Ojaank IAS Academy




9 September 2022 – Current Affairs

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“Pingat Jasa Gemilang” Medal

Paper 2 – International Relations
Why Should You Know?
Recently Admiral Sunil Lanba (Retd) was awarded Meritorious Service Medal (Army) by Singapore Government
In details –
  • Her Excellency  MadamHalimahYacob, the President of Republic of Singapore, conferred the prestigious Pingat Jasa Gemilang (Tentera) [Meritorious Service Medal (Military)] on Admiral Sunil Lanba (Retd), the former Chief of Naval Staff, Indian Navy.
  • Dr Ng Eng Hen, Defence Minister of Singapore presented the award to Admiral Sunil Lanba (Retd), on behalf of the President, in a solemn Investiture Ceremony, held on 08 Sep 22 at the Ministry of Defence, Singapore.
  • During his visit to Singapore to receive the Award, Adm Sunil Lanba (Retd) also held interactions with Lt Gen Melvyn Ong, Chief of Defence Force, Singapore Armed Forces and Rear Adm Aaron Beng, Chief of Navy, Republic of Singapore Navy.
  • During these interactions, Adm Lanba complimented the leadership of Singapore for sustaining the momentum of bilateral engagements and shared views on new avenues of cooperation.
  • The award is a recognition of strong bilateral defence ties between India and Singapore as well as stellar contribution of Adm Sunil Lanba to strengthen the engagements between the two Navies.
Background –
  • During his tenure as the Chief of Naval Staff, the Indian Navy hosted the 25th edition of Singapore-India Maritime Bilateral Exercise (SIMBEX) at Visakhapatnam in Oct 2018.
  • Adm Sunil Lanba (Retd) fondly recalled having hosted Dr Ng Eng Hen, Defence Minister of Singapore along with Rear Adm Lue Chuan Hong, the then Chief of Navy, Republic of Singapore Navy onboard INS Shakti for the concluding day of the Sea Phase of the Exercise.
  • During the sea phase the Defence Minister of Singapore and other dignitaries witnessed, first hand, the level of interoperability achieved by the two Navies wherein high end operational manoeuvres including live missile firings were executed successfully by participating ships, aircraft and submarines of both navies.
  • Under the leadership of Adm Sunil Lanba, several milestone defence agreements were also signed between the two Navies, including the Bilateral Agreement on Navy Cooperation and Mutual Logistics Support Agreement.
  • Adm Lanba also hosted the inaugural Goa Maritime Conclave in 2017, in which Singapore is one of the participants.
  • During his term as the Chief of Naval Staff, Adm Lanba had attended the International Maritime Review (IMR) commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN), the International Maritime and Defence Expo (IMDEX) and the International Maritime Security Conference, co-hosted by the RSN alongside IMDEX-Asia in May 2017.

