Indian philosophy is so widespread that it is difficult for any one person to understand and remember it completely. I am personally not associated with any philosophy and consider all Indian philosophies to be great. it is said.
There are two streams of Indian philosophy since the time of Rigveda. One is intelligence-based and the other logic-based. In the Upanishad period we find a confluence of these two streams. Our 6 philosophies represent the three classes in pairs of two. Nyaya-Vaishesika, Sankhya-Yoga and Mimamsa-Vedanta.
Vedavyasa and his disciple Jaimini Rishi wrote ‘Purva Mimamsa’ and ‘Uttar Mimamsa or ‘Vedanta or ‘Brahmasutra’ which are wisdom-based, to explain the Vedas correctly.
In the Nyaya Sutra and Vaisheshik philosophy, the root cause of creation is considered to be a mixture of atoms, which is science.
The dualism of Prakriti and Purusha has been recognized in the Sankhya-Yoga Sutras. In the Samkhya philosophy, the world created from Prakriti and Purusha and the divinity beyond it were explained. It was explained in this that the whole world is born of Maya and one should not be attached to it, but try to attain divinity beyond that because it is the source of ecstasy.
In the Yoga Sutras, the path of attaining happiness by keeping the mind away from ignorance, ego, attachment, hatred and fear of death and keeping the mind and body pure through life energy has been told.
In Purva Mimamsa, proper interpretation of Vedas has been given through contemplation. It does not throw light on the attainment of God, but through the path of religion, it tells the way to get happiness in life.
In Uttara Mimamsa (Vedanta or Brahmasutra) this occult secret has been revealed that Brahma is absolute, divine and is Sat, Chitta and Ananda. He is merciful, so leave the bondage of Maya, always remember him, love him and keep surrender. Feeling his grace always be in complete ecstasy. This is the essence of these 6 philosophies.
Brahmavaivarta Purana mentions that “Kanad, Gautam, Yagyavalkya, Katyayana, Panini, Bharadwaja and Shaktayan were contemporary sages. In other 5 verses, the names of 28 sages have been counted, in which the names of sages like Kanad, Gautam etc. are also there. There were scientists who did research on various subjects.It is believed that the sages who wrote these 6 sutras of philosophy were almost contemporary.
One of these six scriptures is the author of Vaisheshik philosophy, Acharya Kanad.
Being the son of Uluk Rishi, he is also called ‘Aulukya’. At the time when he was born, India was a producer of superior and quality steel, which was exported to China, Roman and Egyptian empires at high prices. The Chinese tried for centuries to make such steel but they were not successful.
The Romans sold German-tribals as slaves in India for steel and also molds, Indian spices and other products …
Due to this economic prosperity of India, Alexander wanted to conquer India but failed. Kanad took place in the age of this ancient trade. His philosophy also bears the imprint of India’s material progress.
Kanad’s father Uluk Rishi had propounded atomic knowledge but Kanad published it systematically. He was the pioneer of materials science, cause-effect science and atomic theory. Acharya Som Sharma is considered his guru. Due to research on particles, he got the name Kanad.
There is a legend that Kanada was very ugly and the girls were scared of him. Therefore, they used to go out at night and ate food secretly from the granaries. Once he was walking with food in his hand. All of a sudden they started throwing the food by gnawing it.
In this process, he observed that the grains were splitting into smaller particles. They kept on dividing them further. In this process he got the idea that ..” Ultimately there are such fine particles which cannot be divided, he gave it the word ‘particle’.
Another legend has it that Lord Shiva gave this knowledge to him in the guise of an owl. Kanad Rishi gave the philosophy of atomism for the first time in the world, which was thousands before the Democratic of Greece and John Dalton.
His research is mainly an attempt to find out the origin of the physical world, by studying the process from the diversity of creation to the original inspiration of the manifestation of the element through the method of deduction, that is, through inference-logic.
Kanada has given the theory of origin and destruction of words. The strange thing is that this research is an ancient Vedic theory before today’s Big Bang Theory. Kanad has also described about the dimensions and motion of atoms and mutual chemical reactions. His atomic theory is actually logic-based, not personal experience-based or empirically proven.
It has been presented in the essence of Indian philosophy and weaving in the web of philosophy-spirituality. Later Maharishi Gautam in his Nyaya (Logic) Shastra has also presented theistic research on the same principles of Kanada.
It is also believed that in Buddhist and Jain texts, the same principle has been presented in atheistic and relativistic direction. The Nyaya-Vaisheshika philosophy is a dualistic theory which neither presents a universal theory based on the diversity of experience nor denies the direct facts of experience on the basis of a logical coherence of mere general or absolute ideas. It accepts being or existence based on direct perception of experience.
The famous historian T.N. According to Colebrook, “Kanad and other Indian sages (scientists) were world leaders in this field as compared to European scientists.
A well-known veteran Indologist from Australia, A.L. In the words of Basham, “Indian philosophy is a tremendously hypothetical explanation of the physical structure of the world and corresponds to a great extent with the discoveries of modern physics.”
The word “Vaishesika” is used for the philosophy of Kanada Rishi because he has described the characteristics of the atom. Vaisheshik Darshan Sutra is considered in the category of logic science.
The direct purpose of the Vaisheshika Sutra is to explain Dharma and according to it “Dharma is that from which knowledge of Abhyudaya (origin or prosperity) and Nishreyas (Moksha or destruction) can be obtained. It uses three types of inference and Hetvabhasa. In the early Vaisheshika epistemology, the atomic-atomic knowledge has been analyzed by direct perception and inference methods, whereas in the Nyaya Sutra, the inference method includes analogy and word. The process of reasoning by the deductive method. Vaisheshika and Nyaya are the same in both the sutras.
When the properties and properties of a substance come in contact with the senses, it is called perceptual perception, such as seeing the color of an object. The concept considered by logic is called inference. It is of two types – Drishta (that which can be seen) and Unseen (that which cannot be seen). That which cannot be described is invisible.
Although it cannot be described, yet it is accepted because the importance of the invisible cannot be underestimated. If the invisible is not accepted, it means that the contact of the body and the senses is also not being considered, as a result cognition is also being rejected.
Kanad has made extensive use of the invisible to explain concepts like magnetic attraction, initial momentum of molecules, falling of any substance, etc.
Kanada Rishi has supported atomism in the Vaiseshik Sutra and has given the postulate of everything in the material world to be divided into a certain number of atoms.
Kanada has explained that all matter in creation is made up of fine particles which cannot be further divided. These atoms are the smallest, invisible, chemically indivisible and eternal i.e. mortal. Atoms together make up an element. These fine particles are not the product or the result but the cause. According to Kanada, “Without the cause, there will be no result or action, but the absence of effect or effect does not mean that there is no cause.”
Meaning whether there may be a consequence or not, the cause may exist. He has presented his philosophy as atheist but at the same time has presented the theory of unseen i.e. unknown cause by which these innumerable microscopic molecules combine to form matter. Later interpreters have considered this unknown cause to be God.
In this philosophy, all the objects of creation are classified into 9 parts namely land, water, light, air, effulgence or fire, time, sky, soul and mind.
Their properties and actions can be both general and special, but despite being common, due to the fusion of atoms in different ways, they are found to be different from each other and become special. By describing the characteristics of substances in this way, their formula was called Vaisesika.