Ojaank IAS Academy




8 November 2022 – Current Affairs

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The Uniform Civil Code

Paper 2 – Polity

Why You Should Know?

Ahead of the upcoming Assembly elections, Gujarat joined the list of States that have called for implementing the Uniform Civil Code (UCC).

In detail –
Constituent Assembly on  UCC
  • Indian Constitution’s Article 44 (contained in part IV) says that the state “shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India”.
  • Part IV of the Constitution outlines the Directive Principles of State Policy, which, while not enforceable or justiciable in a court of law, are fundamental to the country’s governance.
  • While there is no draft or model document yet for the UCC, the framers of the Constitution envisioned that it would be a uniform set of laws that would replace the distinct personal laws of each religion with regard to matters like marriage, divorce, adoption, and inheritance.
  • The clause on UCC generated substantial debate in the Constituent Assembly about whether it should be included as a fundamental right or a directive principle.
  • The matter had to be settled by vote; with a majority of 5:4, wherein the sub-committee on fundamental rights headed by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel decided that securing a UCC was not within the scope of fundamental rights.
  • Member Naziruddin Ahmad from Bengal felt the UCC would come in the way of Article 19 of the draft Constitution (now Article 25) which guarantees the right to freedom of religion subject to public order, morality, and health.
  • While he was not against the idea of a uniform civil law, he argued that the time for that had not yet come, adding that the process had to be gradual and not without the consent of the concerned communities.
  • Member K.M. Munshi however, rejected the notion that a UCC would be against the freedom of religion as the Constitution allowed the government to make laws covering secular activities related to religious practices if they were intended for social reform.
  • He advocated for the UCC, stating benefits such as promoting the unity of the nation and equality for women.
  • Dr. B.R. Ambedkar had more of an ambivalent stance toward the UCC. He felt that while desirable, the UCC should remain “purely voluntary” in the initial stages.
  • He stated that the Article “merely” proposed that the state shall endeavour to secure a UCC, which means it would not impose it on all citizens.
Various arguments On UCC
  • constitutional law experts argue that perhaps the framers did not intend total uniformity, which is why personal laws were placed in entry 5 of the Concurrent List, with the power to legislate being given to Parliament and State Assemblies.
  • Looking at the codified personal laws of various communities in India — all Hindus are not governed by a homogenous personal law even after the enactment of the Hindu Code Bill, neither are Muslims and Christians under their personal laws.
  • Even at the time of drafting the Hindu Code Bill, several of its provisions actually sought to locate the complex links between the importance of inheritance, succession rights and the right to divorce.
  • But facing staunch opposition from conservative quarters, it was amended, diluted, and watered down multiple times to finally be separated into four different Acts — the Hindu Marriage Act, the Hindu Succession Act, the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, and the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act — in the 1950s.
  • While marriages amongst close relatives are prohibited by the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955, they are considered auspicious in the south of India.
  • Even the Hindu Succession Act of 1956 made several compromises and could not make the daughter a coparcener till 2005.
  • Wives are still not coparceners nor do they have an equal share in inheritance.
  • Similarly, there is still no uniform applicability when it comes to the Muslim personal law or the Shariat Act that was passed in 1937.
  • For instance, the Shariat Act is not applicable in Jammu and Kashmir and Muslims continue to be governed by customary law which is at variance with the Muslim personal law in the rest of the country.
  • The applicability also varies for certain sects of Muslims. Besides, many tribal groups in the country, regardless of their religion, follow their own customary laws
Goa- shining example
  • While the Supreme Court in 2019 hailed Goa as a “shining example” of an Indian State which has a functioning UCC.
  • The Goa Civil Code was given by the Portuguese in 1867
  • It permits a certain form of polygamy for Hindus while the Shariat Act for Muslims has not been extended to Goa with Muslims of the State being governed by Portuguese law as well as Shastric Hindu law.
  • The Code gives certain concessions to Catholics as well. Catholics need not register their marriages and Catholic priests can dissolve marriages performed in church.
Supreme Court on UCC
  • The Supreme Court in various judgements has called for the implementation of the UCC.
  • In its Mohd. Ahmed Khan vs Shah Bano Begum judgement of 1985, where a divorced Muslim woman demanded maintenance from her former husband, the apex court while deciding whether to give prevalence to the CrPc or the Muslim personal law, called for the implementation of the UCC.
  • The Court also called on the government to implement the UCC in the 1995 Sarla Mudgal judgement as well as in the Paulo Coutinho vs Maria Luiza Valentina Pereira case (2019).
Law Commission on UCC
  • In 2018, the Law Commission submitted a 185-page consultation paper on the reform of family law.
  • The paper stated that a unified nation did not necessarily need “uniformity”, adding that secularism could not contradict the plurality prevalent in the country.
  • In fact, the term “secularism” had meaning only if it assured the expression of any form of difference, the Commission noted.
  • While saying that a UCC “is neither necessary nor desirable at this stage”, the report recommended that discriminatory practices, prejudices and stereotypes within a particular religion and its personal laws should be studied and amended.
  • The Commission suggested certain measures in marriage and divorce that should be uniformly accepted in the personal laws of all religions.
  • Some of these amendments include fixing the marriageable age for boys and girls at 18 years so that they are married as equals, making adultery a ground for divorce for men and women and simplifying the divorce procedure.
  • It also called for the abolition of the Hindu Undivided Family (HUF) as a tax-exempted entity.