India-Japan 2+2 Dialogue

Paper 2 – Internation Relations
Why Should You Know?
Recently, on 8 September 2022, Defense Minister Rajnath Singh and External Affairs Minister Dr. S. Jaishankar participated in the 2nd India-Japan 2+2 Ministerial Dialogue in Tokyo.
In details –
  • Minister of Defence of India, Shri Rajnath Singh and Minister of External Affairs of India, Dr. S. Jaishankar, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan, Mr. HAYASHI Yoshimasa, Minister of Defense of Japan, Mr. HAMADA Yasukazu, held the second India-Japan 2+2 Foreign and Defence Ministerial Meeting in Tokyo on 8 September 2022.
  • Acknowledging that global cooperation is required more than ever to address security challenges that have become more acute, the Ministers reaffirmed their commitment to a rules-based global order that respects sovereignty and territorial integrity of nations, and emphasized the need for all countries to seek peaceful resolution of disputes in accordance with international law without resorting to threat or use of force or any attempt to unilaterally change the status quo.
  • The Ministers highlighted their commitment to a common strategic goal of achieving a free and open Indo-Pacific, that is inclusive and resilient,based on the rule of law and free from coercion. The Ministers also reiterated their strong support for ASEAN’s unity and centrality and their full support for the “ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific (AOIP)” which upholds the principles such as the rule of law, openness, freedom, transparency and inclusiveness.
  • The Ministers had a frank and fruitful discussion on the regional and global issues of mutual interests and concerns, particularly those in the Indo-Pacific as well as Ukraine. The Ministers strongly reaffirmed what their Prime Ministers recently committed to in their Joint Statement of 19March 2022 (“Partnership for a Peaceful, Stable and Prosperous Post-COVID World”) with respect to regional and global security challenges.
  • While expressing its resolve to examine all options necessary for national defence, including so called “counterstrike capabilities,” the Japanese side expressed its determination to fundamentally reinforce Japan’s defence capabilities within the next five years and secure substantial increase of Japan’s defence budget needed to effect it. Acknowledging Japan’s determination to reinforce its defence capabilities, Indian side expressed its supportto work towards enhanced security and defence cooperation.
  • The Ministers noted with pleasure the progress made since the last meeting in November 2019 in the bilateral security and defence cooperation, which constitutes an important pillar of the India-Japan Special Strategic and Global Partnership. They welcomed deepened cooperation discussed through the Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Dialogue of February 2021, the Maritime Affairs Dialogue of September 2021, the Space Dialogue of November 2021, and the Cyber Dialogue of June 2022, respectively. Recognizing the importance of multilayered dialogues between the two countries, they looked forward to having dialogues at an early date in areas such as Security Council reform with a view to strengthening the functions of the UN as a whole. They also acknowledged the importance of enhancing dialogues in the field of economic security.
  • The Ministers noted the progress in the defence cooperation and exchanges between the two sides. The Ministers welcomed the participation of Japan for the first time in the multilateral exercise MILAN and the operationalization of the Agreement Concerning Reciprocal Provision of Supplies and Services between the Self-Defense Forces of Japan and the Indian Armed Forces in the exercise. The Ministers expressed their commitment to continuing bilateral and multilateral exercises including “Dharma Guardian”, JIMEX and “Malabar.” The Ministers noted with pleasure that the air services of the two countries are working closely for the early conduct of inaugural India-Japan fighter exercise.The Ministers also expressed their shared intention to make continuous efforts towards more complex and sophisticated bilateral exercise.
  • The Ministers concurred to launch the Joint Service Staff Talks between the Japan Joint Staff and the Indian Integrated Defence Staff. The Ministers also committed to seek deeper cooperation on HA/DR and response to infectious diseases and pandemics. Acknowledging the potential of the Information Fusion Centre – Indian Ocean Region, the Ministers looked forward to actively deepening multilateral coordination with liaison officers of other countriesin the forum for enhanced maritime cooperation. The Ministers acknowledged the vast potential for the two countries to expand bilateral cooperation in the areas of defense equipment and technology cooperation.The Ministers further expressed satisfaction with the ongoing cooperation in the areas of Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV)/Robotics and the Sixth India-Japan Joint Working Groupon Defence Equipment and Technology Cooperation and concurred to further identify concrete areas for future cooperation in defence equipment and technology.
  • The Ministers welcomed that the 2+2 meetings, through intensive discussions, have provided a strategic guidance for enhancing the India-Japan Special Strategic and Global Partnership, and decided to hold the next 2+2 Ministerial Meeting in India.

QRSAM Missile

Paper 3 – Security
Why Should You Know?
Recently DRDO and Indian Army successfully test-fired six flights of QRSAM Missile System off Odisha coast.
In details –
  • Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Army have successfully completed six flight-tests of Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile (QRSAM) system from Integrated Test Range (ITR) Chandipur off the Odisha coast. The flight tests were conducted as part of evaluation trials by the Indian Army.
  • The flight-tests were carried out against high-speed aerial targets mimicking various types of threats to evaluate the capability of the weapon systems under different scenarios, including long range medium altitude, short range, high altitude manoeuvring target, low radar signature with receding & crossing target and salvo launch with two missiles fired in quick succession. The system performance was also evaluated under day and night operation scenarios.
  • During these tests, all the mission objectives were met establishing pin-point accuracy of the weapon system with state-of-the-art guidance and control algorithms including warhead chain.
  • The performance of the system has been confirmed from the data captured by a number of Range instruments like Telemetry, Radar and Electro Optical Tracking Systems (EOTS) deployed by ITR. Senior officials from DRDO and the Indian Army participated in the launches.
  • These tests were conducted in the final deployment configuration consisting of all indigenously-developed sub-systems, including the missile with indigenous Radio Frequency (RF) seeker, mobile launcher, fully automated command and control system, surveillance and multi-function Radars.
  • The uniqueness of the QRSAM weapon system is that it can operate on the move with search and track capability & fire on short halt. This has been proven during the mobility trials conducted earlier.
About QRSAM Missile –
  • (QRSAM) is a missile developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Bharat Electronics Limited and Bharat Dynamics Limited for the Indian Army,meant for protecting moving armoured columns from aerial attacks.
  • QRSAM has a fully automated Command and Control System. The missile system possesses two four-walled radars both of which encompass a 360-degree coverage, namely, the Active Array Battery Surveillance Radar and the Active Array Battery Multifunction Radar, apart from the launcher while Laser proximity fuze ensures that missile can’t be jammed.
Features –
  • Compact and highly mobile air defence system mounted on Ashok Leyland Defence Systems 8×8 truck.
  • Power to destroy enemy missiles at ranges from 3 to 30 km
  • Ability to fail enemy radar systems
  • Ability to destroy enemy aircraft, helicopters and drones as well
  • Equipped with indigenous equipment
  • The power to neutralize air targets such as ballistic missiles
  • Missile equipped with indigenous radio frequency
  • The speed of QRSAM is 4.7 Mach i.e. about 5758 kmph.
  • Surveillance and multi-function radar present
  • Missile can be fired from any weather or place

