The Brahmaputra Valley of Assam receives floods every year. Due to this there is a huge loss of life and property, public transport, crops etc. In the days of floods, life in Assam is completely disturbed.
what is flood?
When a river or other water source receives more water than its capacity, the flow of its flow towards the coastal areas is called flood. There are 3 main causes of floods-
(1) It should rain immediately.
(2) It should rain slowly but continuously.
(3) Submergence of coastal areas due to coastal floods like cyclone, tsunami etc.
Now the question is, why do floods occur in the coastal areas of Assam?
The region of Assam is located in the foothills of the Himalayas. Here is the Brahmaputra and Barak valley. Floods also mostly come in the valley of Brahmaputra. This river originates from the Kailash Range of the Himalayas. When a river comes down from the top, due to the strong gravity, the sediments brought by the river also flow away, but when the river passes through the plains, then it starts depositing in the river, this obstructs the flow of the river. Now the water of the river goes to the coastal areas like villages, cities etc. This creates a flood situation.
These events are more frequent in the summer because the glacier melts more rapidly and this brings more water to the river and it also accelerates the process of sedimentation. Due to this, more water gets spread in the villages and cities. These floods in Assam mostly occur in the monsoon months as 85 per cent of the total rainfall in Assam falls in this month.
As the urbanization is increasing, the forests are being cut. These areas of Assam have also experienced rapid deforestation. Trees work to absorb water. How will the water dry up when there are no trees?
Measures to reduce the incidence of recurring floods in Assam
Fencing should be done on the banks of rivers. This is also being done in Assam since 1960. Of course it may not be very effective, but it definitely gives some relief. This is an artificial remedy after the flood. Apart from this, the Indian Meteorological Department and the Government of Assam should also develop an advanced early warning system for providing information about floods. With this, the people living on the banks of the river will be able to anticipate this calamity ahead of time and they will reach safe places. Kaziranga is the lifeline of Assam. By conserving it, not only will wildlife and plants be saved, but they will also act like a sponge to absorb floods. Apart from this, construction of sluice gate can also be done. The more emphasis the governments put on afforestation, the more the risk of floods will be reduced.