Sources – TH

Falcon Heavy Rocket

Paper 2 – Science & Tech

Why You Should Know?

Elon Musk-owned SpaceX launched the Falcon Heavy rocket into a geosynchronous Earth orbit from the Launch Complex 39A at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.

In detail –
  • This is considered as a National Security Space Launch for the U.S. military.
  • This is the fourth launch of the giant rocket system, and the first one in nearly three years since its last launch in 2019.
  • The rocket is carrying satellites to space for the U.S. military in a mission named as U.S. Space Force (USSF)-44.
  • The mission deployed two spacecraft payloads, one of which is the TETRA 1 microsatellite created for various prototype missions in and around the geosynchronous earth orbit.
  • The other payload is for national defence purposes. It will place the satellites for the Space Systems Command’s Innovation and Prototyping.
  • Space Systems Command (SSC) is the oldest military space organisation in the United States Armed Forces. It is responsible for developing, acquiring, equipping, fielding and sustaining lethal and resilient space capabilities.
  • SSC mission capability areas include launch acquisition and operations, communications and positioning, navigation and timing, space sensing, battle management command, control, and communications, and space domain awareness and combat power.
  • The Falcon Heavy uses three boosters for added thrust and lift capacity. The centre booster plunged into the ocean as planned and the two side boosters landed on ground pads at the Cape Canaveral Space Force Station.
  • These two boosters will be refurbished for a subsequent U.S. Space Force mission later this year, according to a press release by the Space Systems Command. The boosters are reused on other missions to cut down on mission costs.
About Falcon Heavy rocket
  • SpaceX claims Falcon Heavy to be the most powerful rocket in the world today by a factor of two.
  • With a lifting capacity of around 64 metric tonnes into orbit, Falcon Heavy can lift more than twice the payload of the next closest operational vehicle, the Delta IV Heavy.
  • The rocket has a height of 70 m, a width of 12.2 m and a mass of 1,420,788 kg. Falcon Heavy has 27 Merlin engines which together generate more than five million pounds of thrust at lift-off, equalling around eighteen 747 aircraft at full power.
  • This makes it the most capable rocket flying. The rocket can lift the equivalent of a fully loaded 737 jetliner, complete with passengers, luggage and fuel, to orbit.
  • Merlin is a family of rocket engines developed by SpaceX for use on its Falcon 1, Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy launch vehicles.
  • Merlin engines use RP-1 and liquid oxygen as rocket propellants in a gas-generator power cycle. These engines were designed for recovery and reuse, according to SpaceX.
Background –
  • SpaceX last launched its Falcon Heavy rocket in June 2019 from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center.
  • It carried 24 satellites as part of the Department of Defense’s Space Test Program-2.

Source – TH




EWS Quota

Paper 2 –Polity

Why You Should Know?

The Supreme Court upheld the Constitution (One Hundred and Third Amendment) Act, 2019 introducing reservation for the economically weaker sections (EWS) among the unreserved categories in admissions and government jobs.