National Institute of Sowa Rigpa

Paper 2 – Health
Why Should You Know?
Recently The Union Minister Shri SarbanandaSonowal laidthe  Foundation Stone for the New Complex of National Institute of Sowa RigpainLeh.
In details –
  • On September 9, 2022 The Union Minister of Ayush and Ports, Shipping & Waterways Shri SarbanandaSonowal laid the foundation stone of the new complex of National Institute of Sowa Rigpa (NISR) at Saboo Thang area in Leh.
  • The new infrastructure of NISR will spruce unlock the huge potential that Sowa Rigpa has to offer in the country. This will also provide a much-needed modern platform for propagating this rich India medicinal heritage from the Himalayas.
  • The event was also graced by MoSforAyush and WCD Dr MahindrabhaiKalubhaiMunjparaand  the Member of Parliament for Leh, JamyangTsering Namgyal among others.
  • The new complex will be developed in an area of 120 kanal by the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC) and will act as the premier centre of Sowa Rigpa in the country.
  • To be built at a cost of ₹ 25 Crores in the first phase, the revamped NISR complex will be further developed with hospital block, hostels, staff quarters etc. This planned investment along with eventual boost to the faculty strength at NISR is aimed at developing this institute as a Centre of Excellence to Sowa Rigpa locally, nationally and globally. The academic block is scheduled to be completed by 2023.
  • The Ministry of Ayush is also supporting NISR to set up a Herbal Medicinal Garden spread across an area of 10 hectares. This will not only help conserve valued medicinal plant from the trans Himalayan region but also help in research for further usage in treating human ailments and enriching human lives.
About NISR –
  • The NISR was set up as per the decision of the Union Cabinet, under the Chairmanship of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, on 20 November, 2019. It was formally registered on 13 April, 2020.
  • The National Institute of Sowa-Rigpa has already signed MoUs with IIM (CSIR), TKDL (CSIR), FHRI, ICFRE, Amity University and MorajiDesai National Institute of Yoga (MDNIY) and started collaborative research work on Sowa-Rigpa and Medicinal Plants of Trans-Himalayas.
  • The NISR has also started Under Graduate courses for students aspiring to study Sowa Rigpa from academic year 2021-22.
  • The Bachelor of Sowa Rigpa Medicine & Surgery (BSRMS) is a 5.5 years course affiliated to University of Ladakh. A total of 10 students, selected through NEET exam, have already enrolled in this programme.
  • This is especially encouraging to the people of Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and Ladakh where this traditional medicinal practice is immensely popular.
  • NISR is conducting research on Sowa Rigpa literatures, formulations, disease, demographic study, medicinal plants survey, documentation and conservation.
  • A cultivation study of Rhodiola plants successfully by the institute at its herbal garden. A collaborative study by NISR, with Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR) Jammu and Amity University, is also initiated to explore its scientific potential. Plants like Rhodiolahas potentials to contribute for rural economy of Ladakh.
  • NISR is also providing Sowa-Rigpa treatment and therapy for general public free of cost in its Hospital in Leh and Zanskar and also through Mobile Medical Camps under TSP projects. Thousands of patients are benefited every year with Sowa-Rigpa treatment.
What is Sowa-Rigpa?
  • Sowa-Rigpa is one of the oldest, well documented and living medical traditions of the world.
  • The term ‘Sowa-Rigpa’ is derived from the Bhoti language which means ‘Knowledge of Healing’. Believed to have originated in India from Bhagwan Buddha, it is one of the significant healthcare systems practised in India predominantly in Himalayan regions.
  • It has very strong roots for public health and socio-cultural system of Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Ladakh and other trans-Himalayan regions.
  • Sowa-Rigpa has great potential in promoting health & wellness, nutrition, pharmaceutical and cosmetics needs of people which in turn can act as a multiplier of economic growth of the region.

