apart from celebrating the day in a general sense, has put in place a number of programmes.
  • These initiatives include the Comprehensive Handloom Cluster Development Scheme (CHCDS), National Handloom Development Programme (NHDP), Handloom Weavers Comprehensive Welfare Scheme (HWCWS), and Yarn Supply Scheme (YSS).
  • The programs mentioned above intend to boost the handloom sector while helping it go international.
  • Some of the known handlooms include Tamil Nadu’s famous Kanchipuram sarees, the Paithani weaves of Maharashtra,  Muga Silk from Assam, and Mysore Silk from Karnataka among others.
  • The government has time and again stated that it is firm to protect the handloom heritage and also to empower the handloom weavers and workers financially.
Significance –
  • The handloom sector has emerged as the most important cottage trade in India over time. Handloom weavers have been making goods using pure fibers like cotton, silk and wool. The primary goal of organizing National Handloom Day is to highlight the contribution of handlooms in the socio-economic reform of India.
  • Every year on National Handloom Day, workshops are organized by the government to make weavers aware of the work options.
  • Handloom industry is one of the important part of the cultural heritage of India. According to the ministry statement, it continues to be an essential source of livelihood, especially for women, who make up about 70% of the weavers of the region. The day is celebrated to honor the handloom community and acknowledge their contribution to the socio-economic development of India.

Marine Plastic Pollution

Paper 3- Environment
Why Should You Know?
The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) have issued the notification asking manufacturers, suppliers and consumers of single-use plastic items to scrap and phase them out and switch to greener and sustainable alternatives.
In details –
  • The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) have issued the notification asking manufacturers, suppliers and consumers of single-use plastic items to scrap and phase them out and switch to greener and sustainable alternatives.
  • The following plastic items have been banned from July 1, 2022: Balloon sticks; cigarette cling film packs; cutlery items including plates, cups, glasses, forks, spoons, knives, trays, earbuds, sweet boxes, candy and ice cream sticks, invitation cards, polystyrene for decoration and PVC banners measuring under 100 microns.
  • The ban includes not just the use of plastic items but also their production. Plastic bags of thickness less than 120 microns will also be phased out from December 31, 2022. Thousands of other plastic products — such as plastic bottles — are however not covered by this ban.
  • Like roads and streets, our coasts and beaches too are littered with various types of plastic. Experts believe that approximately 80 per cent of the debris found in the oceans originates onshore.
  • According to a 2017 study titled Prevalence of marine litter along the Indian beaches, the Odisha coast has the lowest (0.31 gram per square metre) quantity, and Goa coast (205.75 g / m2) the highest quantity of beach debris.
  • Quite surprisingly,the archipelagic coasts of Andamans, as well as Lakshadweep had more trash than Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal.
  • Litter on Goa’s beaches can be primarily due to tourism and entertainment-related activities. However, fishing-related activities also contribute to beach litter. According to government data, there are 16 fishing villages in North Goa and 23 in South Goa.
  • Nearly 12,000 people (according to 2010 data) are actively engaged in fishing. By analysing beach debris, the research group found that nylon nets / fishing lines (groupA-Nylon / HDP ropes / fish net pieces / long lines) registered the highest mean (75.67 g / m2) in Goa and the lowest mean (0.01 g / m2) in West Bengal.
  • A maximum of 543 g / m2debris from the Group-A items have been found in Goa beaches. For Group-B items, which include Plastics (covers, carry bags, sachets, PET bottles like beverages, drinking water, medicine etc., containers of milk, creams, oil, ointments, toothpaste etc.) it was 110 g / m2.
  • Group-C items containing synthetic slippers/footwear (other than leather items) were 110g / m2.
  • Group D items that included glass bottles, electric bulbs, and CFL bulbs had 500g / m2. Group-E contains e-waste (TV / computer hard wares, mobile phone handsets or parts, chargers, battery-operated toys, CDs etc.) had the lowest (10g / m2) among all the types of debris.
  • Group-F items include thermocol, PUF insulators of AC / Fridge, Styrofoam, etc, with a concentration of 93.2 g / m2. It is apparent that fishing and tourism-related activities are equally responsible for litter generation on the beaches of Goa. Many of the items listed in these groups have now been banned in India.
  • According to the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, cigarette-butts are the most common types of marine debris found. The Ocean Conservancy’s 2018 International Coastal Cleanup Report also stated that 2,412,151 cigarette butts were collected worldwide at clean-up sites in 2017. This is an increase from the 1,863,838 butts collected in 2016.
  • Campaigns run by several non-government agencies for more than 100 days in 2019, partially helped contain cigarette butts, glass and plastic bottle litter on some of the Goa beaches. Shacks and eateries offering foods on the beaches have been sensitised on stopping the thermocol cutlery.
  • But in absence of cheaper and ‘greener’ alternatives, vendors are apprehensive of complying with the ban of such items. For the time being, management of the waste generated seems to be the only plausible solution.
  • As part of the ongoing Swachh Sagar Surakshit Sagar campaign, local communities and tourists at 75 beaches would be sensitised on reducing plastic use, reuse and recycling them as much as possible.
  • The most effective way to minimise plastic pollution is to stop it from entering the oceans. Beach cleanup campaigns can make a positive difference if done continuously.