In detail –
  • The Supreme Court has upheld the 103rd Constitution Amendment providing for 10% quota for the economically weaker sections (EWS) from unreserved categories.
  • The beneficiaries can avail the quota for admission to government as well as private, unaided institutions and government jobs.
  • A five-judge constitution bench of Chief Justice UU Lalit and Justices Dinesh Maheshwari, S Ravindra Bhat, Bela M Trivedi and JB Pardiwala, in a 3-2 verdict, held that the provisions of the concerned amendment is not in violation of the Constitution.
  • At the outset, Chief Justice U U Lalit said there are four different judgements on pleas challenging the EWS quota.
  • Reading out the verdict, Justice Maheshwari said that 103rd Constitutional amendment is valid and does not violate the basic structure of the Constitution.
  • Justice Trivedi said that there is a need to revisit the reservation policy and it should have a time span.
  • Justice Pardiwala, while holding the amendment valid, observed that reservation cannot go on indefinitely and agreed with Justice Trivedi on a need to re-examine the reservation policy.
  • However, Justice Bhatt disagreed with the majority verdict and said leaving out the poor from SCs/STs/ OBCs from availing the reservation benefit under EWS category is discriminatory.
  • CJI UU Lalit, the last to speak, also dissented on the majority verdict while agreeing with Justice Bhatt.
Three broad questions

While delivering the verdict on the validity of EWS quota, the SC bench had considered three broad questions:

Is quota based on economic criteria valid?
  • The Constitution does not talk about the concept of preferential treatment on the basis of a person’s economic status. The bench therefore mulled on:
  • Is reservation based on economic criteria is permitted by the Constitution?
  • Will it go against basic structure of Constitution, if allowed?
Is 103rd Amendment a breach on Constutuion?

The court examined possible breach of Constitution by the 103rd Amendment from two aspects:

  • Permitting the state to make special provisions in relation to admission to private unaided institutions
  • Excluding SEBCs (Socially and Educationally Backward Classes)/OBCs (Other Backward Classes)/SCs(Scheduled Casts)/STs (Scheduled Tribes) from the scope of EWS reservation.
The 50% quota cap issue
  • The bench also considered if the 50% cap on reservation as fixed by it in the Indra Sawhney judgment is inviolable and cannot be breached.
The Centre’s contention
  • Granting of 10% quota to the poor section will not impact other categories
  • It has approved creation of more than 2.1 lakh seats in central educational institutions to ensure that EWS quota didn’t impact SC/STs and OBCs
  • 103rd Amendment strengthened the basic structure of the Constitution by ensuring economic justice to its citizens
  • Upper limit on quota is not a “golden inviolable rule”
What petitions challenging EWS quota said
  • Economic criteria could not be a basis for granting reservation
  • Granting quota to the forward class is a “fraud on the constitution” and amounted to stabbing its heart
What is the 103rd Amendment
  • The Bill was introduced in Parliament in January 2019, and subsequntly passed by the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha before getting the presidential assent.
  • It introduces 10% reservation for Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) for admission to government as well as private educational institutions (except for minority educational institutions)
  • It also provides for similar reservations for employment in government jobs
Who can avail EWS quota benefits
  • Persons with an annual gross household income of up to Rs 8 lakh
  • Excluded:
  • Families owning over 5 acres of agricultural land, a house over 1,000 square feet, a plot of over 100-yards in a notified municipal area or over a 200-yards plot in a non-notified municipal area
  • Communities that already have reservations such as SCs, STs

Source –IE


The Middle East Green Initiative

Paper 3 – Environment

Why You Should Know?