Queen Elizabeth II

Paper 2 – International Issues
Why Should You Know?
Recently, Queen Elizabeth II, who reigned the longest in Britain, died on 8 September 2022.
In details –
  • Britain’s Queen Elizabeth II died on 8 September 2022. She was 96 years old.
  • Queen Elizabeth died at Balmoral Castle in Scotland. She came here on summer break.
  • Elizabeth became Queen in 1952 after the death of her father, George VI. Then her age was only 25 years.
  • Queen Elizabeth was born on 21 April 1926. At that time, King George V was ruling in Britain.
  • Elizabeth’s father, King George VI, later became King of Britain. Queen Elizabeth’s full name was Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor.
  • Queen Elizabeth II was the longest reigning monarch of Britain. Elizabeth ruled for 70 years.
  • Her reign spanned 15 prime ministers starting with Winston Churchill, born in 1874, and including Ms Truss, born 101 years later in 1975.
  • After the death of Queen Elizabeth II, now her son Charles (age 73 years) has been made the new King of Britain. Elizabeth II was the queen of not only Britain but of 14 more countries.
  • In 1947, Elizabeth II married Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
  • Prince Philip, Prince of Denmark and Greece, was born in 1921 and served in the British Royal Navy in World War II.In 2017 he retired from his royal duties. He died in 2021. The two had four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew and Edward. Now his eldest son Charles (age 73 years) has become the King of Britain.
Operation Unicorn
  • Operation Unicorn was started in Scotland after the death of Queen Elizabeth II. Operation London Bridge was designed to manage events during the 10 days between the funeral of the Queen.
  • But later in Scotland, after the death of the Queen, the operation was named the Unicorn after the national animal of Scotland.
  • Other members of the Royal Family, including the new King Charles, have also reached Balmoral. Preparations for the official coronation of the new king will also begin as soon as preparations begin for Elizabeth II’s funeral.

Indira Gandhi Urban Employment Guarantee Scheme

Paper 2 – Social Justice
Why Should You Know?
Rajasthan government is going to launch 100 day urban employment guarantee scheme on lines of MGNREGA.
In details –
  • The Government of Rajasthan is going to launch Indira Gandhi Urban Employment Guarantee Scheme to provide employment to the residents of the city on the lines of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme run by the Central Government.
  • This urban employment guarantee scheme will be started in Rajasthan from September 9. A budget provision of Rs 800 crore has been made for this scheme in the financial year 2022-23.
  • This scheme will provide 100 days of employment to the families living in urban areas on the lines of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.
  • More than 2.2 lakh families have been registered under this scheme, which is expected to provide employment to the poor and needy people including those affected by the pandemic.
  • Under this scheme all the family members of a job card holder, whose age is between 18 to 60 years, will be eligible to get work under the scheme.
  • The state government has constituted committees at various levels for the effective implementation of this scheme. The scheme will provide employment in the areas of environment and water conservation, sanitation, prevention of property defacement, service related works, convergence work and heritage conservation.
  • Eligible people will be engaged in the work of plantation, cleaning of ponds, garbage collection and catching stray animals.
  • The cost of material covered under this scheme and labor work of normal nature will be paid in the ratio of 25:75. It will vary for particular jobs with technical expertise.
  • The Local Bodies Department of the State Government will be responsible for the implementation of the scheme.

