Every nation’s formula for enhancing GDP growth has included environmental damage because there is no cost associated with using natural resources like air and forests. Yet, this strategy has resulted in a persistent carbon output that has driven climate change out of control. It’s time to come to an agreement on the value of nature, starting with the G-20’s largest economies and includes carbon effluent price. As this year’s G-20 President, India has the opportunity to take the lead in carbon pricing, which will open up unforeseen pathways towards decarbonization.
The implementation of a domestic carbon tax, as in Korea and Singapore; the use of an emissions trading system (ETS), as in the European Union (EU) and China; and the imposition of an import tariff based on the carbon content, as the EU is proposing, are the three methods for pricing carbon. Although only covering 30% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, carbon is priced in 46 nations, and the average price per tonne of carbon is just $6, which is a small fraction of the projected damage from pollution. For the United States, China, and India, respectively, the International Monetary Fund has suggested price ceilings of $75, $50, and $25 per tonne of carbon dioxide. It thinks that by doing this, world emissions may be reduced by 23% by 2030.
In the EU, British Columbia, Canada, and Sweden, the costs associated with carbon pricing on specific businesses were often overcome by the benefits to the economy as a whole in terms of damages prevented (plus income generated). The fact that carbon pricing signals a cost for better air increases the allure of investing in renewable energy sources like solar and wind, which have enormous potential in India.
A carbon tax may be the most enticing of the three pricing options for India since it may directly deter the use of fossil fuels while generating income that can be used to fund the development of greener energy sources or the protection of disadvantaged customers. It may take the place of the less effective petroleum tax plan that doesn’t directly address pollution.By the way, the lowest petrol costs (taxes and subsidies included) are in Saudi Arabia and Russia, the middle prices are in China and India, and the highest prices are in Germany and France. Fiscal policy has established the fundamental framework required to put in place a carbon price in the majority of nations, including India. For instance, they can be included into vehicle fuel taxes and extended to industry and agriculture, which are already established in most regions. The tax rate must be chosen by policymakers and ranges greatly from Denmark’s $165 per tonne slated for 2030 to Japan’s $2.65 per tonne of CO2.
India might begin with the $25 per tonne number from the IMF. The biggest barrier is the defence put out by industrial companies that they are losing their competitive edge to exporters from nations with lower carbon prices. So, it makes sense for all high-, middle-, and low-income nations to establish the same rate for each category.
Allowing businesses to utilise premium foreign carbon credits to offset up to a certain proportion of their taxable emissions would also make sense. The EU does not include transportation since greater costs would have been transferred directly to consumers. Singapore offers vouchers to consumers impacted by utility price increases. California utilises money from the sale of carbon permits to partially subsidise the purchase of electric vehicles. Others argue that “emission intensive trade exposed” businesses should be excluded from the carbon tax, while output-based refunds would be a better solution.
All things considered, political resistance to carbon pricing is strong. Only two years after it was implemented, Australia’s 2012 tax was repealed by a new, conservative administration. The political constraints on decarbonization have been made clear in recent months: skyrocketing energy costs prompted the EU to sell millions of emission permits, which resulted in a 10% decrease in carbon pricing. By including the carbon tax in a larger fiscal package that cuts other taxes and adds new social safety nets, Sweden may have managed some of these political obstacles better than any other country. Even in the context of some individual producers’ losses, it is crucial to convey the notion of successes at the social level.
With supporting measures, a high enough carbon price across China, the U.S., India, Russia, and Japan alone (which account for more than 60% of world effluents) might have a significant impact on global effluents and warming. It may also open the door to considering decarbonization as a successful development strategy. The early adopters will face the most competition as carbon price becomes more widely accepted. India may take the lead in the existential fight against climate change by proposing worldwide carbon pricing as the G-20 summit’s president in September.