Saudi Arabia commits $2.5 billion to Middle East green initiative

In detail –
  • Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman said the kingdom would contribute $2.5 billion to a green initiative in the Middle East over the next 10 years, and host its headquarters.
  • The Middle East Green Initiative was launched by the crown prince last year as part of efforts to reduce regional carbon emissions.
  • Saudi Arabia had said last year it aimed to contribute 15% of the $10.4 billion required for the fund’s clean energy projects.
  • The crown prince, known as MbS, also said the kingdom’s Public Investment Fund, would aim for net-zero emissions by 2050.
  • The Middle East Green Initiative aims to reduce carbon emissions from regional hydrocarbon production by more than 60%.
  • It also plans to plant 50 billion trees across the Middle EAst and restore an area equivalent to 200 million hectares of degraded land. The initiative will help reduce global carbon levels by 2.5%.
  • Saudi Arabia plans to rely on renewables for 50% of its electricity generation by 2030, the prince said, removing 44 million tonnes of carbon emissions by 2035.
About Middle East Green Initiative
  • The Middle East Green Initiative signifies Saudi Arabia’s commitment to international sustainability efforts.
  • It will enable the region to help protect the planet by clearly defining an ambitious road map that significantly contributes to achieving global targets.
  • It amplifies Saudi Arabia’s coordination and knowledge transfer with regional and international partners to achieve a significant global reduction in carbon emissions and deliver the largest reforestation program in the world.
  • The first Middle East Green Initiative Summit was hosted by His Royal Highness the Crown Prince in Riyadh on October 25, 2021.
  • It facilitated a first-of-its-kind regional dialogue on climate. The leaders in attendance expressed their appreciation for the Kingdom’s initiatives and efforts in the field of the environment and climate change.
  • They agreed to work together to tackle climate change and to hold the summit periodically to develop implementation plans to achieve the objectives of the Middle East Green Initiative.
  • Saudi Arabia has also established the Green Initiative Foundation, a non-profit organization to support and ensure the implementation of Saudi Green Initiative and the Middle East Green Initiative objectives.
Sub Projects
  1. Co-operative Platform to accelerate implementation of the Circular Carbon Economy (CCE)
  2. Regional Investment Fund for Circular Carbon Economy (CCE) technology solutions
  3. Regional Center for Carbon Extraction Use and Storage
  4. Regional Center for Sustainable Development of Fisheries
  5. Regional Hub for Climate Change
  6. Regional Center for Early Storm Warning
  7. Regional Cloud Seeding Program that aims to increase rainfall 10-20% from the current baseline
  8. Regional Initiative for Clean Fuel Solutions for cooking to provide clean food solutions to more than 750 million people worldwide

Sources – TOI

BATS Software

Paper 3 –Science & Tech

Why You Should Know?

A fully integrated traffic and billing application software ‘Broadcast Air-Time Scheduler (BATS)’ for all commercial operations of All India Radio at Prasar Bharati Secretariat on 7th November, 2022 to streamline and automate the commercial operations or functioning of Prasar Bharati launched.

In detail –
  • All India Radio (AIR) adopts integrated system for better services.
  • BATS can bring about transparency into the entire operations and make the entire commercial operations very efficient.
  • It allows monitoring of booking, billing and payment receipts etc. at various stages and system can provide various reports which are very essential in taking many management decisions.
  • App is also available on mobile. Software is menu driven enterprise which has been customized to the need of All India Radio making it more handy and useful.
  • the most important advantage of full implementation of BATS will be to make the Receivable Management more effective and transparent.
  • This will ensure that revenue leakages are avoided and will ensure 100% revenue assurance for the services rendered.
Important features

BATS has been provided by M/s. Media Nucleus and has the following important features:

  • To manage the scheduling and billing of advertising orders across multiple stations via one central database.
  • Contracts are handled seamlessly from Release Order entry to single or multi-invoice billing.
  • Increases operational efficiency and reduces cost.
  • Media Sales Traffic increases the efficiency of the organization by providing traffic team a flexible solution for planning, scheduling and billing of spots.
  • Ensures accurate billing by effectively managing account hierarchy, different Package and Products, Pricing plans, Content Rights Management, Automated Ad Booking along with Discounts offered on bulk deals, Charges, and Billing cycle Invoicing.
  • Payment processing and collections through integrated Payment Gateway of SBI.

Source – PIB



G20 Presidency

Paper 2 –International Relations

Why You Should Know?

Prime Minister will unveil the logo, theme and website of India’s G20 Presidency on 8th November 2022 video conferencing.