Human Development Index-2021

Paper 2 –Social Justice
Why Should You Know?
Recently the Human Development Index (HDI) 2021 report was released by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).
In details –
  • For the first time on record, the global Human Development Index (HDI) has dropped for two years in a row, taking the world back to just after the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement.
  • Every year a few countries face declines on the HDI, but over 90 per cent of countries saw their HDI value drop in either 2020 or 2021.
  • Furthermore, while only a third of very high HDI countries saw a decline in 2021 (compared with over 90 per cent in 2020), about 60 per cent of low and medium HDI and high HDI countries did (in 2021)”, the report notes.
  • The report notes that people across the globe are feeling more distressed and insecure about their lives and the future, in the wake of the Covid pandemic.
About India –
  • India ranked 132nd among 191 countries and territories on the 2021 Human Development Index (HDI).
  • In the 2020 report, India had ranked 131st among 189 countries and territories. The decline in the country’s performance from its previous level was on account of a fall in life expectancy.
  • India’s latest HDI value of 0.633 places the country in the medium human development category, lower than its value of 0.645 in the 2020 report. The report attributes the drop in HDI from 0.645 in 2019 to 0.633 in 2021 to India’s falling life expectancy — from 69.7 years to 67.2 years during the survey period.
  • India’s expected years of schooling stands at 11.9 years, down from 12.2 years in the 2020 report, although the mean years of schooling is up at 6.7 years from 6.5 years in the 2020 report.
  • Although India retained its 132nd position in the Gender Development Index, the female life expectancy dropped from 71 years in the 2020 report to 68.8 years in the 2021 report.
  • The mean years of schooling for females declined from 12.6 to 11.9 years in the corresponding period.
  • India scored 0.123 in the Multi-Dimensional Poverty Index (MPI) with a headcount ratio of 27.9 per cent, with 8.8 per cent population reeling under severe multidimensional poverty. Over the last decade, India has lifted a staggering 271 million out of multidimensional poverty, the report noted.
Neighbour countries –
  • Among India’s neighbours, Sri Lanka (73rd), China (79th), Bangladesh (129th), and Bhutan (127th) are ranked above India, while Pakistan (161st), Nepal (143rd), and Myanmar (149th) are worse off.
What is HDI?
  • Pakistani economist Mahbub -ul-Haq developed Human Develo­pment Index (HDI) as a measure to track progress on three key dimen­sions of human development — a long and healthy life, access to education, and a decent standard of living in 1990 with the objective — “people are the real wealth of nations”.
  • HDI is composite index that measures average achievement in human development taking into account four indicators: life expectancy at birth (Sustainable Development Goal 3); expected years of schooling (SDG 4.3); mean years of schooling (SDG 4.4); and gross national income (GNI) per capita (2017 PPP$) (SDG 8.5).

Operation London Bridge

Paper 2- International Issues
Why Should You Know?
Operation London Bridge (also known by its code phrase London Bridge is Down) is the name of a funeral plan for Queen Elizabeth II.
In details –
  • Funerals and coronations of members of the Royal Family are typically organised by the Earl Marshal and the officers in the College of Arms. Preparations for Elizabeth II’s death and funeral have also been made by the Cabinet Office. Operation London Bridge was the name given to the funeral plan for Queen Elizabeth II.
  • Operation London Bridge (also known by its code phrase London Bridge is Down) is the name of a funeral plan for Queen Elizabeth II. The plan includes the announcement of her death, the period of official mourning, and the details of her state funeral.
  • The plan was first created in the 1960s and revised many times in the years before her death in 2022.
  • The phrase “London Bridge is down” would be used to communicate the death of the Queen to the prime minister of the United Kingdom and key personnel, setting the plan into motion.
  • Bodies involved in preparing the plan included various government departments, the Church of England, Metropolitan Police Service, the British Armed Forces, the media, the Royal Parks, London boroughs, the Greater London Authority and Transport for London.
  • Some critical decisions relating to the plan were made by the Queen herself, while some were left to be determined by her successor. Reporting on the preparations, The Guardian described them as “planned to the minute” with “arcane and highly specific” details.
  • As well as Operation London Bridge, there is an additional plan called Operation Unicorn, which details what would happen if the Queen were to die in Scotland.
  • Running concurrently with Operation London Bridge is Operation Spring Tide, which addresses the accession of King Charles III to the throne and his first trip to the countries of the UK. Several Commonwealth realms developed their own plans for how to react to the death of the Queen.
History –
  • Several codenamed funeral plans for royal family members in the late-20th and early-21st centuries have used the names of prominent bridges in the United Kingdom. Operation Tay Bridge was the phrase used for the death and funeral plans of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, which was rehearsed for 22 years before its eventual use in 2002.
  • The funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales, was also modelled after Operation Tay Bridge.
  • As of March 2017, the phrase Operation Forth Bridge referred to the death and funeral of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, who died in 2021,while Operation Menai Bridge referred to the funeral plan for Charles III.