Gender gaps in food

Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?
The CARE report which is Published recenty, found that across 109 countries, food security goes down as gender inequality goes up
In details –
  • A humanitarian organisation has found the gap between men and women’s food security is growing worldwide. As many as 828 million people were affected by hunger in 2021. Among them, 150 million more women were food insecure than men.
  • A CARE report released August 3, 2022 highlighted a global link between gender inequality and food insecurity. It found that food security went down as gender inequality increased across 109 countries. The report based its findings on datasets and global trends.
  • A 2010-2011 report by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) — a United Nations agency for improving food security internationally — was one of the last global studies that presented new data and connections between gender equality, women and food on a truly global scale. Much of the world’s data on gender equality overlooks questions of food security.
  • Women have less food than men in every region in the world, The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World had found in 2022. The analysis found the gap between women and men was 8.4 times greater than in 2018, when only 18 million more women than men were food insecure.
  • Even when both men and women are technically food insecure, women often bear bigger burdens, the CARE report said In Somalia, men report eating smaller meals and women report skipping meals altogether. In Lebanon, at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, 85 per cent of people reduced the number of meals they ate. At the time, 85 per cent of women were eating smaller portions, compared to only 57 per cent of men.
  • Nations with high gender inequality, such as Yemen, Sierra Leone and Chad, experienced the lowest food security and nutrition.
  • Households where women were employed and earning money or when they were directly involved in farming their food were less likely to experience food insecurity, according to CARE.
  • Women are also more likely than men to live in extreme poverty, according to World Food Program USA, the food-assistance branch of the UN. This happens because women’s work is underpaid or not paid at all. Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, women took on three times as much unpaid work as men.
  • The lack of collection and incorporation of sex-disaggregated data on global food security datasets leads global policymakers to overlook gender equality in food security solutions.
  • Of 84 food policies and plans designed to address hunger released between September 2020 and December 2021, only 4 per cent refer to women as leaders who can play a role in food security. Thirty-nine per cent of those policies overlook women entirely.
  • A 2020 report by CARE — Left Out and Left Behind — detailed how women face incredible obstacles even more than men in getting enough food during emergencies. COVID-19, which has led to food crises and a rollback in women’s rights and gender equality, has created an untenable situation for women.
  • Women’s equality and empowerment is one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), but also integral to all dimensions of inclusive and sustainable development.
  • All the SDGs depend on the achievement of Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls, according to UN Women, which works for women’s human rights. Gender equality by 2030 requires urgent action to eliminate the many root causes of discrimination that still curtail women’s rights in private and public spheres.

‘My Handloom My Pride Expo’

Paper 3 – Economy
Why Should You Know?
The Minister of State for Textiles and Railways inaugurated the ‘My Handloom My Pride Expo’ in New Delhi (Janpath) on 5th August, 2022.
In details –
  • The Minister of State for Textiles and Railways inaugurated the ‘My Handloom My Pride Expo’ in New Delhi (Janpath) on 5th August, 2022 to encourage the handloom industry.
  • On this occasion, he invited all the women parliamentarians to visit the special handloom expo at Janpath Haat and witness the rich handloom heritage with the aim of encouraging weavers and promoting the industry.
  • The exhibition will be open to the public from 11 am to 8 pm till August 11, 2022. This special handloom expo is an initiative of the Office of the Development Commissioner (Handlooms), Ministry of Textiles, Government of India through National Handloom Development Corporation (NHDC) Limited.
  • The Swadeshi movement which started on August 7, 1905, encouraged indigenous industries and especially handloom weavers.
  • On this occasion, from the year 2015, the Government of India decided to celebrate 7 August every year as ‘National Handloom Day’.
  • Handloom weaving is associated with the traditional value of the art and each region has its excellent varieties. The uniqueness of weaving, design and traditional art of products like Pochampally, Tangaliya Sarees, Kota Doria, Banarasi, Jamdani, Baluchari, Ikat, Kalamkari etc. attracts customers from all over the world.

Village Engineers programme

Paper 3 – Economy
Why Should You Know?
Village Engineers programme to be rolled out in Gujarat soon
In details –
  • Minister of State for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) Shri Rajeev Chandrasekhar held  discussions with Members of Parliament and Ministers from Gujarat on creating targeted skilling opportunities for the tribal youth in their local areas to reduce the pull for migration.
  • The deliberations, held under the “Skill Samwaad” series yesterday, focussed on the “Village Engineers” programme that will be rolled out in the state soon.
  • Emphasizing on the need to make opportunities available locally, Shri Chandrashekhar said under the programme, the tribal youth will get multiple skill training so that they can participate in the economic activities in their respective districts. The State government and the Centre must act in coordination to implement the programme, he added.
  • Opportunities in the areas of Electric Vehicles (EVs), drone manufacturing, organic food manufacturing, mango processing, textile manufacturing and more were discussed.
  • The meeting also deliberated on the suggestions for empowering women, especially in the handloom and handicraft sectors, enhancing livelihood prospects, using local resources and inculcating entrepreneurial skills.
  • The programme which  is consistent with Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s vision of Self Reliance or AtmaNirbharta aims to ensure inclusive development for all communities.
  • Recently, the village engineer programme was launched from Madhya Pradesh to train the tribal youth by providing them a basket of skills together. The first batch of village engineers have also been conferred recognition in form of certification.

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