In detail –
  • The foreign policy of India has been evolving to undertake leadership roles on the global stage.
  • In a significant step in this direction, India will assume G20 Presidency from 1st December, 2022.
  • The G20 Presidency offers a unique opportunity to India to contribute to the global agenda on pressing issues of international importance.
  • The logo, theme and website of our G20 Presidency would reflect India’s message and overarching priorities to the world.
  • G20 is the premier forum for international economic cooperation representing around 85% of the global GDP, over 75% of the global trade, and about two-thirds of the world population.
  • During the course of its G20 Presidency, India will be holding about 200 meetings in 32 different sectors in multiple locations across India.
  • The G20 Summit to be held next year, would be one of the highest profile international gatherings to be hosted by India.
About the G20
  • The G20 is a formal organization of 20 major economies of the world, including 19 countries and 1 European Union.
  • The G-20 is seen as an extension of the G-7, a group of the world’s most powerful countries.
  • The G-7 comprises France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK, the US and Canada.  In 1998, the group also joined Russia and it became G-8 from G-7.
  • Russia was separated from the group in 2014 due to the annexation of Ukraine’s Crimea region and once again became the G-7.  In 1999, the G-8 countries met in Cologne, Germany, in which asia’s economic crisis was discussed.
  • After this, it was decided to bring the countries with twenty powerful economies of the world on one platform.
  • In December 1999, the G-20  group met for the first time in Berlin. Later, the G-8  was recognized as a political and the G-20 as an economic forum.
  • The G20 is composed of most of the world’s largest economies, including both industrialized and developing nations, and accounts for around 80% of gross world product (GWP), 75–80% of international trade,
  • Two-thirds of the global population,and roughly half the world’s land area.
  • It works to address major issues related to the global economy, such as international financial stability, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development.
  • The G20 does not have a permanent secretariat or Headquarters. Instead, the G20 president is responsible for bringing together the G20 agenda in consultation with other members and in response to developments in the global economy.
  • The G20 Presidency rotates annually according to a system that ensures a regional balance over time.
  • Every year when a new country takes on the presidency, it works hand in hand with the previous presidency and the next presidency and this is collectively known as TROIKA.
Member Countries
  • USA, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa,  South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the European Union.
  • Spain is a permanent guest who is specially invited every year.
  • Every year, in addition to Spain, g20 guests include the president of ASEAN countries including two African countries (president of the African Union and representative of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development) and one country (sometimes more than one)  invited by the president of the G20.

Sources –TOI

National Bio Energy Programme

Paper 3 – Energy Resources

Why You Should Know?

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India has notified the National Bioenergy Programme on November 2, 2022.

In detail –
  • MNRE has continued the National Bioenergy Programme for the period from FY 2021-22 to 2025-26.
  • The Programme has been recommended for implementation in two Phases.
  • The Phase-I of the Programme has been approved with a budget outlay of Rs. 858 crore.
Sub-Schemes –

The National Bioenergy Programme will comprises of the following sub-schemes:

  • Waste to Energy Programme (Programme on Energy from Urban, Industrial and Agricultural Wastes /Residues) to support setting up of large Biogas, BioCNG and Power plants (excluding MSW to Power projects).
  • Biomass Programme (Scheme to Support Manufacturing of Briquettes & Pellets and Promotion of Biomass (non-bagasse) based cogeneration in Industries) to support setting up of pellets and briquettes for use in power generation and non-bagasse based power generation projects.
  • Biogas Programme to support setting up of family and medium size Biogas in rural areas.
Boosting Bioenergy
  • To utilize huge surplus biomass, cattle dung, industrial and urban biowaste available in the country for recovery of energy, the MNRE has been promoting bioenergy in India since 1980s. 
  • One major support extended by MNRE has been Central Financial Assistance provided for setting up of Bioenergy projects such as Biogas, BioCNG, Power from urban, Industrial and Agricultural Waste / Residues for reducing their capital cost/ interest on loan therefore increase project viability.

Sources – PIB

Testing and Evaluation for Sonar Systems

Paper 3 – Science & Tech

Why You Should Know?

Recently Test and Evaluation Facility for Indian Navy’s Sonar Systems launched by DRDO.

In detail –
  • Giving impetus to the ‘Aatma Nirbhar Bharat’ and India’s ‘Make in India’ commitment, Defence Research & Development Organization (DRDO) launched Hull Module of Submersible Platform for Acoustic Characterization & Evaluation (SPACE) facility at Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL) Kochi recently.
  • It is a state-of-the-art testing and evaluation facility for sonar systems developed for use by the Indian navy onboard various platforms, including ships, submarines and helicopters.
What is SPACE
  • The SPACE facility is based on the concept design and requirements projected by NPOL and has been constructed by M/s L&T Shipbuilding, Chennai.
  • This will be mainly utilized for evaluating Sonar systems, allowing for quick deployment and easy recovery of scientific packages such as sensors and transducers.
  • The SPACE is one-of-a-kind facility in the world. The uniqueness of this facility lies in the specially designed submersible platform, which can be lowered up to depths of 100 meters using a series of synchronously operated winches.
  • The design and construction of the platform meet all the statutory needs of Indian Register of Shipping and the vessel classifying authority and strictly adhere to the inspection and registration criteria as per Kerala Inland Vessel Rules.
What is Sonar?
  • Sonar is a technology that is based on sound propagation. The full name of Sonar is Sound Navigation and Ranging.
  • It is used to locate objects (such as sunken ships or shipwrecks) on or near the surface of the water through sound propagation.
  • This technology is also helpful in exploring and mapping the oceans.
  • This technology is used to measure the depth of the largest oceans.
  • Sonar technology is also used to locate the enemy submarine.
  • Through Sonar, the doctor often scans the body and detects the movement going on in the body.