Job Policy for Transgenders

Paper 2– Social Justice
Why Should You Know?
On September 8, 2022 The Supreme Court gave the government three months to take the lead and devise a policy framework to open up avenues of employment for transgender persons, particularly in the civil aviation industry.
In details –
  • The Supreme Court on Thursday gave the government three months to take the lead and devise a policy framework to open up avenues of employment for transgender persons, particularly in the civil aviation industry.
  • The order was a fallout of a petition filed by ShanaviPonnusamy, a transgender person from Thoothukudi in Tamil Nadu, whose dream of flying high as an airline cabin crew member never took off.
  • The Supreme Court said the petitioner’s case raised wider issues about the formulation of government policy to ensure the guarantee of non-discrimination against transgender people.
  • A Bench of Justices D.Y. Chandrachud and Hima Kohli observed that the government has to comply with the enabling provisions of the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act of 2019 in “letter and spirit”.
  • The Court detailed specific provisions of the Act which mandated that no person or establishment, whether government or private, should discriminate against a transgender person in matters of employment, including recruitment or promotion or in any other related areas.
Inclusion in society
  • The Court reminded the Centre that it was obliged by the Act to “secure full and effective participation of transgender persons and their inclusion in society”.
  • “The enactment by the Parliament marks a watershed in the evolution of the rights of the transgender persons,” the Supreme Court emphasised.
  • The Court ordered the Department of Personnel and Training and the Social Justice Ministry to collaborate with the National Council for Transgender Persons, a body constituted under the Act, to consult stakeholders and prepare a “considered” policy for the community’s welfare and rights in the next three months. The Centre has to guide States and establishments governed by the Act.
  • The petitioner in the case had responded to an advertisement by Air India in 2017 for a female cabin crew. She did not qualify.
  • Senior advocate K.V. Vishwanathan, for Air India, clarified that the petitioner was rejected for not scoring the minimum qualifying marks.
Wider issue –
  • The Court noted the senior counsel’s submission and replied that “we are not hauling you over coals at all. We are treating this petition as a wider issue”.
  • The petitioner, who had undergone gender surgery in 2014, said she had trained hard to “fulfill her dream of working as a cabin crew of some airlines in India”. She had even successfully completed a stint with the Air India’s customer support (domestic and International) section in Chennai.
  • Ms. Ponnusamy said she had no choice but to apply as a female because the application form did not have a separate column for transgender persons.
  • This was despite a 2014 judgment of the Supreme Court which declared transgenders as the ‘third community’. It had ordered job applications to have a separate column for the third gender.
  • “Recognition of transgenders as a third gender is not a social or medical issue but a human rights issue… the gender to which a person belongs is to be determined by the person concerned,” the Supreme Court had ruled in the 2014 verdict.
  • The petitioner contended that the right to one’s gender identity was a human right. “Human rights are basic rights and freedoms which are guaranteed to a human by virtue of him being a human which can neither be created nor can be abrogated by any government”.

A new Joint Initiative for Agriculture

Paper 3 – Agriculture
Why Should You Know?
Recently a Joint initiative of Union Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare and FICCI launched to attract PPP Projects in Agriculture.
In details –
  • On September 8, 2022 The Union Minister of Agriculture and Family Welfare, Shri Narendra Singh Tomar launched the Project Management Unit (PMU) on Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Agriculture in New Delhi.
  • Speaking on the occasion, Shri Tomar emphasized the need to strengthen the Agriculture sector as it will help in strengthening other sectors as well.
  • He further stated that the PPP model can be the ideal model for growth in Agriculture sector and PPP projects must focus on benefitting the farmers through enhancement of their income.
Objective –
  • – from provisioning of quality inputs, technology extension to market linkages, and value addition.
  • PPP initiatives are also expected to lead to modernizing agriculture practices, promoting research in climate resilient crops, developing agriculture and rural infrastructure, and increasing agricultural exports.
  • A particular objective is to assist the States to unlock the full potential of their respective agro-climatic regions, and wide variety of agri-produce and help producers to integrate better with domestic and export markets.
  • Against this backdrop, the Department of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare and FICCI have announced this joint initiative to develop PPP initiatives in Agriculture.

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