Demographic and Health Surveys are nationally representative household surveys that offer data for a wide range of population, health, and nutrition monitoring and impact evaluation variables. Demographic and Health Surveys are classified into two types: standard Demographic and Health Surveys and interim Demographic and Health Surveys.
The Multidimensional Poverty Index aims to assess poverty in all of its dimensions, effectively supplementing previous poverty statistics based on per capita consumer spending. It has three dimensions that are all equally weighted: Health, education, and living standards.
These three aspects are covered by 12 indicators, which include nutrition, school attendance, years of schooling, drinking water, sanitation, housing, and bank accounts, among others. Global Multidimensional Poverty Index: It is published by the United Nations Development Programme and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative.
The Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative provides poverty estimates based mostly on data from Demographic and Health Surveys. Uncensored estimates for particular indicators: if a household is disadvantaged (poor) in a specific variable, such as nutrition.
Estimation of indicator-specific censored poverty in two stages: First stage: It calculates the population that is multidimensionally impoverished. Second stage: It calculates the population that is deficient in each indication for the multidimensionally.
In 2005-06, the MP poor made up 55.1 (fifty five point one) percent of the population, while the uncensored nutritionally poor made up 57.3 (fifty seven point three) percent. nutritionally deficient: 44.3 (forty four and three)percent, Approximately 80% of those who are nutritionally disadvantaged are also multidimensionally poor.
Annual rates of improvement in health, education, and living standards measures from 2005 to 2015 were 7.3, 10, and 9.6 percent, respectively. After 2014, yearly living standards increased by 11.4%, 8.4%, and 17.2%, respectively.
It would indicate a bigger improvement since the major component of poverty decrease, per capita consumption growth, was around 0.8 (point eight) percentage point higher in period I. (compared to 3 per cent in period II). The rate of fall in the MPI index was nearly twice as fast in period II as it was in period I.
The index is defined as the ratio of the rate of poverty drop in period II to the rate of poverty decline in period I. In the Modi era II, the rate of poverty decrease was quicker in nine of eleven metrics. Poverty declines at a rate that is around 60% faster. The average rate of progress for the unfiltered (Dreze’s choice) is just slightly lower at 1.55.
Regardless of whether poverty is measured filtered or uncensored, the average rate of poverty reduction was significantly faster between 2015 and 21. Only four measures show a lower rate of unfiltered poverty drop in Period II. Assets and school attendance: For both unfiltered and censored poverty, they are lower in period II.
As one approaches 100 percent enrollment, school attendance improves less. The second phase saw a quicker drop. Because it is easier to accomplish a given percentage reduction from a lower starting point. Poverty in the MPI fell from 27.7 (twenty seven point seven) percent in 2015-16 to 16.4 (sixteen point four) percent in 2019-21.
Individual measures such as assets may classify certain households as disadvantaged (poor) even though they are substantially better off in other areas such as nutrition, sanitation, and so on. Censored data assists in refocusing attention on people who have been (multidimensionally) classified as impoverished.
A higher MPI indicates more deprivation intensity, but a higher filtered poverty rate is a significant signal to policymakers to shift policy focus. It enables the capturing of interconnections between various poverty indices. Environmental enteropathy, for example, is recognised to have an important role in children’s nutrient absorption.
Several strategies are being implemented, the most significant of which is effective redistribution mixed with direct budgetary resources aimed explicitly at reducing disadvantage across different metrics after 2014. According to the NFHS 2019-21 report’s sampling distribution, slightly more than half of the sample interviews concluded between January and April 2021.
It is not true that sample homes in the 2019-21 NFHS survey were questioned prior to the Covid issue. The results of the upcoming NSSO consumer spending survey and the third India Human Development Survey will be available soon. To lessen the Intensity of Poverty, we must address deprivation throughout the whole population, which requires a general rather than a targeted strategy to treating deprivation.
The survey data only provides broad policy recommendations, but programming actions must be vetted with ground-level realities. Continuous interaction with survey data is required to improve sample design and response quality.