Sources – PIB

Thiru Azha Valliappa

Paper 1 – History

Why You Should Know?

Recently The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has paid homage to noted Tamil writer Thiru Azha. Valliappa on his birth centenary.

In detail –
  • Thiru Azha. Valliappa, also known as Rona Valliappa was a very important poet who wrote children’s literature. He has written over 2,000 children’s songs.
  • He was born on 7 November1922 at Rayavaram in Pudukottai district, Tamilnadu.
  • He was born as the son of Alagappa Chettiar and Umaiyal Achi who belonged to the urban community.
  • His parents named him Valliappan.
  • At the age of five, he was adopted by Alagappan, who lived next door to the house where he was born.
  • Rayavaram attended Gandhi Primary School till Class V.
  • He later studied at Bhumeeswaraswamy Free High School in Ramachandrapuram.
Beginning of writing
  • Unable to continue his studies, he sought livelihood in 1940. Joined Govindan ‘s Chennai Shakti magazine office as a cashier.
  • At that time Shakti was the teacher. The. J. Due to Ranganathan ‘s encouragement, he started writing for Shakti magazine itself. Wrote his first story “Half of a Man”.
  • While serving in Shakti, he married Valliammai Nbar. They have one son and four daughters.
  • In 1941 he left Shakti and joined the Indian Bank. He started writing poetry and essays while working in the bank and continued to write until he retired from the bank in November 1982.
  • He was writing even after retirement.
Newspaper Editor
  • While working in the bank, he worked as an honorary editor for the newspapers Balar Malar, Tamaram and Sangu.
  • He was the editor of Pooncholai from 1951 to 1954 and Gokulam , a Kalki publication , from 1983 to 1987 after his retirement.
Children’s Writers’ Association
  • In 1950, he gathered many children’s writers and formed an organization called the Children’s Writers’ Association.
  • Sakthi Y. Govindan was the first president of this association.
  • After him, Valliappa assumed many responsibilities as a trustee, leader and mentor of this organization.
  • He was responsible as the president of the Karaikudi Children’s Writers Association.

Sources – TH

National Florence Nightingale Awards 2021

Paper 2 – Health

Why You Should Know?

Recently President of India Smt Droupadi Murmu presented National Florence Nightingale Awards 2021

In detail –
  • 51 nursing officers from across the country were felicitated with the National Florence Nightingale Award 2021.
  • The National Florence Nightingale Awards were instituted in the year 1973 by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India as a mark of recognition for the meritorious services rendered by the nurses and nursing professionals to the society.
  • It is given by the Indian Nursing Council, it is a statutory agency under Ministery of Health.
About Florence Nightingale
  • Florence Nightingale was an English social reformer, statistician and the founder of modern nursing.
  • She was born in a prosperous and upper class British family. But Florence, born in a high family, chose the path of service.
  • Nightingale came to prominence while serving as a manager and trainer of nurses during the Crimean War, in which she organised care for wounded soldiers at Constantinople.
  • She significantly reduced death rates by improving hygiene and living standards.
  • Nightingale gave nursing a favourable reputation and became an icon of Victorian culture, especially in the persona of “The Lady with the Lamp” making rounds of wounded soldiers at night.
  • In 1859, Florence established a Nightingale training school at St. Thomas’ Hospital.
  • In the meantime, he wrote the book Notes on Nursing.
  • She spent the rest of her life expanding and modernizing the work of nursing.
  • In 1869 he was awarded the Royal Red Cross by Queen Victoria.
  • She died on August 13, 1910, at the age of 90.

Sources – TOI

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