Ojaank IAS Academy




Development of science and change in values ​​of modernity

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The development of science and human society has been intertwined since ancient times.

Space-time is no less than magic, the whole of modern physics depends on it. If this is understood, then we can easily understand more than half of the modern physics and the changes taking place in modern society.

Suppose you want to meet someone, then what would you say, “Meet me at three o’clock?” No, because your talk is incomplete, the person in front will not know where he will meet you.

And if you say “meet at this place or hotel” it is still incomplete because then the person in front will not know when you want to meet him”

You have to tell him “It’s time, meet at this place.” Then he can meet you.

So you have to tell it both time and space/space i.e. both time space are connected.

As far as space is concerned, it can be understood in such a way that all the things around us live in space in the same way as fish lives in water, there is nothing outside or beyond space. Even if one part of the atom, neutron, proton, electron, quark is removed, there will still be space. Space has its own magical texture.

Before Einstein, when Newton told about space / time, he saw space and time separately.

He believed that there is no relation between space-time. Newton also believed that space is absolutely a constant in which there is no change, just like a rock of stone, a stationary thing.

Apart from this, Newton believed that time remains the same and constant throughout the universe, that is, there is a big clock in the whole universe which keeps ticking.

That is, whether you are on Earth or on the planet Jupiter or in a black hole, it will tick the same at all places.

Apart from this, Newton considered gravity to be magic, he only says that “there is a force that pulls things together and towards the earth. According to Newton, the moon is falling towards the earth.”

The three laws of motion that Newton gave, they work in normal life and our rockets also follow the same rules, but Newton’s laws fail with increasing speed and do not work even in quantum gravity, that’s why it was born. of space/time theory.

These ideas of Newton and Galileo played an important role in the development of Western modernity and Renaissance. When classical physics was born after Newton and Galileo. From then on it was believed that the only means of knowledge is direct experience. And man is equal to God in himself.

Along with this it was believed that “the laws of science are universal, which can be proved in the laboratory, they never change according to the time of country”.

That is, what we cannot see is all speculation, things like God, meditation, yoga are all false. Many benefits came from this idea. Industrial revolution and modern way of life developed, rationalism was born.

But by the end of the nineteenth century this idea began to lose its relevance, especially after the development of light, Newton’s laws of motion lagged behind. Because they were unable to explain the speed of light and the change in time. Because the laws of physics are not universal everywhere in the universe, they also change.

Then born the great scientist Einstein who said that “I want to know God through science”.

He realized through years of research and thought experiment that if an object moves at the speed of light, then space time behaves in a completely different way.

On the basis of this, he gave the theory of “General Relativity”. According to which he told that time is not universal in the universe, but it changes according to your location and the time-space ends at the black hole. Nothing is absolute in the universe. Everything is relative.

This theory also changed the values of modernity. Now it was believed that instead of universality, we should accept diversity, the principle which would work in America, it is not necessary that it should also work in India.

But even this theory is unable to explain the whole reality. After all, that’s how things work at the quantum level. There the traditional laws of gravity and relativity also do not work.

Due to this, “quantum physics” was born in the seventies, which made a very revolutionary change.

Quantum physics said that “there is no universal law. No matter how many experiments we do, it is not necessary that that event will happen next time. Because what we see is the incomplete side of the truth. It even said that “Something is in front of us only when we see it, otherwise it is not there at all. The electron appears only when we see it, otherwise it is not there.”

It has not only changed the direction of science, where even the Sun does not necessarily remain in its place, but it can also change its form “Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle”. But the direction of social science also changed. Because after this “postmodernity” was born, where “there is no final truth. It depends on us what we want to see.” The knowledge written in the book is also not complete and we read only what we want to read.

String theory and unified theory are still in the process of development, and modern physics comes to an end when it comes to scientist Paul Derek’s “Derek equation”.

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